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Conducted by 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1837, by William Cogswell, 
Secretary of the American Education Society, in behalf of said Society, in the Clerk's 
Office of the District Court for the District of Massachusetts. 



We have now arrived at the close of the tenth year, and of the ninth 
volume of our work. In the Preface to the eighth volume, we gave some 
account of the objects which we had accomplished, or attempted, in this 
publication, or of the various topics to which we had given more or less 
attention. It may now be worth while to allude to some of the materials 
upon which our future labors may be expended : 

1. The completion of the history of the colleges and theological sem- 
inaries of our country. It is our aim here to go into considerable detail, 
especially in the early history of the institutions, to embody "as large a 
mass of authentic facts as our limits will allow, and to furnish references 
to the sources of more complete information. 

2. It is our intention to furnish as perfect lists as the nature of the case 
will allow, of all the Congregational and Presbyterian ministers (not 
already in our pages) who have been settled in the ministry since the 
landing at Plymouth. The ministers of other denominations will be 
included as our limits will permit. In the form of notes, as well as in the 
tables, a very large amount of ecclesiastical statistics will be embodied. 
Our preparations in this department of our labors are already extensive. 

3. Biographical sketches of the early graduates of our oldest colleges. 
In this way, a valuable mass of facts may be rescued from decay and 

4. A history of the historical, philosophical, and other literary and 
learned societies in our country. The Historical Society of Massachusetts 
have, at our request, assigned the task of preparing a history of that very 
useful association, to one of their own members, a gentleman well qualified 
to do justice to the subject. 

5. It is our intention to collect information in regard to all the important 
public libraries in this country, and throughout the world. This infor- 
mation will be intended to embrace an account of the more rare and 
valuable books, MSS., pictures, &c, some notices of the founders and 
contributors, and an exhibition of the regulations under which the books 
are loaned. 


6. Biographical sketches of greater or less extent, of eminent deceased 
individuals, laymen as well as clergymen, of our own country and of 
foreign lands. One of these biographies, as a general thing, will be found 
in each number. The editor, in this, as well as in relation to the other 
topics, will be assisted by various gentlemen, well qualified to aid in the 
undertaking. Engraved portraits, so far as they can be procured, and so 
far as our means will allow, will accompany each biographical sketch. 

7. Occasionally, as it may be judged expedient, complete lists of living 
clergymen of all denominations in the United States ; and extended 
histories of literary institutions, including the names of the faculty, 
schemes of studies, etc., with details respecting academies, common schools, 
etc., will be given. 

8. More attention than has been practicable hitherto, will be bestowed 
on foreign lands, particularly the countries of Europe. The volume which 
now closes, contains two long and very satisfactory articles on the schools, 
universities, learned societies, philanthropic institutions, &c. of France, 
furnished by the Rev. Robert Baird, an American clergyman resident in 
Paris. Mr. B. will act as our stated contributor and correspondent. He 
will furnish, with the permission of Providence, full details respecting the 
state of education and learning, of the ecclesiastical establishments, etc. in 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and other countries of the con- 
tinent. An American friend, resident at one of the English literary 
institutions, will perform the same work in respect to Great Britain. 

9. Essays, as heretofore, will be procured^ illustrating the importance of 
the Christian ministry, thorough education, classical instruction, eminent 
piety, and kindred topics. 

10. Miscellaneous matters. Notices of new publications will be found 
in each number. We shall continue to furnish complete lists of the ordi- 
nations, installations, and deaths of ministers of all denominations. An 
accurate collection of facts on this topic, may furnish some important 
general results. 

11. We shall translate from time to time, various interesting statistical 
documents, from the German, French and Latin languages. 

12. A journal of the doings of the American and other education 
societies, will close each successive number. 

In concluding another year, we commit our labors to the candor of the 
religious public, and to the blessing of the great Head of the church. 

Boston, April 29, 1837. 




Abbott's Way to do Good, . . . 74 
Addresses, extract from Rev. Mr. Root's, 183 
" " " Prof. Rood's, . 186 

Aix, France, Academy of ... 42 
American Education Society, Journal of 81, 177, 

273, 385 
'* Branches of . 85, 91, 183. 284, 405 
" Auxiliaries, . .90,90,191,289 
" Reports of Agents, . 196,299,401 
" Funds, . . 102, 198, 302, 406 
Amiens, France, Academy of . . . 42 
Ancient Nations, Populousness of . . 138 
Andover Theol. Seminary, Table of num- 
ber of Graduates of .... 375 
Andrew's and Sioddard's Latin Grammar 

Noticed, 77 

Angers, France, Academy of . . „ 42 
Appeal, Howe's to the young men of 

Georgia and South Carolina, . . 385 
Appleton, Rev. Pres. notice of . . 356 

Arguments, Old against the motion of the 

earth, 78 

Attica, Statistics of 143 

Austin, Memoir of Rev. D*\ Samuel „ 201 

.Academic course, .... 202 

Diary 203 

Settlement, 203 

Removal to Burlington, . . . 212 

" to Newport, . . .214 

Residence in Northampton, . . 215 

" in Glastenbury, Conn. . 216 

Published writings, .... 220 

Baird's History of the French University, . 17 
Other Literary and Scientific institu- 
tions, 238 

Baldwin's Inaugural Address, notice of . 379 

Baptists in Great Britain, .... 162 

United Slates, 163 

Baptist Education Society, . . . 292 

Beecher's Views in Theology, notice of . 73 

Plea for Colleges, ..... 99 

Miss O, Letters on the Difficulties of 

Religion noticed, .... 75 

Besancon, France, Academy of . . 43 

Bible, The first Primed . . . .376 

Bibles, Contrast of former scarcity and 

present abundance of ... 377 


Blackburn Academy, .... 133 

Blackburn, John, Sermon of noticed, . 173 

Bloomfield's Greek Testament, notice of . 270 
Bordeaux, France, Academy of . .43 

Boston Auxiliary Education Society, . 90 
Bourges, France, Academy of . . .43 

Boyle's View of the Council of Nice, . 270 

Bradford's Sketch of Harvard University, 329 

British Museum, 78 

British Administration, of establishments 

in France, 247 

Brownlee's Appeal to Christians noticed, . 381 

Caen, French Academy of . . .41 

Cahors, do. do. ... 41 

Carey, William, Sketch of his exertions, . 168 

Claims of Foreign Missions, . . . 164 

Clermont, French Academy of . . . 44 

Codman's Sermon on the signs of the times, 174 

Coleman, Rev. Benjamin .... 348 

College, Marshall 397 

Davidson 399 

Pennsylvania, ..... 400 

Shurtleff, 398 

Colleges in New England, Tabular View of 328 

Pilea for, 99 

College Statistics, ... 72, 130, 329 

Historical Sketch of Dickinson, . . 117 

Revivals of Religion in Dartmouth, . 177 

Historical Sketch of Middlebury, . 220 

" "' Harvard University, 329 
List of Students educated at Highbury, 

England, 130 

Cooley's Memoir of Haynes, . . . 324 

Connecticut Branch Education Society, . 91 

Conversion of the Heathen a difficult work, 69 

Cotton, Seaborn, Memoir of 110 

Chauncy, Isaac, Memoir of . . . Ill 

Ichabod, 112 

Charles. . . . . . .339 

Christian Ministry, qualifications of . . 282 
Church, pressing wants of 397 
Church's Philosophy of Benevolence no- 
ticed, 172 

Cries of the Heathen, .... 277 

Dartmouth College, Sketch of Revivals 

of Religion in 177 


President Wheelock, . . . .178 
Davidson College, . _. . . .399 
Davies, President, Memoir of . . . 305 
Pecuniary aid from Virginia, . . 307 
First efforts as a Preacher, . . 308 

Condition of Dissenters in Va. . . 309 
Effects of Davies's labors, . . .311 
Attention to Negroes, . . . 312 

Visit to England in behalf of New 

Jersey College, . . . .314 
Success of his Agency, . . . 316 
Great extent of his influence in Va. . 317 
Appointed President, . . . . 318 

Piety, 320 

Domestic virtues, .... 321 
Public character, .... 322 
Deaths of Clergymen, quarterly list 80, 176, 271 
Decrease of Population in Heathen coun- 
tries, 67 

Denmark, Statistics of ... 155 

Dickinson College, Sketch of . . . 117 
Dijon. French Academy of . .45 

Dissenters in England, want of Ministers 

for 101 

Douai, French Academy of . .45 

Dudley, Gov. Joseph .... 3 18 
Dunster, Rev. Henry . . . 333, 337 

Education Society 

cation Society. 
Education, Theological in 
Edwards, Rev. Tryon's 

Thankfulness noticed, 
Emerson, Rev. Joseph's Report, 

See American Edu- 

Vermont, . . 398 
Discourse on 

. 379 

300, 403 

. 78 

England, Evidence of want of Schools in 

many parts of 377 

Episcopal Education Society, . . . 294 
Essex North Auxiliary, ... 98, 191 

Essex South Auxiliary, .... 289 

Evans's Spirit of Holiness noticed, . . 380 

Farmer's Memoirs of Graduates, 110, 229, 366 

February, Last Thursday of . . . 277 
Fiske's Manual of Classical Literature 

noticed, ...... 77 

Fitch, Prof's Sermon, . . . .390 

Flynt, Tutor Henry 354 

Follen's Translation of John noticed, . 77 

Foreign Missions, Claims of 161 

Fowler's Sketch of Middlehury College, . 220 

France, History of its University, . . 17 

View of the Systems of Education, . 22 

System of Education established under 

the Empire, ..... 25 

Schools lor Primary Instruction, . 27 
Normal Schools for Primary Instruc- 
tion, . . . . . .31 

Pensions and Institutions, . 33 

Colleges, ...... 34 

Faculties, 39 

Academies of Aix, Amiens and 

Angers, 42 

Pjesanc/m, Bordeaux and Bourges, 43 

Caen, Cahors and Clermont, . 41 

Dijon and Douai, . . .45 

Grenoble, Limoges and Lyons, 46 

Metz and Montpellier, . . 47 

Nancy and Nismes, . . . 48 

Orleans and Paris, ... 49 

Pau, Poitiers, Renncs, . . 54 

Rouen and Strasbourg, . . 55 

Academy of Toulouse, . . .56 

Literary and Scientific Institutions not 

connected with the University of 

France, 238 

Royal College of France, . . 238 
Royal Poiytechnique School, . 239 
Military Schools, . . . 244 

Normal Military School, . . 240 
Naval Schools, .... 244 
Roval Institution for the Deaf and 

Dumb, 244 

Roval Institution for the Young 

Blind, . . . .245 

Museum of Natural History, . 246 
Special School of Pharmacy, . 247 
Bureau des Longitudes, . . 247 
Administration of the British Es- 
tablishments and Colleges in 

France 247 

School of the Fine Arts and the 

Sciences, . . . .248 

Libraries, . _ . . . .249 

Learned Societies, . . . 250 

Institute of France, . . . 254 

Franklin County Auxiliary, . . 193, 405 

Geneva, Theological School in . . 273 
Gilmanton, N. H. Theological Seminary in 102 
Granville Literary and Theological In- 
stitute 298 

Great Britain, Baptists in . . . . 162 

Greece, Ancient Populousness of . . 142 

Green, Rev. Mr. Storrs's Memoir of noticed, 74 

Greenwood. Rev. Isaac .... 350 
Grenoble, French Academy of . . .46 

Hamilton Institute, notice of 275 

Harris's Prize Essav, notice of. . . 172 
Harvard University, History of . . 329 
Haynes, Rev. Lemuel .... 325 
Heathen Nations, decrease of . . .67 

Conversion of difficult, ... 69 

Debased state of . . . .277 

Hebrew Pentateuch, .... 59 

Highbury College, England, . . .130 

Hoar, President 342 

Holden, Samuel 359 

Mollis. Thomas, Esq. . . . .349 

Holmes, Dr. on an Indian Copy of the 

Hebrew Pentateuch, .... 59 
Holyoke, Kev. Edward . . . .352 
Homer's Iliad, Poetical merit of . . 235 
Hooker's Child's Book on the Sabbath 

noticed, 76 

Hooker, Samuel, Memoir of . . . 230 
Hopkins, President's Inaugural Discourse, 271 
Howe's Appeal to the young men of South 

Carolina and Georgia, . . 177, 335 
Humphrey's Christian Memoirs noticed, . 75 
Hurlbut, M. L.'s edition of Cicero's letters, 177 

Illinois, Theological Education in . . 298 

Branch of American Ed. Society, . 405 

Iliad, Poetical merit of .... 235 

Importance of Eminent Personal Piety, . 150 

India, Facts concerning .... 382 

Indian Copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch, . 59 

Result of Dr. Buchanan's researches, 61 

Description of the Cambridge Roll, . 62 

Collation by Yeates, . . .62 

Installations and Ordinations, Quarterly 

list, .... 79, 175, 272, 383 

Institute of France, 254 

Institutions Literary and Scientific in France, 17, 


Last Thursday of February, . . . 277 

Learned Societies in Fiance, . . . 250 
Letter concerning a young man preparing 

for the Ministry," 81 



Letter from Dr. Scudder, . . . .277 
Rev. Mr. Robinson, . . . .395 
Rev. Peter Parker, . . . .197 

Leverett, Hon. John 348 

Libraries in France, 249 

Limoges, Academy of .... 4b 
Lyons, Academy of 4b 

Maine Branch of American Ed. Societv, . 93 
Marshall College, . . . . " . 398 
Mason's Inaugural Address noticed, . . 271 
Mather, Rev. William L.'s Report, . 19b 

Resignation, 405 

Mather, Dr. Increase .... 343 

Mather, Rev. Cotton 347 

Memoir of Dr. Porter, . . . . 9 
President Witherspoon, . . . 105 
Seaborn Cotton, . . . .110 
Isaac Chauncy, .... Ill 

Ichabod Chauncy, . . ' . .112 
Joseph Rowlandson, . . . .112 
Thomas Shepard, .... 115 
Rev. Samuel Austin, . . . . 201 

John Whiting, 229 

Samuel Hooker, . . . .230 
Samuel Whiting, . . . .230 

Joshua Moodey, 231 

President Davies, .... 305 

Gershom Bulkley, .... 3bb 

Eleazar Mather, . . . . 3b7 

Increase Mather, .... 3b7 

Methodist Education Society, . . . 293 

Metz, French Academy of ... 47 

Middlebury College, Historical Sketch of 220 

Samuel Miller, Esq 222 

Charitable Society, . . . . 225 

Professor Allen, . . . .22b 

Erection of College buildings, . . 227 

Military Schools in France, . . . 240 

Ministers, Memoirs of 9, 105, 110, 168, 229, 305, 

Want of for English Dissenters, . .101 

Supply of 397 

Ministry, Number of young men who ought 

to prepare for 101 

Missionaries, List of all Foreign Protestant 2b4 
Moody, Rev. Joshua, Memoir of . . 231 
Morton, Rev. Charles .... 346 

Museum, British 78 

Natural History in France, . . 78 

Nancy, French Academy of . .48 

Naval Schools in France, ... 244 

Nash, Rev. Ansel's Reports, . . 195, 299 
New England, Tabular View of Colleges in 328 
New Hampshire Branch, . . . 133 

New York Young Men's Education Soc'y, 95 
Nisbet, Rev. Charles . . . 119, 122 
Nismes, French Academy of . . .48 
Norfolk County Auxiliary, ... 98 
Notices of New Publications. 

Porter's Lectures, .... 73 
Abbott's Way to do Good. . . 74 

Memoir of Rev. Samuel Green, . 74 
Miss Beecher on the Difficulties of 

Religion, 75 

Humphrey's Christian Memoirs, . 75 
Child's Book on the Sabbath, by Hooker, 76 
Dr. Beecher's Views in Theology, . 76 
Memoir of Dr. Bedell, . . . " 76 
Follen's Translation of John, . . 77 
Fiske's Manual of Classical Literature, 77 
Latin Grammar, by Andrews and 

Stoddard, 77 

Mammon, by Harris, . . . 172 

Philosophy of Benevolence, by Church, 172 

Hurlbut's Selections from Cicero's 

Letters, 172 

Sanfbrd's Memoir, . . . .173 

Blackburn's Sermons, . . . 173 
Codman's Sermon on Signs of the 

Times, 174 

Howe's Appeal, .... 174 

Bloomfield's Greek Testament, . 270 

Boyle's View of the Council of Nice, 270 
Inaugural Addresses, by Mason and 

Hopkins, 271 

Matthews's Memoir of Dr. Porter, . 378 

Young Man's Aid, by H. Winslow, . 378 

Schauffler's Ten Sermons, . . 373 
Edwards's Sermon on Reasons of 

Thankfulness, . . . .379 

Bishop M'llvaine's Second Charge, . 379 

Pres. Baldwin's Inaugural Address, . 380 

Townsend's New Testament, . . 380 
Dwight, Rev. S. E. on the Law of 

Marriage, . ■■ . . . .381 

Northern Baptist Education Society, . 182 

Oakes, Rev. Urian, notice of . . . 342 

Odessa, Statistics of 160 

Oglethorpe University, .... 399 
Old Arguments Against the Motion of the 


Old Colony Auxiliary Education Society, 

Orange County (Vt.j Auxiliary 
Ordinations and Installations, 
Orleans, French Academy of 




79, 175, 272, 383 


Palestine, Population of . . . . 140 
Paris, French Academy of . . .49 
Parker, Rev. Peter's Letter, . . . 197 
Pau, French Academy of ... 54 

Persevering Effort Finally Successful, . 197 
Philadelphia Education Society, ". . 80 
Philosophy of Schlegel, . . . .134 
Piety, Importance of Eminent Personal . 150 

Plea for Colleges, 99 

Plymouth County Auxiliary, ... 96 

Poitiers, French Academy of . . .54 

Porter, Rev. Ebenezer, Memoir of . . 9 

Pastoral Labors, .... 10 

Appointment in Andover Theol. Sem. 12 

Death, i 15 

List of his Printed Works, . . 73 
Notice of Memoir of . . .378 

Population in Heathen Nations, . . 67 
Populousness of Ancient Nations, . . 138 
Palestine, .' ... < . . 140 

Greece, . . . . . .142 

Rome, . . . . . ' . 144 

Pressing Wants of the World, . .'397 

Protestant Foreign Missionaries, Complete 

List of 264 

Prussia, Statistics of .... 157 

Quarterly List of Ordinations and Installa- 
tions, ... 79, 175, 272, 383 
Deaths of Clergymen, 80, 176, 271, 384 

Rennes, French Academy of . . .54 
Reformed Dutch Church, . . .296 
Relations of Things, . . . .393 
Riddel, Rev. Samuel H, Report of . 401 
Robinson, Rev. Mr.'s Letter, . . . 395 
Rood's Address, Extract from . . 186 
Root's Address, Extract from . . .183 
Rome, Ancient Populousness of . . 144 
Rowlandson, Joseph, Memoir of . .112 
Royal College of France, . ... 238 
Poly technique School, . . .239 
Military College 242 


Institution for the Blind, . 

Deaf and Dumb, 
Antiquaries of France, 
Russian Slavery, History of 

Sanford, Rev. Joseph, Memoir of, noticed, 

Sandwich Islands, Religion in 

Saxony, Statistics of .... 

Schall. Adam, Notice of . 

Schauffler's Meditations on the Last Days 

of Christ, Notice of . 
Schlegel's Philosophy, .... 
School of the Fine Arts and Sciences in 


Scudder, Dr.'s Letter, .... 
Sermons, Dr. Spring's and Prof. Fitch's . 
Sewall, Prof. Stephen, Notice of 
Shepard, Rev. Thomas, Memoir of 

Shunleff College, 

Sicily, Statistics of 

Slavery in Russia, Account of 

Spain, Statistics of 

Sparta, Population of 
Statistics of Colleges, 

Denmark, ..... 


Prussia, Spain, .... 

Venice, ...... 



Strafford County Auxiliary Education So- 

Strasbourg, French Academy of 

Supply of Ministers, .... 

Tabular View of Colleges in New England, 
Theological Education in Vermont, 
Seminary in Gilmanton, N. H. 

Geneva, Switzerland, 

New York City, 


Granville, Ohio, 
Things, Relations of 
Townsend's New Testament, Notice of 
Tyng's Memoir of Bedell, Notice of 

12, 130, 328. 










University of Harvard, Sketch of . . 329 
Rev. John Harvard, . . .332 

Rev. Henry Dunster, . . 333, 337 

Prescribed Collegiate Course, . . 334 
Board of Corporation, . . . 335 
Rev. Charles Chauncy, . . . 339 

Dr. Hoar, 342 

Rev. Urian Oakes, .... 342 
Rev. John Rogers, Increase Mather, 343 

Charters, 345 

Hon. William Stoughton, . . 346 

Rev. Samuel Wiilard, Cotton Mather, 347 

Judge Leverett, .... 348 
Thomas Hollis, . . . .349 

Edw'd Wigglesworlh, John Winthrop, 350 

President Wadsworth, . . . 351 

Donations, President Holyoke, •. . 352 

Tutor Henry Flynt, . . . 354 

Prof. Stephen Sewall, . . . 355 

Dr. Appleton, 356 

Remonstrance of the Overseers, . 356 

Benefactors in the Time of Holyoke, 359 
Harvard Hall Burnt, . . .360 

Edw'd Wigglesworth, Sam'l Locke, 361 

Joseph Wiilard, .... 362 

Legacy of Hon. Paul Dudley, . 362 

Presidents Webber and Thornton, . 363 

Instructors, Library, . . . 364 

Answers to Inquiries of the Overseers, 365 

Finances, 366 

University of France. See France, . 17 

University, Oglethorpe, Ga. . . . 399 

United Brethren's Missions, . . .. 376 

United States, Baptists in 163 

Venice, Statistics of .... 158 

Vermont Branch American Education Soc. 189 

Theological Education in . . 398 

Wadsworth, Rev. Benjamin . . . 351 
Wants of the World, . . . .282 
Western Education Society, . . . 284 
Wheelock, Dr. Eleazar, Religious char- 
acter of 178 

Whiting, Rev. John, Memoir of . . 229 

Whiting, Rev. Samuel, Memoir of . . 230 

Wigglesworth, Edward .... 350 
Wiilard, Rev. Samuel . . . .347 
Wiilard, Rev. Joseph . . . .362 

Windham County (Vermont) Auxiliary, . 241 

Windsor do. do. do. . 292 

Winslow's Young Man's Aid noticed, . 378 

Winthrop, John, notice of 350 

Witherspoon, Memoir of President . . 105 

Arrival in America, .... 106 

Character as a Preacher, . . . 107 

Legislator, 108 

Publications, 109 

Wood's Medical Address, notice of . . 175 
Wood, Rev. Henry's Sketch of Revivals 

in Dartmouth College, . . . 177 

Worcester South Auxiliary, ... 97 

North Auxiliary, .... 98 

World, Wants of ... . on 282 

Yeates, Thomas, Collation of Hebrew „.-«•• 

Pentateuch, .... 
Young, Rev. John K. Report of . 

' ' ' 



In the first number of this volume, in tho biographical sketch of president Porter, we mention that he 
pursued his theological studies with Dr. Bellamy of Jtlcthlem, Conn. It should have been Dr. Smalley 
of Berlin, Conn. 

ga-e Sc 


ei i fii ii Smnlnaiy. \m 



Vol. IX. AUGUST, 1836. No. 1. 



Ebenezer Porter was born October 5, 1772, at Cornwall, a town in 
Litchfield county, Conn., 38 miles west of Hartford. Of his ancestors we 
have very little information. His father, Hon. Thomas Porter, was a 
farmer, but for many years, especially in the latter part of his life, was 
somewhat prominent as a political man. In 1779, he removed with his 
family to Tinmouth, a small town in the southern part of the county of 
Rutland, Vermont. Dr. Porter began to fit for college at an early age, 
under the instruction of his brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Osborn, then 
minister of Tinmouth. He completed his preparatory studies under the 
superintendence of the Rev. Job Swift, D. D , pastor of the Congregational 
church in Bennington, Vt. He entered the freshman class in Dartmouth 
college in 1788, and in 1792 received the degree of A. B.* At the com- 
mencement exercises, he had the first appointment. During the whole 
college course, he had sustained a high rank as a scholar. 

The remark has not unfrequently been made, that the standing of a 
student in college furnishes little or no data on which to estimate his sub- 
sequent usefulness or reputation. Cases, indeed, occur of premature 
growth. The mind which shoots suddenly to manhood, may speedily 
decay. Boys who have excited extraordinary hopes in college, have after- 
wards sunk into utter obscurity. The mind is also sometimes under the 
stimulus of vicious excitements. A young man toils for the highest honors 
of his class. Day and night his powers are stretched to the utmost inten- 
sity. A stranger to the hallowed motives to literary effort furnished by the 
Christian religion, he nourishes his feverish hopes. The goal is reached ; 
the valedictory oration is secured ; the stirring scenes of commencement- 
day vanish ; the plaudits of too partial friends have lost their relish. The 
unhappy youth is thrown out upon the world without an object or a motive. 
His mental energies suffer a fearful collapse. We hear no more of him. 
He is a disgrace to one of the learned professions, or betakes himself to a 
life of idleness, or lingers out a miserable existence in dissipation. Perhaps 
his health was ruined by his unnatural application while in the college. 

* His classmates at the time of graduation were 27 in number. Among them were President Appleton 
of Bowdoin college ; William H. Woodward, secretary and treasurer of Dartmouth college ; Rev. Messrs. 
Joel Baker, of Granville, Mass. ; Joseph Field, Charlemont, Mass. ; Calvin Ingalls ; John Jackson; Zepha- 
niah Swift, Derby, Conn. ; Jonathan Ward, Plymouth, N. H. ; John Webber, etc. About one half of th« 
•lass are now living. 

VOL. IX. 2 

10 memoir of [Aug. 

The valedictory has been in more than one instance a precursor to the 
grave. The constitution was shattered by the enormous draughts which 
the four years made upon it. Still we are inclined to think that the char- 
acter in college is a pretty good index of the whole subsequent life. The 
early developments, as a general thing, correspond to the subsequent, his- 
tory. Mind is not so changeable in its aspects as to falsify every prediction. 
Some of the most powerful motives which stimulate the youthful scholar 
are of a permanent, as well as of a laudable character. Years of idleness 
in college are occasionally recovered at a single bound, or atoned for by 
subsequent indefatigable application. But this is not the ordinary law. 
" Seest thou a man diligent in his business ; he shall stand before kings." 
This is as applicable to a scholar's life, as to that of any other person.* 

Dr. Porter's career is an illustration of this conclusion. He studied in- 
dustriously and methodically in college ; in the whole of his subsequent 
life, so far as his health permitted, he was a hard student. In college 
he acquired for himself respect and an honorable rank ; in his professional 
career he maintained the same ascendancy. 

Dr.. Porter became pious during his junior year in college. The cir- 
cumstances connected with this interesting event in his history are not 
known to the writer of this article. The year after he left college, he con- 
nected himself with the Congregational church in Washington, Litchfield 
county, Conn. Of this church he was afterwards pastor. It was then 
under the pastoral care of the Rev. Noah Merwin, with whose daughter 
Dr. Porter subsequently became connected in marriage. 

After leaving college, Dr. Porter spent several months in teaching a 
school. He then commenced the study of divinity in the celebrated private 
theological school of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Bellamy, in Bethlem, Conn. Of 
this distinguished divine and theological instructor, his pupil frequently 
spoke in terms of the highest veneration and respect. For vigor and 
clearness of intellect ; for his power in presenting doctrinal truth to the 
understanding and the conscience ; for the hold which he gained in the 
judgment and affection of the students in divinity who resorted to his 
house ; and for the great and happy effects produced by his preaching, his 
lectures, and his published discourses, Dr. Bellamy ranks very high among 
the theologians of this and of other lands. The American church has 
great reason to rejoice that she has been favored with such luminaries as Drs. 
Bellamy, Strong, Hart, Charles Backus, Stephen West, Hopkins, Dwight, 
Hyde, and others. Perhaps no county in New England has been more 
highly favored in this particular than Litchfield in Connecticut. Not a 
little of the spiritual good which Dr. Porter was enabled to effect, is, no 
doubt, to be attributed to the counsels and example of Dr. Bellamy. The 
length of time employed by Dr. Porter in the study of divinity, is not cer- 
tainly known. It was probably about sixteen or eighteen months. On 
the 0th of September, 1796, he was ordained pastor of the Congregational 
church at Washington, vacant by the death of Mr. Merwin. 

From an article inserted by Dr. Porter in the Connecticut Evangelical 
Magazine for October 1806, and which gives an account of a revival of 
religion in his church and society, we have derived a few facts relating to 
his pastoral labors. "Though this church has enjoyed a preached gospel," 
remarks Dr. Porter, " with very little interruption since its formation, a 
period of 64 years, nothing that could properly be termed a revival of 

* One of our colleges arranges the classes on its triennial catalogues according to the relative standing 
of the members while in college. An examination of this catalogue proves that the rank in college is, as 
a general thing, maintained subsequently. 

1836.] REV. EBENEZER PORTER, D. D. 11 

religion had ever taken place until the present. In the vacancy imme- 
diately preceding my ordination, there was, in one part of the society, more 
than usual attention ; and a number united with the church. Jn the three 
succeeding years, including 1799, twenty-three persons more were added. 
During the four next years, only ten persons made a public profession of 
religion. . . Early in the summer of 1802, special meetings wore appointed 
for the youth, with the express approbation and support of the church. 
These meetings were attended every other week, in the form of a theologi- 
cal school. At each meeting, a question, in the order of a system was 
given, accompanied with an extemporary lecture, or with notice that a 
sermon would be adapted to the subject on the following Sabbath. When 
the latter course was taken, an unusual attention was apparent in the 
youth, as well as in many others. At the meeting succeeding that on 
which the question was given, the papers that had been written by the 
youth were received and read publicly. After a number of practical, 
solemn remarks on the last question, another was given in the same 
manner. From respect to the delicacy of the writers, their papers were 
received so as to leave the author of each one unknown to every other. 
With the same precaution they were returned, having been reviewed at 
leisure, such corrections or remarks as were thought necessary being made 
on them in writing. These meetings, begun with faint expectations, suc- 
ceeded to my joy and astonishment. . . A respectable number usually 
attended ; and twelve or fifteen often wrote on the same question. It was 
surprising to witness the progress made by some of these, not only in 
correct writing, but in doctrinal knowledge. For three successive sum- 
mers, these pleasant and profitable meetings were continued ; when it was 
the will of a holy God to suspend them, through my impaired health. To 
that will, I desire to bow submissively, while I feel this allotment as the 
severest trial of my life. . . Near the close of the summer of 1803, several 
persons became seriously impressed. At the request of six or eight brethren 
of the church, weekly conferences were revived. The church put on the 
aspect of returning health. . . God's people longed for a revival, rather than 
expected it. Scarcely did they dare to believe that so blessed a season had 
already begun ; and that the day had indeed dawned, which was to succeed 
a night of more than (30 years. In the autumn, the Sun of righteousness 
arose upon us with healing and salvation in his wings. Dry bones, ani- 
mated by the breath of the Almighty, stood up, new-born believers. . . As 
the fruit of this precious and memorable season, 54 persons have been 
added to the church ; none of whom, blessed be God, have in their subse- 
quent conduct been left to discredit their holy profession. . . Of the number 
added to the church, about three fourths were children of parents who were 
professors of religion. Besides the meetings of the young people, the 
church, as a church, had appointed a catechising committee to assist the 
pastor in teaching the children. These catec'hisings have since been 
regularly attended during the summer season, between the services on 
every other Sabbath ; the children being classed according to their know- 
ledge. . . In the fall of the year there is an annual catechising, when every 
child that has attended the stated catechisings through the season, receives 
some religious tract, purchased with money drawn from the church trea- 
sury, and corresponding in value with the child's progress. The names of 
such as learn the catechism through, are entered on the church records. . . 
'From the registers of the schools, in which is preserved the comparative 
improvement of the children in the various branches of instruction, it 
appears that in six of our district schools, examined in the close of the last 

12 memoir of [Aug. 

winter, the number of children that were able to repeat the Assembly's 
Catechism through, was 101." 

It. will be observed by the preceding quotations from this interesting 
document, that Dr. Porter refers to a failure of his health. We have 
understood from his own lips that this failure was to be mainly attributed 
to an unseasonable and excessive devotion to study, in which he indulged 
while at Washington. In night-study, he assured us he laid the foundation 
for much of his subsequent debility. The preceding extracts will also 
prove the anxiety which he felt, and the multiplied labors which he per- 
formed, in behalf of the spiritual good of his flock. His various exertions, 
especially for the young, seemed to have been marked by that sound judg- 
ment and forethought which ever after characterized his movements. 

The Theological Seminary at Andover was opened on the 28th of 
September, 1808 ; on which occasion the Rev. President Dwight of 
Yale college, one of the visitors, delivered a sermon. At the same 
time, the Rev. Eliphalet Pearson, LL. D., professor elect of sacred 
literature, was ordained. Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., was ap- 
pointed Abbot professor of Christian theology. Soon after, Rev. Edward 
D. Griffin, D. D., was chosen Bartlet professor of sacred rhetoric. On the 
resignation of Dr. Pearson, Rev. Moses Stuart of New Haven, Conn., was 
chosen professor of sacred literature ; and on the resignation of Dr. Griffin, 
the Rev. Ebenezer Porter, the subject of the present sketch, was appointed 
professor of sacred rhetoric. 

The appointment of Dr. Porter was made in 1811. On the 18th of 
December of that year, the South Consociation of Litchfield county held 
a special meeting at the house of Dr. Porter, for the purpose of considering 
the circumstances of the application, and, if thought advisable, to dissolve 
the relation between him and his people. The clergymen present on this 
occasion, were the Rev. Drs. Backus of Bethlem, Tyler of South Britain, 
Beecher of Litchfield, and the Rev. Messrs. Benedict of Woodbury, Chase 
of South Farms, Swift of Roxbury, Whittelsey of New Preston, Taylor of 
Bridgewater, Hart of Plymouth, and Gelston. The Consociation, after 
considering the whole subject, came to the conclusion unanimously, that it 
was Dr. Porter's duty to accept the appointment. His pastoral relation 
was accordingly dissolved. 

On Wednesday, April 1, 1812, Dr. Porter was inaugurated as professor 
of sacred rhetoric in the theological seminary at Andover. 

In the mental habits and character of Dr. Porter there were very obvi- 
ous and striking excellencies. His sound common sense must have been 
apparent to the most superficial observer. In his public performances, 
there were, frequently, remarks of great pith and sententiousness, which 
were not drawn from books, but from a close observation of human nature. 
During his journies, and in his extensive acquaintance with men and insti- 
tutions, he had treasured up numerous and striking anecdotes illustrative 
of the foibles and the weaknesses, or of the commendable points in human 
character. In the thousand incidents of familiar and domestic life he 
exhibited a keen insight in respect to the motives by which men are gov- 
erned. No one was better qualified to give advice to young men in relation 
to the many points where they would come in contact with society. 
Dr. Porter was also remarkable for his industry. It was a habit which he 
early acquired, and which he retained through life. He had to contend 
with frequent bodily indisposition, and, for many of the latter years of his 

1836.] . REV. EBENEZER PORTER, D. D. 13 

life, with a shattered and broken constitution. Yet no moment, in which 
it was possible to labor, was lost. He seized with avidity upon every 
interval from pain. Even when under the pressure of severe suffering, 
and unable to leave his study, he had contrived some mental employment, 
which would relieve the tedium of confinement, and at the same time, be 
useful to his fellow creatures. In this respect, he resembled Richard 
Baxter, of whose writings he was extremely fond, and who labored inde- 
fatigably, while suffering under almost all the ills to which men are inci- 
dent. This industry was, however, very far removed from all bustle and 
excitement. There was not the least affectation of extraordinary diligence. 
Some men, by their glowing zeal and boisterous industry, convey the 
impression that they have no method in their labors, and that their work 
will need amendment, if not an entire revision. Dr. Porter was ever calm 
and collected, for he clearly apprehended the nature of his duties, the order 
in which they were to be performed, and the strength necessary for their 
accomplishment. Dr. Porter possessed a discriminating mind. In power 
of profound investigation on abstruse subjects he was excelled by some 
other men. But he mastered whatever he undertook. He clearly appre- 
hended the relations of the different parts of a subject, and the bearing of 
the whole on a particular object. His study of language, his skill in the 
use of it, the necessity, imposed upon him by his office, of skilfully ana- 
lyzing sentences, doubtless contributed to this result. Language without 
meaning, terms without discrimination, discourse without logic, no one 
was more unwilling or less liable to exhibit. This fault in others, when it 
fell under his observation, and when circumstances rendered it proper, he 
subjected to a severe yet just and kind animadversion. There is great 
perfection in Dr. Porter's style of writing. So far as the nice balance of 
sentences, the harmonious collocation of their members, and the selection of 
apt and beautiful words are concerned, he was rarely ever excelled. There 
was no heterogeneous agglomeration of epithets or of sentences, no ver- 
biage, no confusion of metaphors. Every thing was distinct, clear, 
finished. We have the same associations respecting the perfection of his 
style, which we have with that of Prof. Playfair, Thomas Campbell, and 
Prof. Frisbie. His words fell on the ear like the music of Handel. In 
his best discourses, the extreme polish was not apparent. The order was 
so logical, and the sentences were so accurately adjusted, that we never 
thought of the indefatigable attention which had been bestowed upon them. 
The sentiment was so clearly and precisely expressed, as to occupy the 
entire attention of the hearer. It found a lodgment in the inmost soul. 
Some of Dr. Porter's sermons, as delivered by him when in the enjoyment 
of comparative health, were felt in the conscience and in the heart, and 
produced great and permanent effects. After all which may be said 
respecting unstudied nature, the outbreaking of natural eloquence, the 
happy disregard of rule and of formality, of which we so frequently hear, it 
is yet refreshing and instructive beyond expression to listen to well- 
composed sentences, which have been subjected to the revision of a severely 
disciplined mind. There is a perfection in some of the sentences of a few 
English writers, like Milton and Cowper, which we are wholly unable to 
describe, but which affords the highest mental pleasure. 

A prominent trait in the social character of Dr. Porter was his exact 
and methodical arrangement of all his business transactions, in connection 
with great benevolence of character, and, considering his means,, exten- 
sive charities. No individual was ever less obnoxious to the charge of 
avarice. We never heard the least intimation of any thing resembling 

14 memoir of [Aug. 

meanness in his intercourse with his fellow creatures. At the same time, 
a thoroughly bred accountant could not have managed his affairs more 
prudently and systematically. His habits in this particular, as must be the 
case with all good habits, descended to things minute and comparatively 
unimportant. It is a most valuable acquisition, and worthy of the serious 
attention of all students, who would, on the one hand, preserve themselves 
free from the charge of avarice and a want of fair and honorable dealing, 
and, on the other hand, maintain the rules of Christian economy, providing 
things honest in the sight of all men, in order that they may render their 
families comfortable, and have wherewithal to bestow upon him that 
needeth. A parsimonious habit and a wasteful expenditure are equally 
removed from the spirit of the Christian religion. Cheerfulness was an 
interesting and prominent trait in Dr. Porter's domestic character. When 
suffering severe pains of body, while confined for whole dreary winters to 
his house, or compelled, on the approach of winter, to leave his beloved 
home and his ardently cherished seminary, and repair to a warmer climate 
and the society of strangers, he still maintained the serenity of a composed 
mind.. When any thing betided ill to the cause of his country, or of 
Christianity, he was not accustomed so to dwell on the unfavorable aspect, 
as to cloud his brow in gloom, to distrust a merciful Providence, or to inca- 
pacitate himself for labor. His natural character was undoubtedly pecu- 
liarly amiable. The influence also of a firm and humble hope in Christ, 
had refined and perfected an original endowment of nature.* We may 
also add that there was a remarkable simplicity and honesty of character 
in Dr. Porter. No one ever accused him of duplicity, double dealing, 
equivocation, or any thing of the kind. He possessed a sterling integrity, 
founded on Christian principle, which carried him above all the arts of 
evasion and of insincerity. He was an Israelite indeed, in whom there was 
no guile. No one ever imagined that Dr. Porter could be enlisted in any 
undertaking which would not bear the light of day and the scrutiny of an 
enlightened conscience. At the same time, there was nothing scrupulous 
or over-just in his habits of thinking or acting. He did not fall into the 
fault of some excellent men, in following the letter of the law beyond its 
spirit, or in pressing rules excellent in themselves into matters indifferent, 
and thus creating positive injustice. Combining these, and other inter- 
esting traits of social character which we hare not here room to delineate, 
Dr. Porter was, as might have been expected, an interesting companion, 
a tender and faithful counsellor, a conscientious instructor, and a Christian 

Dr. Porter's religious views were distinguished for the attribute of clear- 
ness. He did not possess the spiritual imagination of Dr. Payson, nor the 
amplitude in range of John Howe, nor the fertile invention of Richard 
Baxter, but the objects of faith which came within the scope of his mental 
view, were most distinctly apprehended, and left on his character and 
conduct the most definite impressions. Flis religious reading was exten- 
sive, and always discriminating, his acquaintance with pious men and 
sacred institutions was varied and long continued, his religious experience 
decided and thorough, and all were turned to the best practical purposes. 
The system of religious doctrines which he cherished, and at all times 
firmly maintained, accorded with that taught by his venerable theological 

* It may Ik; well to state in this place, that ilie painting from which the engraving (an engraving whicfc 
is, in mo- 1 respects, remarkably good) of Dr. Porter, in the present No of the Register, was taken, fails to 
do justice to the original in this respect. There was an abiding cheerfulness on his countenance — the 
index of a serene and contented mind. It was depicted on liis features in such a manner as to render it 
very difficult to he transferred to the canvass. 


instructor, Dr. Bellamy. After mature and careful examination, he was 
convinced that this system was founded on the Scriptures. Uence in the 
exhibition and defence of it, lie was explicit and decided. Yet he was 
never intolerant, nor pertinacious, fie never maintained the opinion, nor 
exemplified it in his practice, that orthodoxy, in the absence of the Chris- 
tian temper, is acceptable to Heaven, or that the mode and spirit in which 
a doctrine are exhibited are of no consequence, provided the doctrine itself 
be sound. He strove to maintain peace, and a Christian temper, while 
he explained and enforced the pure truth of the gospel, never postponing 
or undervaluing peace while he contended for purity. Scarcely any topic 
was exhibited more frequently or impressively in his public preaching than 
the importance of love for the truth and Christian meekness, in addition to 
zeal for orthodoxy ; and that eminent spiritual affections ought always to 
accompany and consecrate fresh acquisitions of religious knowledge. He 
was ever aware of the great danger of substituting biblical or theological 
learning for vital piety. His influence upon the seminary, and upon can- 
didates for the ministry, in this respect, was constantly and successfully 

To our various public charitable institutions, Dr. Porter was a uniform 
and invaluable friend. He not only felt a deep interest in them, and 
offered prayer in their behalf, but contributed liberally for their support. 
He perceived their intimate and essential relation to the kingdom of Jesus 
Christ, and to the promotion of the best interests of the human race. To 
no one of these institutions did he exhibit a stronger attachment, than to 
the American Education Society. He was among the first to perceive the 
necessity of special efforts to seek out and bring forward ministers and 
missionaries for the numerous fields which are whitening for the harvest. 
To this important subject, from the outset, he gave a large amount of thought 
and personal effort. His extensive and important influence in the southern 
States, as well as in other portions of the country, was most cheerfully 
exerted. When this Society was called to experience severe embar- 
rassment and trial, Dr. Porter remained stedfast to its interests, and prompt 
to afford encouragement and aid. Every successive year in its history 
furnishes evidence of the wisdom and forecast of his views in relation to 
this great cause. At the anniversary of the society in Boston, in 1820, 
he delivered a sermon, which has been regarded as among his ablest pro- 
ductions. It discovers the anxious, paternal interest which he felt in the 
subject. It is filled with facts displaying the most elaborate and careful 
research, and is written with his accustomed taste and power. 

Dr. Porter died at Andover on the 8th of April, 1834, at the age of 
sixty-two years. He had been for many years, an invalid. Early in the 
spring, some severe domestic afflictions were the means of still further 
reducing his feeble frame. The powers of nature sunk, till the energies 
of his body and mind entirely gave way. Owing to the absence of reason, 
for the last few days of his life, he was not able to give those testimonies 
of the preciousness of the Christian hope, which, in other circumstances, 
his uniform and consistent piety, his mature and settled views of Christian 
truth, would have led us confidently to anticipate. 

The funeral services were attended on Friday, the 11th of April. A 
procession of the trustees, patrons, and students of the theological and 
hterary institutions was formed at Dr. Porter's house, and moved with his 
remains to the chapel, where prayers were offered by the Rev. Drs. Dana 
and Church, and a sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Woods, from 


John xvii. 4, " I have glorified thee on the earth ; I have finished the work 
which thou gavest me to do." 

The following is the inscription on the neat monument, in the form of an 
obelisk, of white marble, which has since been erected to his memory by 
the American Education Society. 

[In front .-] 


to the memory of 


who died 1834, aged sixty-two years, 

was graduated at 

Dartmouth College, 1792, 

ordained as Pastor at 

Washington, Conn., 1795, 

inaugurated as 

Professor of Sacred Rhetoric 

in the Theological Seminary 

at Andover 1812, 

appointed President of the same 


[On the right side .] 

Of cultivated understanding, 

refined taste, solid judgment, 

sound faith, and ardent piety ; 

Distinguished for strict integrity 

and uprightness, 

kind and gentle deportment, 

simplicity and godly sincerity ; 

A Father to the Institution 

with which he was connected, 

A highly useful Instructor, 

A zealous Patron of the 

benevolent Societies of the times 

in which he lived, 

A true Friend to the temporal 

and eternal interests of 

his fellow beings ; 

Living, he was peculiarly loved and revered ; 

Dying, he was universally lamented. 

[On the left side .-] 

American Education Society, 

to whose use he bequeathed 

the greater part of his pioperty, 

in token of their high esteem 

and grateful remembrance of 

his services and bounties, 

have caused this monument 

to be erected. 

Wc have purposely refrained from going into detail, or from giving any thing more than a very brief 
view of Dr. Porter's life, as an extended .Memoir will soon appear from the pen of the Rev. L. Matthews, of 
Braintree, Mass , who enjoyed excellent opportunities for acquiring an intimate knowledge of the life and 
character of Dr. Porter, and from whom the puhlic have every reason to expect an interesting and faithful 




To the Editor of the American Quarterly Register. — In conformity with the 
promise which I made to you in my letter written in the month of January, 1836, 
I now furnish you an account of the University of France, or rather of the sys- 
tem of education which is at present established by law in this kingdom. 

In order, however, to execute this task most satisfactorily, and with the 
greatest perspicuity, I shall also give you some notices of the past history of 
education in this country. This article will then, according to the plan which 
I have laid down for its preparation, most properly consist of three parts: 
The history of the University of Paris down to the period of its dissolution in 
1792 : The history of the system or plans of education adopted during the frst 
revolution, the directory, and the consulate: And a description of the system which 
was established under the empire of JYapoleon, together with the modifications 
which it has undergone during the restoration, and especially since the revolution 

It will be at once perceived that the subject is one of great extent, and quite 
too large to be fully discussed in one article. I shall endeavor, however, to 
give at least an outline of it, and to enable the reader to have, I trust, correct 
conceptions of what ought, to every well informed man, to be an interesting 
subject. We cannot be too well acquainted with the various efforts which have 
been made in different nations, to promote the education of its youth. And it 
may be said, probably, with the strictest conformity to truth, that in no country has 
the history of education, and of literature in general, embraced more interesting 
facts and experiments than in France. 

I. Pursuing the plan which I have already mentioned, I commence with 
The History of the University of Paris, down to its Dissolution in 

The early history of the University of Paris is involved in much obscurity. 
Its foundation goes back to very remote antiquity ; but the precise epoch of its 
establishment as a school cannot be well ascertained. From the character of 
the early French monarchs we should not be led to infer that they took much 
interest in the subject of education. The most which can be ascertained of a 
favorable character is that some of them had seminaries in their palaces in 
which their own children and those of the nobility seem to have been assembled 
for instruction. 

There is reason to believe that the University of Paris received the seminal 
element of its existence from Charlemagne, who established an institution for 
the education of youth in the arts of theology. There is some evidence also 
that medicine was included. This was done about A. D. 800. Towards the 
close of that century, Remi, a monk of Auxerre, was very instrumental in keep- 
ing up the reputation which the school had acquired under Charlemagne. 
Through his efforts, and those of his pupils who succeeded him in the office of 
instruction, the institution gradually increased, until, in the twelfth century, 
it acquired great celebrity, obtained an incorporated form as a society, adopted 
a system of government, received laws for its regulation, and obtained privi- 
leges so great, especially by an ordonnance of Philip Augustus, that it seems 
to have been made independent, in its government and regulation, of the city 
and almost of the kingdom. This was occasioned by the extreme desire of that 
monarch and his successors to induce the teachers to remain, for they consid- 
ered the institution to be the great ornament not only of the city but of the 

vol. ix. 3 


At an early period in the history of the ancient Universities on the con- 
tinent, they were divided into what were termed nations. And as Paris was a 
resort of strangers from all parts of Europe, its University was one of the first 
that adopted this arrangement. A nation was composed of persons of the same 
country or tract of country, who, whatever might be the nature of their studies, 
joined in forming a body, passing laws and regulations peculiar to themselves, 
governed by authorities elected by themselves alone, and occupying buildings 
of their own, and pursuing a mode of life confined to their own company. These 
nations had no connection with each other, except when they were convened to 
form the great council of the University. It is difficult to fix the epoch when 
this division of the teachers and students into nations took place in the Uni- 
versity of Paris. But it is probable that it occurred soon after the time of 
Charlemagne. At any rate it is certain that it existed in 1169, for Henry II. 
of England, in his dispute with Thomas a Becket, offered, in that year, to refer 
the settlement of it to the judgment of the peers of France, the Gallican 
church, or the heads of the different provinces (or nations as the word provinces 
here undoubtedly means) of the University of Paris. 

The first nations which existed in the University of Paris seem to have been 
those of the French and English. It must be kept in mind that what was then 
called France, and for a long time afterwards, was but a small portion of what 
is now called France. It embraced but a small territory, of which Paris was 
the capital. In the thirteenth century, the number of nations was four, viz. 
those of France, England, Picardy, and Normandy. The first included, besides 
the French, the students from Italy, Spain, Greece and other oriental countries ; 
whilst the English included Scotch, Irish, Poles, Germans, and all other north- 
ern students. 

The order in which these nations stood when they gave their votes, was as 
follows : France, Picardy, Normandy, and England. Each nation was divided 
into provinces, and each province into dioceses. The names of the members 
of each province were enrolled in an inscription book; each province had a 
dean chosen by its own members. The deans of the provinces formed the 
ordinary council of the procurator or head of the nation, and their concurrence 
was necessary in every important measure. 

It was the prerogative of each nation to make, alter, or annul its own statutes ; 
to choose its own office-bearers, the highest of whom was the procurator, who 
was to the nation what the rector was to the whole University. The duty of 
the procurator was to have a general superintendence of the nation, keep its 
inscription-book and seal, swear in all the office-bearers, &c. &c. The pro- 
curators constituted the ordinary council of the rector, and united with the rector 
and the deans of the provinces, they formed the great council. Each nation 
had its own patron, church, place of meeting, academic buildings, seals, 
archives, treasury, &c. Its revenues were derived from inscriptions, entrance- 
fees, fines, &c. 

The origin of faculties may be referred to the year 1259. It was occasioned 
by the Dominican and Franciscan monks establishing lectures in theology in 
the year 1229, during a suspension of the lectures in the University caused by 
particular circumstances. When the University recommenced its operations, 
the monks insisted upon their lecturers being taken into it to give instruction 
in theology. This, the nations being secular, opposed, inasmuch as they did 
not wish to have any thing to do with regular or mendicant clergy. This led 
to a long dispute, which was only ended by popes Innocent IV. and Alexander 
IV., threatening to excommunicato the University unless it yielded, which it was 
thus forced to do. Soon after the faculty of theology was formed, those of 
medicine and law were added. Each faculty had its dean, who, like the pro- 
curator of each nation, was its head. The faculties also made their own laws, 
had each a seal, &c. &c. And in 1281 they were confirmed in all the rights of 
the University. From this period the school of Paris, which had previously 
consisted of four bodies, was composed of seven, viz. of four nations and three 
faculties, represented respectively by four procurators and three deans. It 
now took the name of the New University. 

About this time the four nations began to be named the faculty of arts, and 


were curtailed in many of their privileges, whilst the faculties of theology, 
medicine, and law, were called the superior faculties. Soon after this time, also, 
the three faculties began to share with the nations in the choice of the rector. 
They tried long, but without success, to have the nations reduced to but one 
vote, so that they might succeed against them. But this was resisted, and 
down to the eighteenth century each nation continued to have its one vote in 
choosing a rector. In this way the nations, when united, were always able to 
defeat the faculties in the election of that important officer of the institution. 

In the earlier periods of the history of the University of Paris the students 
boarded with the inhabitants of the city, and paid a price regulated by a com- 
mittee appointed jointly by the University and the citizens. But as many 
students, in process of time, flocked to this celebrated seat of learning, who had 
not the means of meeting such an expense, it became a work of charity to erect 
buildings in which they might lodge and be boarded for a small sum, and where 
they might be under the inspection of a guardian, by whom they were also 
conducted to the lectures in the University. At first these establishments were 
on a small scale, and the students received aid from the king, or other sources, 
which circumstance was the origin of the modern bursaries or scholarships. 
These colleges became very numerous in the course of time. The first two 
whose origin is mentioned with certainty were, that called St. Thomas du Louvre, 
founded by Robert Count of Dreux, son of Louis le Gros, under the protection 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury (a Becket), and that on Mont St. Genevieve. 
These colleges were not like the colleges of the present day, but merely build- 
ings in which poor students might lodge and be boarded. In the beginning of 
the thirteenth century, an Englishman, the first physician of king Philip of 
France, founded a college, which was dedicated to St. James. When the 
Dominicans arrived, in 1'2J7, they got possession of this college, and hence 
derived the name of Jacobite Friars. From the same source, at a later date, 
the formidable political body of the Jacobins derived their name. The Domin- 
icans succeeding remarkably well in their efforts to gain pupils, the Francis- 
cans and other mendicant orders entered on the same career and established 
colleges. And their success was great. Among the teachers in the colleges 
of the regular clergy were to be found Albertus Magnus, Alexander Hales, 
Thomas Aquinas, and Bonaventura. 

In 1250, Robert of Sorbonne, confessor of St. Louis, laid the foundation of a 
college which obtained from the name of its founder, the title of the college of 
the Sorbonne. This college was founded to educate secular students of 
theology. This institution afterwards obtained great celebrity for the learning 
and bigotry of its professors, and which, from an astonishing height of renown, 
was reduced almost to a state of desertion by its dreadful spirit of persecution 
and domination. 

In the course of the fourteenth century many new colleges were founded, 
among the most celebrated of which were those of Navarre and Plessis. The 
former was the first royal college instituted in Paris ; the latter was united to 
the Sorbonne in 1646. In the college of Navarre, provision Avas made for the 
maintenance of seventy poor students, who were to receive each from four to 
eight sous per week. Whilst this college seems to have been well managed, 
many of the others fell into sad disorders, so much so that the University had 
to enter upon the task of looking after them and regulating their affairs. By 
degrees, also, their doors were opened to the reception of students who them- 
selves paid the expenses of their board and lodging. About this time the 
colleges began to be divided into great and small. In the former — which, in 
the reign of Louis XL, amounted to eighteen in number — grammar and rhet- 
oric, philosophy and theology, were taught. In the latter, only grammar and 

Many colleges were founded in succeeding reigns. In 1530, Francis I. 
established royal lectures in the University, whose salaries were paid from the 
public treasury. This was done to promote the cultivation of languages, of 
which that monarch was a great lover. Henry II. assigned separate apartments 
for this establishment. But Louis XIII. had the honor of establishing, on that 
foundation, the college royal de France. This college exists at present, and is 


in a flourishing' condition. It does not form one of the royal colleges of Paris, 
but is of a much higher grade. Francis I. appointed twelve professors. In 
1774 it was organized on its present footing, with the exception that Louis 
XVIII. founded two additional professorships for the Sanscrit and Chinese lan- 
guages. The professors are named by the king, and are under the authority of 
the minister of public instruction. 

The establishment of colleges at Paris was a great advantage both to the 
students and to the University. To the former it furnished places of retire- 
ment, in which those who possessed industrious habits might apply themselves 
to learning. Whilst to the latter it gave support and stability. 

I have mentioned that the University of Paris was in the possession of the 
secular clergy until, by the establishment of faculties, the regular orders gained 
a footing. i\.nd even after that event it continued chiefly under the sway of 
the secular clergy, for the mendicant monks of all orders were admitted into 
the faculties under such restrictions that their influence was not very extensive. 
It was greatly owing to this fact, as well as to the almost uninterrupted support 
which it received from the popes, that the University became so celebrated that 
it was considered the focus of learning for the civilized world, and by the end 
of the twelfth century had an immense number of students. According to some 
writers there were 30,000 scholars at that period. Others reduce the number 
to 20,000, and others to even 10,000, which is probably a more accurate esti- 
mate than the first mentioned number. 

In the thirteenth century the University was almost broken up by one of the 
many unfortunate quarrels and brawls which occurred between the students 
and the citizens. A number were killed on each side, and the queen regent 
(Blanche) employed such means to put down the students that many of the 
teachers and scholars went off in disgust, and founded other Universities. This 
famous dispute led in reality to the foundation of the literary establishments at 
Toulouse, Angers, Portiers, Orleans, Rheirns, and other towns. Henry II. of 
England invited many to England, and their emigration thither, if it did not lay 
the foundation of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, gave them such an 
impulse and celebrity that from this epoch they may date their permanent pros- 
perity. The unhappy difficulty in the University of Paris, of which I have just 
spoken, occurred in 1229. 

But so anxious was St. Louis and the pope to have the University re-estab- 
lished, that they left no means unattempted to accomplish their object. And 
to induce the doctors and students to return, new privileges were conferred 
upon the institution, and the authority over it which the bishop of Paris had 
claimed and exercised as being, ex officio, its head, was greatly abridged. Still 
it was long before it recovered from the blow which it had received. But, in 
the year 1320 it had again attained to high celebrity. And the great schism of 
the West, and the establishment of a rival pope at Avignon, which occurred 
shortly after this epoch, still further aided the University, which acted with 
great moderation in that perplexing and memorable failure of arrogated infalli- 
bility on the part of the church of Rome. 

In 1390 the king issued statutes forbidding any one w r ho had not been exam- 
ined, and pronounced duly qualified, from practising medicine and surgery. It 
is from this epoch that the celebrity of the University of Paris, for medical 
science, may date its commencement. 

During the early part of the fifteenth century, the University suffered much 
from the occupancy of Paris by the English, who established the University of 
Caen in opposition to it, and in every way thwarted the plans of that of the 
capital. Upon the return of Charles VII. to his capital, the University was 
deprived of some of its ancient privileges. And what is better still, it under- 
went a most salutary reform, and received a new code of laws regulating the 
morals of the students in 1452. 

Shortly after the art of printing 1 was invented, Ulric Gering, of Constance, 
and Martin Krantz and Michel Friburger, of Colmar, were invited to Paris, 
took up their residence in the Sorbonne, and there established the first printing- 
press which was ever employed in France. This wonderfu.1 invention was long 
used, most successfully, to advance the interests of science and literature, as 


well as to shed new lustre on the University, which had so justly earned the 
title of Mother of the Arts. 

Louis XL often acted tyrannically towards the University, but his son and 
successor Charles VIII. was exceedingly favorable to it. His successor was 
Louis XII., who came into open collision with the University. Upon his putting 
some restriction upon it, the institution resorted to a measure which it had 
often adopted with success when the influence of the priesthood and the Catho- 
lic religion was more powerful, and which was entitled cessation. That is, the 
authorities of the University came to the determination that all the lectures 
and other modes of instruction of every kind should stop until the grievances 
should be redressed. As all the clergy of Paris were connected with the Uni- 
versity, this measure led to an entire cessation of all ministerial and pastoral 
functions. This formerly had soon a great effect on the people, and the gov- 
ernment dreading commotion had long been in the habit of yielding. But on 
an occasion of this sort in 1499, Louis XII. was firm, and brought the Univer- 
sity to terms. And ever after that event cessation, as it was called, ceased to 
be employed. 

During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries there was a long struggle 
between the physicians and surgeons. The latter had grown up into a distinct 
profession, and claimed admission into the University; a point which they suc- 
ceeded in gaining. In the sixteenth century, another fatal dispute between the 
students and the citizens was nigh bringing the University to ruin. This hap- 
pened in 1557. During a few years nothing of importance occurred, after that 
event, in the history of the institution, until the order of the Jesuits arose. 
Loyola and Xavier had been students in the University. And it was natural 
that they and the other founders of the Society of Jesus, as the Jesuits called 
their association, should desire to get a foothold in this venerable establish- 
ment. A long struggle occurred. The University opposed. For a while they 
had to yield, in some measure. The Jesuits established several colleges in 
Paris, and even lectured, but not very publicly, at the Sorbonne. But when 
Henry IV. got possession of Paris, he drove them out of the city, and indeed out 
of the kingdom. 

The University suffered much during the civil wars. But during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries no very material changes took place. Various 
abuses had crept in, and various reforms w r ere made, especially on the subject 
of inscription-fees, as well as those for the various degrees of bachelor, licen- 
tiate, and doctor. But the organization of the institution was essentially the 
same as it had been for ages, as is apparent from the account which Crevier 
gives of it, at the period of its dissolution in 1792. That account is, that the 
University consisted of sev^n companies : — 

1. The Faculty of Theology, presided over by the oldest of its secular doc- 
tors, under the title of dean. 

2. The Faculty of Law, originally established for canon law alone, but 
authorized by an ordonnance of 1679, to teach also civil law ; presided over by 
a dean, chosen from the professors annually, and according to standing. 

3. The Faculty of Medicine, presided over by a dean, eligible every two 

4. The Nation of France. 

5. The Nation of Picardy. 

6. The Nation of Normandy. 

7. The Nation of Germany, formerly called the Nation of England. 

Each of these nations was governed by its procurator, who was elected annu- 
ally. The four nations together formed the Faculty of Arts, although they 
were distinct companies, each having a vote in the general affairs of the Uni- 

A rector, chosen from the body of the Faculty of Arts, was head of the whole 
University, and the Faculty of Arts more particularly. 

There were three principal and perpetual officers, a syndic, a grefner (sec- 
retary), and a receiver— all three were officers of the University, and' were 
chosen from the Faculty of the Arts. 

Such is a brief history of the University of Paris, from its origin to its disso- 


lution in 1792. Other Universities and distinguished schools for the arts and 
science, as well as for medicine, law, and theology, existed in France during 
the period which has just been reviewed, and particularly after the middle of 
the thirteenth century, but they were not to be compared with the University of 
Paris, which was for ages the great centre of learning for the civilized world. 
Subordinate institutions, also, existed in the larger cities and towns of the king- 
dom in which youth received their preparatory education for the Universities. 
But as it regarded primary or common schools, they were not fostered by the 
government in any very special manner. They depended upon the authorities 
of the departments, or provinces, as they were called, for any further encour- 
agement which they received beyond the efforts of the neighborhoods in which 
they might happen to be maintained. And, in truth, the state of education 
among the lower classes of the kingdom was exceedingly low and deplorable. 

Having now completed what I proposed to say in relation to the University 
of Paris, I proceed to give some notices of the second era into which the history 
of education of France may be divided. 

II. A View of the Systems of Education adopted during the Re- 

The revolution of 1789 was the legitimate fruit of "philosophy falsely so 
called." It was the philosophy of a Diderot, a Raynal, a Voltaire, and a Rous- 
seau. This new philosophy was bold, novel, superficial, eloquent, and alluring. 
It attacked, and with great force, the opinions which had for ages been enter- 
tained on the subject of human right, on human governments, on religion, and 
on the modes of giving instruction in the schools. Unfortunately there was too 
much in all the objects of its attack as they existed at that time in France, 
which Avas open to the most just and severe ridicule. But with the radical 
reformers of that period it was not an object to separate the good from the bad, 
and keep the one and throw the other away. This did not satisfy the mighty 
mass which they put in motion. Destruction, not reformation, was their motto. 
The result was that, in the course of a few short years, every ancient or former 
thing was swept away as by an overwhelming and universal torrent. The 
monarchy, the church, the university, with all the colleges and institutions of 
learning, were annihilated. 

The University of Paris was broken up and its former elements scattered to 
the wind in 1792. After this event, during four years, there was neither a 
University nor a college of any description in existence in all France. The 
effects of this chaos, or rather of this syncope in letters, were soon perceived 
by the few men of wisdom and goodness that were left in these years of terror. 
In particular it was found that the medical profession was about to be ruined 
for want of adequate instruction. The armies of the republic were suffering 
for want of capable surgeons. Previously to 1792 there existed in France 
eighteen faculties of medicine, of which the most celebrated were those of Paris, 
Montpellier, Toulouse, Besancon, Perpignan, Caen, Rheims, Strasbourg, and 
Nancy ; and also fifteen colleges of medicine, which were corporate bodies, 
embracing, in given districts, all the physicians who had received degrees from 
a medical faculty. The revolution overturned all this excellent system for 
securing skilful and responsible physicians. But the sense of a serious want of 
capable men in this profession, led the convention, in 1796, to establish schools 
of medicine at Paris, Montpellier, and Strasbourg, with a sufficient number of 

But in the preceding year, when the reign of anarchy had in some measure 
passed away, the convention, listening to the advice of some men of prudence 
and moderation, began to think of some plan for promoting education among 
the citizens. Much difficulty was experienced in framing a system which 
would suit the majority. Every thing that was ancient, that is, that had existed 
during the monarchy, must be discarded, and an entirely new course must be 
formed. In such circumstances it could hardly be expected that a practi- 
cable scheme would be devised. Accordingly the plan adopted and promul- 
gated in 1795 was soon found not to answer the purposes for which it was 


According- to that plan, as officially published in the Moniteur of the 2d of 
November of that year, three orders of schools were instituted. Primary, cen- 
tral, and special. In every canton (a small district of country of defined limits) 
of the republic, one or more primary schools were to be established, over which 
a jury or committee of instruction, limited to certain number of members, had 
jurisdiction ; the teachers were examined by this jury, and were appointed by 
the municipal authorities. In these schools were taught reading, writing, arith- 
metic, and the first principles of republican morals. 

A central school was established in every department, and was divided into 
three grades or classes ; in the first were taught drawing, natural history, and 
ancient and modern languages ; in the second, the principles of mathematics, 
natural philosophy, and practical chemistry ; in the third, general grammar and 
the fine arts, history, and legislation. Students of the first class must have 
attained the age of twelve years; of the second, the age of fourteen ; and of 
the third, sixteen. Every central school was to have a library, a botanical gar- 
den, a collection of natural curiosities, and also of chemical and philosophical 

In the special schools were to be taught, astronomy, geometry and mathe- 
matics, natural history, medicine, the veterinary art, economy, antiquities, polit- 
ical science, painting, sculpture, architecture, and music. 

The preceding contains a brief outline of the plan of public instruction 
adopted by the national convention, which, however, was never carried fully 
into execution, and which, in 1802, was superseded by a new system of organi- 
zation of still shorter duration. 

The authors of this new system were Fourcroy, Roederer, and Regnaud. 
This new system was submitted to the National Assembly on the 20th of April, 
3802, and was, after much discussion, adopted. The principal features of this 
system — which has been on the one hand greatly overrated, and, on the other, 
too much depreciated — were these : It was divided into primary schools, sec- 
ondary schools, lyceums,* and special schools. 

The primary schools were situated in the parishes (communes) under the 
jurisdiction of the municipal authorities, and their number was in proportion to 
the population. The master had a dwelling-house free of rent, and his salary 
consisted of the fees paid by the parents of the scholars. The municipal author- 
ities might, admit pupils gratis, in the case of parents who were in extreme indi- 
gence. But the number of these gratuitous admissions could not exceed one- 
fifth part of the entire number of scholars. 

In the secondary schools were taught the Latin and French languages, the 
first elements of geography, history, and mathematics ; and any school, though 
under the management of a private person, in which the same branches were 
taught, was considered as belonging to this class. No school, however, could 
be established without the permission of the government. The secondary 
schools were placed under the jurisdiction of the prefect of the department, 
arrondissement, &c. 

In the third order of schools, or lyceums, were taught the ancient languages, 
rhetoric, logic, and morals, also the principles of mathematical and physical 
science. Each district which had a tribunal of appeal, had at least one lyceum, 
which could not have less than eight professors. The students of the lyceums 
consisted of young men, placed there by the government; of scholars from the 
secondary schools who had undergone full examinations ; of boarders, who paid 
their own expenses ; and, lastly, of such as did not reside in the lyceums, but 
merely attended the lectures, and paid accordingly. Each lyceum had a pro- 
visor (proviseur), a superintendent of studies [censeur d'etudes), and an officer 
to take charge of the affairs of the school (un procureur gerant Its affairs de 
Vecole). They were nominated by the first consul, and formed the administra- 
tive council of the school. In every town containing a lyceum, there was estab- 
lished an office of administration (bureau d' administration), the members of which 
were the prefect of the department, the president of the tribunal of appeal, the 

* I have preferred to employ lyceums, as the plural of lyceum, instead of lycea, because of its being mora 
in use. 


government commissary at the criminal court, the mayor and the provisor. 
This council met at least four times a year, but oftener when the provisor 
thought it necessary. The first consul named three superintendents, to make a 
yearly visit to all the lyceums of the. republic, for the purpose of inquiring into 
the manner in which they were conducted. It was necessary that the office- 
bearers of the lyceums should be married, or have been married ; and no female 
was permitted to reside within the circle of the students' residences. 

When a vacancy occurred among the professors, the three superior govern- 
ment inspectors proposed one candidate, and the council of the administration 
another, and from these two persons the first consul was to appoint one. The 
three great office-bearers of the lyceums might be transferred, like the profes- 
sors, from one lyceum to a higher one. This, however, could not be done with- 
out the approbation of the first consul. 

The special schools were the schools in which the highest branches of litera- 
ture were taught, and in which the student completed his education. They 
were placed, by law, under the jurisdiction of the minister of the interior. 
When a vacancy occurred among the professors, the first consul made choice 
out of three candidates proposed, by a class of the institute, by the upper 
inspectors of studies, and by the professors of the special school in which the 
vacancy occurred. The previously existing special schools were allowed to 
remain, and several new ones were formed ; and one or more of these schools 
were attached to each lyceum, and governed by its council of administration. 

In each fortress of the republic there was also established a special military 
school for five hundred eleves (pupils), who were under military law. Two 
hundred of these eleves were chosen from among the national eleves in the 
lyceums, and the remainder from the other schools. They were admitted after 
a proper examination. These military special schools were under the jurisdic- 
tion of the minister of war, who likewise had the appointment of the professors. 

The republic maintained, at its own expense, six thousand four hundred 
eleves in the lyceums and special schools. Of that number two thousand four 
hundred were children of parents who had served in the army, magistracy, 
or other government employments. It was necessary that they should have 
attained the age of nine years, and be able to read and write. The other 
four thousand were chosen from the secondary schools, after a proper exam- 
ination ; each department presenting a certain number in proportion to its 
relative population. 

These eleves could not remain longer than six years in the lyceums at the 
public charge. After completing their studies, they underwent an examination, 
and one-fifth part of the number were sent to the special schools, where they 
might be further maintained for two or three years, at the public expense. 
The government retained the right of disposing of the eleves according to cir^ 
cumstances. The annual maintenance of each student amounted to 700 francs 
($13125), and the board paid by parents, whose children Avere not at the 
national charge, could not exceed this sum. The out-students, as they may be 
called, who merely attended the classes, paid a certain fee fixed by the council 
of administration. 

All the buildings belonging to the lyceums were kept up at the public 
expense, and a sinking fund was formed from a part, not exceeding the twen- 
tieth, of the incomes of the professors and administrators, to be applied to the 
purpose of granting pensions to those ■ professors who had served twenty years, 
or who, from particular circumstances, were rendered unable to discharge their 
duties as teachers. 

Such is a brief sketch of the plan, adopted by the National Assembly in 1802, 
regulating the course of instruction throughout France. This plan differs from 
the preceding one mainly in substituting the lyceums in places of the central 
schools. The central schools were to have been one hundred in number, but 
not a third part of that number were ever established. The lyceums were 
thirty in number.. 

The most obvious defect of this system is, that it favored the rich rather than 
the poor citizens of the republic. It erected six thousand four hundred gov- 
ernment-places for eleves who had passed through certain studies and made 


the requisite proficiency. But this system left the primary and secondary 
schools to the people themselves to support. Of course it was only the children 
of those parents who were able to bear the expense of educating their children 
in those schools who could have any chance to become the eleves of the gov- 
ernment. It is manifest that a great mistake was committed by the govern- 
ment in bestowing so much attention upon the lyceums and special schools, to 
the neglect of the primary and secondary, which were often suffered to fall 
through in poor villages and districts of the country. 

The medical schools at Paris, Montpellier, and Strasbourg, were much 
improved, in various respects, and the medical science was advanced by the 
measures embraced in this new system, which, however, was soon destined to 
give way to another. This bring-s me to the third part of this article. 

III. The system or Education established under the Empire, after- 

the Revolution of July, 1830. 

As nothing which was ancient or appertained to the days of royalty could 
suit the republic, so nothing which was republican could suit the empire. 
Napoleon, who desired to have every thing on a most magnificent scale, must 
needs introduce a system of education corresponding with the grandeur of his 
plans relating to every other subject. Accordingly, in May, 1806, a proposal 
was made and a law enacted to create the Imperial University. This law, how- 
ever, did not go into operation until the 17th of March, 1808. This law has 
been the basis of all that has been done since that epoch to promote education 
in France. And the Imperial University, having been changed merely in name, 
was the Royal University during the restoration — that is, the reigns of Louis 
XVIII. and Charles X. — and is now under the new dynasty of the revolution of 
July, 1830, called simply the University of France. It will be more proper, 
then, to describe it as it is now, indicating, in passing, the changes and improve- 
ments which have been made in it since its original institution under the 
auspices and by the authority of Buonaparte. 

And here it is proper to observe that the reader ought, at the outset, to have 
a clear conception of the meaning of the title here employed. An English or 
American reader is in the habit of attaching to the word university, the idea of 
a local institution, embracing one or more colleges established in one place 
and under the same government and laws. But the title Imperial University, or 
University of France, which is now its name, denotes rather a system, and 
includes every species of institution for education, from the lowest schools up 
to the royal colleges. In a word, it is the ensemble of the institutions for impart- 
ing education in France. And as the University of France comprises the whole 
of its institutions of this kind spread over the whole surface of the kingdom, so 
the twenty-six academies, which are included in the University, embrace subdi- 
visions' of the kingdom, each academy including two, or three, or more of the 
eighty-six departments into which France is at present divided. 

The University of France is primarily under the government of a board or 
council of instruction, composed of six counsellors who constitute what is called 
the Royal Council of Public Instruction. The minister or secretary of state for 
public instruction is, ex officio, president of this council, and grand master of the 
University. This council is, at present, composed of the following named 

The minister (M. Petet de Lozere) president, in place of M. Guizot, who went out of 
office when the late ministry resigned. 

M. Villemain, Vice President, Peer of France, Councillor of State, Member of the 
French Academy, &c. 

M. Rendu, 

Baron Poisson, Member of the Academy of Sciences. 

M. Cousin, Peer of France, Councillor of State, and Member of the French Academy 
of Moral and Political Sciences. 

Baron Thenard, Peer of France, and Member of the Academy of Sciences. 

M. Orfila, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. 

The council meets regularly at intervals to take into consideration the affairs 

VOL. IX. 4 


of the University, and without their sanction almost nothing can be done in the 
business of instruction. Their powers are very great in regard to the schools 
connected Avith the University. 

The affairs of the University come under two great sections, each having a 
president, and are subdivided into several sub-sections. One of these sections 
embraces all that relates to the appointment of professors and teachers, disci- 
pline, &c, and has four bureaux, oi\departments, for the four different principal 
objects. The other embraces all that relates to the administration of the vari- 
ous institutions of learning, and includes the. salaries of the teachers, expenses 
for buildings, &c. &c. This section has three bureaux or departments. Each 
bureau has its proper number of clerks, &c. They are of course at Paris, 
where the royal council of public instruction resides and holds its meetings. 

The duties of the royal council of public instruction have a very wide range, 
taking all appointments, promotions, and other changes in any of the public 
establishments for education. It examines and approves of the books which 
are to be used in those establishments, and makes a regular annual report to 
the government on the condition and progress of public instruction throughout 
the kingdom. 

This council is assisted by a board of inspectors-general, who are charged 
with all that concerns the internal economy and regulations of the academies. 
Their duties consist in visiting them regularly, and seeing that they are prop- 
erly administered. They have immense power in their hands. Their inquiries 
extend not only to the colleges, but even to the primary schools. They visit 
annually all the important literary establishments of the country, and have every 
power necessary to enable them to make a thorough investigation respecting 
the studies and conduct of the students, the manner in which the professors, 
teachers, and administrators do their duty, the state of the buildings, &c. &c. 
and they make full reports to the royal council. In discharging their duties of 
visitation, they divide the institutions among; themselves, so that two look after 
the faculties of theology, two after those of law, two after those of medicine ; 
whilst some investigate the affairs of the royal colleges, others those of com- 
munal colleges, &c. &c. The following named gentlemen are at present the 

M. Budan de Boislaurent, 
M. Rouselle, 

M. Ampere, Member of the Academy of Sciences, 
M. Dinet, 

M. Blanquet du Chayla, 
M. Poullet de Lisle, 
]\I. Burnouf, 

M. Cuvier, (Frederick) Member of the Academy of Sciences, 

M. Naudet, Member of the Academics of Inscriptions and Bclles-Lettrcs, and of Moral 
and Political Sciences, 
M. Dubois, 
M. Matter, 
M. Dutrey. 

I will only add, here, in relation to the royal council of public instruction, 
that they have the management of the library of the University of France, which 
is placed in the buildings of the Sorbonne. 

Every academy is governed by a rector, chosen from among the office- 
bearers of the University."* The term of his office is live years, but he may be 
re-elected. Every rector has a council of two inspectors, whose duties consist 
in visiting the colleges and other establishments of education within the bounds 
of that academy. They perform, on a limited scale, the same offices as the 
inspectors-general of the University on a great scale. The academic council 
of the rector is bound to look after all the establishments of education in the 

* What are called tbi ijv'ersity are, 1. The president and councillors of pnMic 

instruction. 2. The in neralofthol niversity. 3. Rectors of academies. 4. Insprclors of par- 

ticular academii . 5. I; ane or facultie . 6. Provisors and censors of royal colleges. 7. Principals 'of 
communal colleges, and directoi i f normal chools. 9. Heads of private institutions and master of board- 
ing-schoi those an for administration. The office-bea i rt aching are, I. Professors of 

faculties. 2. Almoners of royal colleges. 3. Professors and nr!j • p; yes) professors of ditto. 4. Al- 

moners aod regents of communal colleges. 5. Masters if study (maitrcs deludes.) 


departments embraced within the circle of the academy to which they belong. 
This council receives an annual report from the inspectors of the academy, and 
every quarter it sends up a report to the royal council. The academic council 
has great power over the various institutions of education which are subject to 
their supervision. 

Having given the preceding general views respecting the structure of the 
University of France, and of the academies which compose it, [ now proceed to 
give some account of the instruction which is given in the various establish- 
ments as well as these establishments themselves, included in the University 
of France. In doing this I shall commence with the lowest institutions in the 
scale, and thence ascend in regular order. 

1. Schools for Primary Instruction. France is divided, according to law, and 
for municipal and other purposes, into 86 departments, 363 arrondissements, 
2,835 cantons, and 37,187 communes. The communes being the smallest 
divisions of the country, are very convenient for the purpose of establishing a 
system of schools. 

It is only since the revolution of 1830 that any well-matured and extensive 
plan has been adopted by the government to promote what is properly called 
primary instruction. Almost every previous effort was directed to institutions 
for the higher branches of education. This was a capital fault, and one whose 
consequences are deeply felt at this day. But with the late revolution, men 
came into power who had better views of this subject, and who entered, as 
soon as tranquillity was re-established, into the devising and executing of pin ns 
to furnish, if possible, the means of primary instruction to all classes of the 
community. Among these distinguished benefactors must be ranked the present 
enlightened sovereign of the country, who has taken the most lively interest in 
this subject. But it is to Mr. Guizot, the late minister of state for public 
instruction, that the nation is emphatically indebted for the excellent system 
of public schools for primary instruction which is now so well established. 
This distinguished scholar and Protestant was, for many years, a lecturer on 
various portions of history in the Sorbonne. He has written and published 
several historical works. At an early period of his life he translated Gibbon's 
History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; a work which was 
achieved in the most satisfactory manner. The revolution of 1830 brought 
Mr. Guizot into a more public station, and he has been, much of the time since 
that event, minister of state for public instruction. And when, owing to those 
numerous and unnecessary changes of the ministry which occur in France 
perhaps more than in any other country possessing a free government, he has 
been out of office, it is well known that he has exerted privately a controlling 
influence over the department for which he is so eminently qualified. 

With all his efforts, however, to advance this good cause, it was not until 
June 28th, 1833, that Mr. Guizot succeeded in obtaining the passage of the law 
which has laid the foundation and erected the superstructure, through his ever- 
watchful guidance, of an excellent system of primary instruction. I will 
endeavor to give the outlines of this system in as few words as possible. 

By the law to which I have just referred, every commune in the kingdom is 
required to have a school for primary instruction, or in case of inability, small- 
ness of population, or any other cause, to unite for that purpose with some 
adjoining one. Of course it was contemplated that the more populous com- 
munes would have more than one school, inasmuch as it was believed that 
there should certainly be one for every neighborhood which embraced a popu- 
lation of two or three thousand souls. 

The teacher, according to this law, is to be provided with lodgings for him- 
self and his family, or to receive in money what is equivalent; he must receive 
at least 200 francs from the public, this is called his traitement ; and the income 
derived from the monthly payment of the scholars for tuition, or rather the pay- 
ment of such as are required to pay. The municipal council of each commune, 
who are required to furnish the house or lodgings for the teacher and his 
" traitement," are required to fix the monthly tuition-fee and collect it. They 
have also the power to decide what poor children of the commune shall be 
taught gratuitously. 


In order to furnish the teacher's house and his traitement (the minimum of 
which is 200 francs or $37 50 of American money), the commune is required to 
levy a tax for this special purpose, unless their ordinary revenues are sufficient. 
If they refuse or neglect to levy this tax, it may he levied upon them by the 
general government. If any communes cannot raise the money owing to 
poverty, the department to which it belongs is required to raise it for them, and, 
in extreme cases, the general government assists, but only to make up the 200 
francs or minimum of the traitement. 

The law also provides that there shall be a school for primary instruction of a 
higher order (l'ecole de primaire instruction suptrieure) in each commune 
embracing a large town, and indeed in every commune whose population 
exceeds six thousand souls. These superior schools are supported in the same 
way as those just named, — by the commune, aided, when necessary, by the 
department and the state. 

In every department a committee of seven men is appointed by the minister 
of public instruction, who hold their office for three years and who may be 
re-appointed, whose office it is to examine all persons who desire to become 
teachers. Three of this committee must be gentlemen connected with the 
University of France — that is, as president, professors, or teachers, in some 
college or institution within the department in which they live. The candi- 
dates for giving instruction in the first named schools of primary instruction are 
required to be examined on moral and religious knowledge, including the cate- 
chism of the denomination to which he belongs, and the Old and New Testa- 
ment ; reading; writing; methods of teaching reading and writing; elements 
of the French language; elements of arithmetic ; and the system, established 
by law, of weights and measures. The candidates for the office of teachers, in 
the higher primary schools (les ecc.les d'instruction primaire supereure) are 
required to undergo an examination in the same studies, and also in addition, 
in the more advanced rules of arithmetic ; in geometry ; mensuration ; survey- 
ing; elements of natural philosophy and natural history ; geography and history 
in general, and those of France in particular; the globes ; music, particularly 
singing; and methods of giving instruction. 

Each applicant, who is found worthy, receives a certificate (brevet) of capacity 
from this committee, which is valid for three years, and must then be renewed 
if the possessor continues to teach. Candidates for places as teachers must 
also have a certificate testifying to their good moral character. This brevet is 
to be given by the municipal authorities of the commune, or communes, in 
which he has lived during the last preceding three years. 

The appointment of teachers is vested in a committee, appointed by the min- 
ister of public instruction in each arrondissement. But when the appointment is 
made, that committee must give proper notice of the fact to the rector of the 
academy within the bounds of which the arrondissement is situated, and also to 
the minister of public instruction who sends down to the teacher what is called 
his institution, or investiture with the office of instructor, which is in other 
words, a diploma or certificate that he has a right to teach. 

There is in every academy, as I have already stated, a board of inspectors, 
whose duty it is to visit, annually all the institutions of learning — colleges, pen- 
sions, primary schools, &c, within the bounds of that academy, and report to 
the minister of public instruction. 

There is nothing to prevent the establishment of private schools for primary 
instruction. Indeed tiiere is a very large number of such schools. They are 
of course supported by the voluntary contributions of the parents or are main- 
tained by societies. All private schools are, however, subject to the same 
supervision as the public schools. The teachers must be examined and 
approved, and they must have a diploma or certificate from the minister of 
public instruction, investing them with the authority of office. But there is no 
difficulty in obtaining this. And indeed none of those obstacles which existed 
during the restoration now remain. The profession is open to men of all reli- 
gions croeds, provided they are found to possess the qualifications which the 
laws prescribe. 

Besides the inspectors of the academies whose duty requires them to visit 
all the schools at least annually, there is a committee appointed in each com- 


mune or arrondissement whoso duty it is to visit tho schools within their district 
or charge very frequently, and examine into the manner of conducting" them, 
the instruction given, &,c. The cure or parish Catholic priest, and any other 
minister of the religion of the denominations recognized by law, if there be such 
a minister within the said district, are members of this committee?. The com- 
mittees of the departments appointed to examine and license teachers arc 
organized in the same way. This arrangement secures a degree of religious 
influence, without which the religious community would not be satisfied. 

As the Catholic religion is the religion of the overwhelming mass of the 
people, the religious instruction of the schools generally partakes very much of 
that character. It is true, however, that Mr. Guizot has labored hard to have the 
religious instruction as free from sectarianism as possible. To some extent he 
has been successful. In some parts of the kingdom where the Protestant popu- 
lation is equal, or nearly so, to the Catholic, or where there are still bitter 
animosities existing between the two sects, each is allowed to have its own 
schools taught by its own teachers, and yet maintained at the public expense 
as much as any of the other schools. Upon this plan the Jews have their own 
schools in several of the large cities. Of course any church or benevolent 
society, or number of individuals, may have a school at their own expense, and 
conducted in such a manner as may suit them, except that the teacher must 
have the requisite brevets of capacity, morals, and authority to teach. 

The law of June 28, 1833, also contemplates the establishment of asyles, or 
infant schools, a considerable number of which have been established ; and 
schools for adults, of which there are a few and their number is increasing. It 
also includes the normal schools for primary instruction, of which I shall speak 
more fully hereafter. 

Such is a brief outline of the system of primary instruction as established in 
France by a law passed on the 28th of June, 1833. The information here given 
has been derived from a quarto volume, of nearly 500 pages, prepared by Mr. 
Guizot, and which, besides containing a report to the king of seventy pages, 
made on the 15th of April, 1834, also embraces eighty-one documents, some of 
which are of great length, being copies of all the circulars addressed by him to 
the prefects of the departments, mayors of the communes, rectors of the acade- 
mies, teachers of schools, &c. &c. This volume is an enduring monument of 
praise to the talents, the zeal, the perseverance, and the wisdom of its author. 
It is wonderful how much he accomplished within less than ten months. The 
law was passed, as I have said, on the 28th of June, 1833, and by the J 5th of 
the succeeding April, the whole system may be said to have been established. 
It is almost incredible that one mind should have been able to direct so various 
and general a movement, lay down so many and efficient plans, anticipate and 
overcome so many obstacles. And before I pass from this subject it may be 
interesting to present a few facts which are brought to light in the report which 
Mr. Guizot made to the king on this occasion. 

One of these facts is that immense as are the difficulties which lie in the way 
of establishing a thorough system of primary instruction in a country densely 
settled, where prejudices had the growth of centuries, and so much was to be 
done as was the case in France, they were boldly grasped by a giant's hand 
and made at once to yield. The energy with which the government went to 
work is apparent from this one circumstance, which I select out of many. — It 
was essential that the state of education in France should be accurately and 
thoroughly known when this new system was about going into operation. In 
order to accomplish this. Mr. Guizot, by a circular letter, called into this service 
four hundred and ninety men, who were mostly professors in colleges and lite- 
rary men. The enterprise commenced in September and lasted until -Decem- 
ber (1833), and employed 10,278 days, and cost 134,517 francs and 75 centimes, 
which make $25,221 93|. This large amount of money was cheerfully and 
wisely laid out for the purpose of acquiring important information. 

The second thing worthy of notice is, the striking facts which this wide- 
spread investigation brought to light. I can only give a summary of them. It 
is as follows : — There were in that year (1833) 26,180 communes and unions of 
communes which had schools for boys (the inquiry related only to schools for 


boys) ; the whole number of such schools was 33,695, of which 22,641 were 
public schools, and 11,054 were private; the whole number of scholars who 
attended these schools, that year, was 1,654,828, of whom 1,277,664 were pay- 
scholars, and 377,164 received their instruction gratuitously ; the average allow- 
ance for the traitement of the 18,113 teachers who received such a subsidy was 
24] francs, 88 centimes ; the average of the monthly-fee or subscription was 
one franc and eighteen centimes (about twenty-two cents of American money). 
The number of schools well supplied with books, &c. was 19,192, and the num- 
ber of those which were badly supplied was 14,503; the number of good schools 
was 15,601, of moderately good 14,355, and of badly conducted 3,739. It also 
appeared that at least 746,350 boys between the ages of five and twelve years 
were not at school that year. Indeed the number was probably quite 800,000. 
These are some of the results which were ascertained by that investigation. 

Another very interesting topic in Mr. Guizot's report, made on the 15th of 
April, 1834, is the estimate which he made of the expense which would be 
encountered for the public schools of primary instruction during that year. 
This estimate was founded on the documentary evidence which he had obtained 
from the departments and communes. It is as follows : The number of schools 
for primary instruction 28,800 ; the number of schools for primary instruction 
superior, 283; expense of hiring school-room, 1,428,096 francs; salaries of 
teachers (only their traitement) 9,1 60,470 francs, of which sum the communes were 
to furnish 130,496 francs from their permanent funds, such as those derived 
from legacies and endowments, 4,509,365 francs from their ordinary revenues, 
and 2,71 J, 078 francs from special taxes; while the departments were to fur- 
nish 1,232,675 francs, and the state or general government 576,854 francs. 
This estimate does not include the sums to be paid by the parents in the shape 
of the monthly tuition-fee, nor does it embrace the expenses of the normal 
schools. It will be observed that this estimate refers only to the public schools 
for primary instruction, and does not comprehend the private schools. 

Another interesting subject which is brought to light in the report of Mr. 
Guizot, above-mentioned, is that relating to the books in circulation in France, 
which are designed for primary schools. On the 12th of August, 1831, the 
government appointed a commission to examine all the books designed for 
primary instruction, which were to be found in France, whether in the French 
language or any other which is used within the kingdom. This commission 
commenced its session on the 1st of September of that year, and from that 
epoch down to the 1st of March, 1834, it examined in all 1,117 'different works 
embracing 1,332 volumes. These 1,117 works treat of twenty-eight subjects. 
As many as 83 related to the art of reading, 23 to writing, 157 to French gram- 
mar, 334 to moral and historical subjects, 109 to general history, 63 to the his- 
tory of France, 2 to. music, 66 to arithmetic, 9 to astronomy, 3 to hygean coun- 
sels, and the others to various subjects, such as statistics, geography, biogra- 
phy, travels, geometry, surveying, &c. &c. These books the committee were 
directed to arrange in classes according to their merits. This they have done 
as follows : classical books, 5 ; excellent books, 11; good books, 135 ; defec- 
tive books, 99; books which need modifying,. 167 ; books not lit for use, 562; 
dangerous books, 29; books not decided upon (either because of their publica- 
tion not being completed, or a new and improved edition being announced), 34; 
and books which do not belong to elementary instruction though they bear that 
title, 75. Of the 151 works which are embraced in the first three classes, and 
which alone are fit, in opinion of the committee, to be used in the schools of 
primary instruction, 1 I are on the art of teaching, 5 on the methods of reading, 
2 on the proper modes of writing, 10 on arithmetic, 2 on linear drawing, 1 on 
geometry, 3 on surveying, 18 on French grammar, 2 dictionaries, 8 on geogra- 
phy, 2 on cosmography, 2 on astronomy, 20 on history, 3 on biography, 18 on 
moral subjects, 25 on moral histories, fables, &c, 2 of travels, 1 on natural his- 
tory, 1 on mineralogy, 1 on physical science, I on chemistry, 2 on music, I on 
the principles of law, 3 on elements of agriculture, 1 on political economy, 2 oh 
commerce, arts, trades, &,c, 2 almanacs, and 2 on hygean counsels. 

A fifth fact of great interest, which may be mentioned as contained in Mr. 
Guizot's report, is the solicitude which he has manifested to have right books 


introduced into the schools for primary instruction. As soon as possible after 
the passage of the law of June 28, 1833, he caused five school books to be pre- 
pared ; the first is entitled, "The- Book of Moral and Religious Instruction;" 
the second was, "Alphabet and First Book of Reading;" the third was, "A 
Manual of Arithmetic;" the fourth, "A Manual of Grammar and Orthogra- 
phy ;" and the fifth, "A Manual of History and Geography." The pains which 
Mr. Guizot has taken to introduce religious instruction, founded on the Sacred 
Scriptures, is worthy of all praise, and manifests his just views of what educa- 
tion ought to be. Among the items for which he made appropriations out of 
the 1,500,000 francs which the Chambers granted to his department for 18.34, 
are to be found 20,000 copies of the New Testament, and '20,000 copies of the 
"Book of Religious and Moral Instruction," mentioned above, and which were 
given to poor children. Within a few years he has succeeded in introducing 
the Scriptures into very many of the schools for primary instruction which are 
under the control of government, a fact which I have learned from him per- 
sonally in conversation, as well as from the report to which I have so often 

A sixth fact of importance which this report reveals, is the astonishing small- 
ness of the number of school-houses, or school-rooms, owned by the communes. 
It appears that the greater part (21,089 out of 37,187) of the communes, in 1833, 
were in the habit of hiring rooms or places in which their primary schools were 
held. Mr. Guizot properly considers this fact as a great evil. It also shows 
conclusively how greatly the subject of primary schools had been neglected in 
France. For had it been otherwise, the communes would not have been desti- 
tute of school-houses, owned by themselves, and centres of deep interest, with 
which, as with the parish churches, the best feelings of the people would have 
been most closely united. To remedy this evil Mr. Guizot proposes that an 
effort should be made to build or buy houses, so that every commune and every 
school district should have one. To do this would cost 72,679,908 francs, or 
more than $14,000,000. Enormous as this sum is, he shows that the communes, 
aided by the government, could raise it in the course of some twelve or fifteen 
years, and thus accomplish an object of the first importance. It is proper to 
remark, that in a country of such a dense population as France possesses, it is 
not so easy a matter for each commune or school district to own a school- 
house. Still it is indispensable to the prosperity of the cause of education. 

I will mention but one more fact of great interest which is mentioned in that 
report and the accompanying documents, and which is, the most laudable effort 
which Mr. Guizot has made to induce the teachers of schools to deposite in 
savings-banks a twentieth or some other part of their salaries, to supply the 
wants of old age. Much difficulty was indeed found in getting the savings- 
banks, which are now numerous in France, to come into the precise arrange- 
ment which he wished to make on this subject. But the plan is a noble one, 
and will accomplish incalculable good. Mr. Guizot has also done much in 
every possible way to elevate the character and profession of teachers through- 
out the kingdom, and one of the most efficient ways of doing this he has. found 
to be that of seeking out and rewarding in a special manner those whom he has 
found to be most capable and deserving. 

Having now given as full an account of the system of schools for primary 
instruction in France, established since the late revolution, as the limits of this 
article allow, I pass on to the next subject in orJer. 

2. Normal Is for Primary Instruction. Normal schools, or schools to 

prepare teachers for the schools lor primary instruction, may be considered as 
an appendage oft!:"; present system ofedueation in France from its commence- 
ment in 1808. The law directing- the iment of such institutions was 
ordained that year. But little was done, however, to advance this part of the 
system, as is evident from the fact that i:i 1828, that is after the lapse of twenty 
years, there were, only three normal schools in the whole kingdom. But after 
the revolution of 1830, this part of the system as well as every other sooir felt 
the powerful hand of Mr. Guizot. In 1.832, the number of these institutions 
had increased to forty-seven, and in April, 1834, as I learn from Mr. Guizot*s 


report to the king, there were sixty-two * and measures were adopting to estab- 
lish fifteen more. 

According to the law of June 28, 1833, each department is required to estab- 
lish and maintain a normal school, or in certain circumstances, to unite with 
others in doing so. In conformity with this provision of the law, as many as 
seventy-three of the departments had either established said schools separately, 
or had done so by a union of two in some cases. And the prospect was good 
that soon the remaining thirteen departments would fully comply with the law. 

These normal schools are maintained chiefly at the expense of the depart- 
ments, the state rendering some aid when necessary. Those of the students 
who are able to do it pay for their board and other expenses connected with it, 
such as fuel, &c. &c. The tuition is free, the salaries of the professors being 
paid out of the funds provided by the departments. The greater portion of the 
students, however, are supported by scholarships (les bourses, as the French 
call these foundations) which have been founded, or rather maintained, by the 
departments, the communes, or the state. In 1834, the number of students in 
the above-mentioned sixty-two normal schools was 1,944, of whom 1,542 were 
deves internes, that is, boarders in the buildings of these schools, and 402 were 
eleves externes, or students who boarded out among the families of the villages 
or cities in which the schools are situated. And of these 1,944 students, 1,308 
were boursiers dcs departements, that is, beneficiaries, as we term them, of the 
departments, and supported at their expense ; 245 were boursiers de Velat or 
general government ; 118 were boursiers des communes, and 273 bore their own 

The course of studies in these normal schools contemplates a curriculum of 
two years, and this is the period which almost all of the students spend in these 
institutions. A chaplain is attached to each to impart religious instruction. 
This officer is usually some cure or other minister of the gospel who resides in 
the neighborhood, and who receives a salary for his labors. To a great extent 
the Catholic and Protestant students are assorted, as it were, that is, in some of 
the normal schools all the students, or almost all, are Protestants, and in others 
they are Catholics. But in those schools where they are intermixed, a religious 
instructor, who is invariably a minister of the gospel, of each religious denomi- 
nation is employed to instruct the pupils of their respective persuasions. In 
no case, either in these normal schools or in the colleges under the control of 
the government, are the students of one denomination compelled to be present 
at the religious instructions of another. 

The total annual expense of supporting the normal schools which were 
established in 1834, including those which were about to go into operation, 
was estimated at 1,653,424-84 francs, of which the departments were to bear 
1,119,489-58 francs, and the state, the communes, and the students who were 
able to sustain their own expenses, were to bear the remainder. 

It was calculated that when the intentions of the law were fully carried into 
effect, there would be near eighty normal schools in the kingdom, and that they 
would furnish teachers enough to fill the vacancies created by death or other 
causes, or by the erection of new schools. In a country whose population is so 
dense, and where it is so difficult to change from one pursuit to another, those 
who become teachers of primary schools seldom abandon the profession. 

In many cases, what are called the schools of superior primary instruction 
are connected with the normal schools, and taught by the professors. A few 
model schools have been established, which are only another species of normal 
school, and need not he described particularly. In some cases, also, classes 
composed of those who are preparing to become teachers are attached to the 
colleges, royal or communal. 

Inasmuch as I have stated what are the branches of knowledge on which the 
teachers in the schools of primary instruction, both common and superior, are 
examined previously to receiving a brevet of capacity from the proper authori- 
ties, it is not necessary to state the studies of the normal schools, for they are 

* It will be seen in another part of this article that tho present number of normal schools is fifty-six, 
exclusive of the clarsus taught in soma of tho royal colleges. 


the same. I therefore pass on to give an account of the next school in the scale, 
as one ascends. 

3. Pensions and Institutions. Pensions and institutions belong to the same 
class of establishments for education. The only difference between them is, 
that in the institutions the studies are supposed to be by the law, and gen- 
erally they are in fact, more advanced than in the pensions. Both are what we 
should call private boarding-schools. Yet both may have, (and often this is so 
in fact,) in addition to the internes, as the French call them, (or boarders, as we 
should call them,) externes, that is, day-scholars who board with their parents or 
friends. In the pensions and institutions for boys, in addition to the highest 
branches of an education in the French, the youth may prosecute their studies 
preparatory for an entrance into college. In the pensions and institutions for 
girls, the young ladies of France acquire their instruction in the higher branches 
of knowledge appertaining to their education. 

In point of rank the directeurs des institutions (the principals of the institu- 
tions) precede the maitres des pensions (the masters of the pensions), and this is 
observed in all public processions. 

Although the pensions and institutions are private seminaries of learning, yet 
they form a part of the system of establishments of education which constitutes 
the University of France, and are regularly visited by the inspectors of the 
academies within the bounds of which they are situated. The teachers in each 
must have brevets of capacity and morality, as well as diplomas of authorization, 
granted, in the name of the king, by the minister of public instruction, and 
signed by him, and by one of the council of public instruction, and also by one 
of the inspectors-general of the University of France. The heads or teachers 
of the institutions pay, each, annually, the sum of 150 francs to the University, 
for license to have an institution, and the masters (maitres) of the pensions pay, 
each, for the same privilege, seventy-five francs annually. In addition to this, 
each institution and pension is required to pay one-twentieth part of its income, 
whether from the tuition of its pupils, or the board of such as live in these 
establishments, into the treasury of the University of France. These moneys 
constitute a portion of the fund which is annually devoted by the government 
to promote education, through every gradation from the schools of primary 
instruction up to the several faculties. The largest portion of that fund is, 
however, derived directly from the national treasury, by a special vote of the 
Chambers, and which is made upon the presentation of the budget of the min- 
ister of public instruction. 

The studies pursued in the pensions and institutions for boys are the same 
as are pursued in the communal and royal colleges. They consist of the 
French, Latin, Greek (and often the English, German, and Italian) languages, 
mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, geography, history, logic, moral 
science, &c. And according to the theory and law upon which the University 
of France is established, the pupils of these private establishments are required 
to follow the colleges, as it is called. That is, they are required to be taken daily 
to some college, either communal or royal, to recite their lessons to the 
professors, with the students who lodge, if any, in that college. Indeed, in 
that case, they are considered as being students of that college. Any one who 
has been in Paris, or in other large cities of France, must have often met compa- 
nies of boys and young men marching along the streets, with one or two older 
persons with them. They were the pupils of some pension or institution going 
to their college to recite their lessons. Ordinarily, they go twice a-day, and 
spend two hours, at each visit, at the college. Whilst in the pension or institu- 
tion, they prosecute their studies under the superintendence of the head or 
master, and are daily drilled by him in the lessons to be recited, or such as 
have been recited, at the college. 

It is obvious that this plan, if adhered to, requires but one or two teachers or 
heads to a large pension or institution. But though the theoi-y and the law are 
such as I have stated, yet strict compliance is not always required. This is 
more especially the case since the late revolution. Wher-e it is adhered to, the 
pupils have to pay a regular tuition-fee to the college which they frequent. It 

VOL. IX. 5 


often happens now, in cases where the pupils are not taken to any college, 
they prosecute regularly the same studies in the pension and the institution, 
with the exception of those of the last year or two. Indeed, sometimes they 
do not attend, at all, any college, and yet if found to be deserving, upon an 
examination by the professors of a college, they receive their certificate of let- 
ters, or science, or both, just as they are qualified. Those, even, who pursue 
their studies privately, that is, at home with private teachers, as is sometimes 
the case, may receive these certificates from a college in the same way, that is, 
by undergoing a proper and well-sustained examination. 

From this statement it must be manifest that a collegiate education, or what 
is equivalent thereto, together with the certification of its completeness, may 
be obtained in France upon terms as liberal as it is possible to conceive of. 
Any man who can make it appear to the professors of a college, upon an exam- 
ination, that he has prosecuted successfully all the branches of knowledge 
included in the college circle, may receive the appropriate degree, and rank as 
a graduated member of that college. And it might not be amiss to ask why it 
should not be so every where ? 

Theoretically speaking, the students of pensions are required to continue in 
those seminaries until they are prepared to enter what is called the troisieme 
or quatrieme (third or fourth) class in the colleges. After that they are required 
to enter an institution, if they prefer continuing in a private seminary to enter- 
ing a college. But in point of fact this rule has not been very strictly observed, 
during the last several years. And it is not uncommon for students to remain 
in a pension and pursue all the studies of the college curriculum without going 
at all into an institution, employing that word in the sense in which it is used 
in the arrangement of the University of France. 

4. Colleges. The colleges of France are of two sorts, communal and royal. 
The former are numerous, exceeding three hundred, as the reader will find in 
another place, and are supported principally by the communes in which they 
are respectively situated. It is for this reason that they are called communal. 
They are to be found in almost every important city, town, and borough of the 
kingdom. The latter are much fewer in number, being only between forty and 
fifty, and are supported chiefly at the expense of the government. Every 
academy has at least one within its bounds, as will hereafter more fully be 
shown. They are established only in the most important cities and towns of 
the kingdom. 

Some of the communal colleges have endowments which yield them some 
revenue ; but generally they depend for their support upon the tuition-fees, 
graduation-fees, &c. of the students. As a general fact it may be stated that 
the professors and other officers of these colleges receive very small salaries, 
varying from 1,000 francs to 3,000 and sometimes more. The professors often 
devote a portion of their unoccupied time to teaching private scholars, to giv- 
ing instruction in schools, or to some other literary employment. It ought to 
be said, however, that the communal colleges are almost always situated in the 
smaller cities, and in the towns and villages where the expenses of living are 
exceedingly low. 

The royal colleges derive almost their whole support from the government. 
Their professors' salaries are paid from the budget of the minister of public 
instruction. And there is provision made for the maintenance of many students 
at the public expense. There are, however, many students in the royal 
colleges who bear their own expenses. Not only does the general government 
have scholarships (bourses) in the royal colleges, but also the departments are 
allowed to make the same kind of provision for the maintenance of poor young 
men of distinguished talents. The same thing is done to some extent by the 
communes for the support of young men of promise in the communal colleges. 

The salaries of the professors in the royal colleges are generally very mod- 
erate, seldom exceeding 3,000 or 4,000 francs, and in many cases are not more 
than 2,000 or 2,500 francs. In some cases they are even as low as 1,200 or 
1,500. The salaries, in some cases, depend much upon the nature of the pro- 
fessorship. Of course much depends also on the situation of the college. The 


salaries of the professors in the royal colleges in Paris and Versailles and other 
large cities where the expense of living is great, are much higher than in the 
colleges situated in cities where that expense is less. It may be stated as a 
general remark, that the salaries of the professors in the royal and communal 
colleges, are much smaller than are the salaries of professors in colleges in 
England and the United States. This is owing both to greater cheapness of 
living in most places in France remote from the large cities, and even in them 
if remote from the capital, and to the facilities which exist for obtaining consid- 
erable incomes from other literary sources. Besides this, there is another 
reason why the salaries of professors may be smaller, comparatively in France 
than in England or the United States, which is, that in France provision is 
made by which a considerable pension is granted to aged professors, or those 
who were formerly professors, provided they devoted at least twenty years of 
their lives to that employment. This pension, to aged and infirm men, is a 
source of great support and comfort. 

The following is an outline of the studies which are pursued and their order 
in both the communal and royal colleges. The pupils are required to be eight 
years of age when they enter, to be able to read and write, acquainted with the 
elements of arithmetic, and must bring certificates of having been vaccinated, 
from an authorized physician, and of good conduct from their former teachers. 

The first two years are devoted to preliminary studies which comprehend 
sacred history, French and Latin grammar, geography, arithmetic, and writing. 
This course is introductory to the more appropriate studies of the college, 
which comprise Latin, Greek, and French literature, geography, ancient and 
modern history, mythology, Roman and Greek antiquities, and the elements of 
the natural sciences. For the prosecution of these studies the course is divided 
into six classes ordinarily, (in a few cases eight,) each of which is considered 
as requiring a year for its period. To each class is appointed one professor. 
In the royal colleges of Paris there are two professors for the first class,* that 
of rhetoric, which is, however, the last in the course as it regards time. The 
classes are named numerically, first,* second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth; — in 
French, seconde, troisi&me, quatrieme, &c. In the order of their time these 
classes are taken in a reverse manner, the sixth coming first, and the first or 
class of rhetoric comes last, and concludes the course of what is called letters. 

The following is a summary view of the studies of each class in the order of 
their prosecution. ^ f^An«]P4 

The Sixth Class (1st year). 

Lessons from the Selectee e profanis, or de Viris illustrious urbis Roma ; 
the fables of Phsedrus compared with those of La Fontaine ; ancient and mod- 
ern geography compared ; mythology, with themes on the same ; writing and 

The Fifth Class (2d year). 

Extracts from Justin and Cornelius JSTepos, Cicero's Familiar Letters, Ele- 
ments of the Greek language, and iEsop's Fables, Greek and Roman antiqui- 
ties, and themes on the same subjects. 

The Fourth Class (3d year). 

Extracts from Qidntus Curtius, Livy, Commentaries of Caesar, Cicero de 
Amicitia and de Senectute, Lucian's Dialogues, the Cyropadia of Xenophon, the 
Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil, the Metamorphoses of Ovid, composition of 
Latin poetry, themes on the elements of natural science, drawing, which com- 
mences this year, and is continued in all those which follow. 

The Third Class (4th year). 

Tacitus, Sallust, Latin and Greek Moralists, the JEneid and Iliad, themes as 
in the preceding class. 

* Instead of first, that class is ordinarily called the class of rhetoric. 


The Second Class (5th year). 

Orations of Cicero, the Iliad, JEneid, Elements of Rhetoric, Narrative compo- 
sitions. Ancient history, Roman history, history of the middle ages; and modem 
history are pursued in this class, and indeed in all the classes. 

The Rhetorical Class (6th year). 

Condones e veteribus Historiis excerptat, Extracts from the orations of Cicero 
and Demosthenes, Condones Poeticce, and the Greek tragic writers, the princi- 
ples of eloquence and rules of composition, Latin verses, French and Latin 
composition, and Latin and Greek translation. 

This is a brief outline of the portion of collegiate education which embraces 
the study of what is called Letters. The study of the sciences forms the next 
division and occupies two years. The number of professors in each of the 
colleges out of Paris, for the course of sciences, is four, whilst in some of those 
in that city the number is greater. 

The first year's course of sciences comprises logic, metaphysics, morals, with 
the rights of nature and of nations, arithmetic, geometry, rectilineal trigonome- 
try, algebra. At the commencement of each mathematical lesson, a summary 
of the preceding one is given ; at the same time the scholars are interro- 
gated upon what was then treated of, and their exercises are examined. The 
philosophical lecture, or rather recitation, is in Latin. 

The second year is wholly devoted to the prosecution of mathematical and 
physical science, and the subjects are the following : statics, elements of 
algebra, application of algebra to geometry, physics, chemistry, elements of 
physical astronomy, drawing, descriptive geometry, natural history and physical 
science. To the lectures on the subject of natural history the members of the 
third, second, and rhetorical classes are also admitted. 

This is the entire course of college study in France. It is essentially the 
same both in the communal and the royal colleges. It will be perceived that, 
followed literally, it Avould require ten years, and supposing that the student 
enters when eight years old, he will have reached his eighteenth year by 
the time of the completion of the course. When a young man has gone through 
the whole course which I have described, he is entitled to two diplomas, or 
rather certificates, one for letters, the other for sciences. 

It ought to be added that a student is not bound to adhere literally to this 
course.' If qualified, he may enter an advanced class. And,. indeed, he may 
attain the certificates above mentioned, if upon an examination, he is found 
worthy of them, without having been a member, strictly speaking, of any col- 
lege. This is not, however, the usual course. On the contrary it is almqst 
universal to spend at least two or three of the last years in some college. 

Two examinations take place annually in the colleges ; one in May, by the 
inspectors of the academy within whose bounds they are respectively situated, 
assisted by the provisor and censor ; the other in October, by the rector, assisted 
by the academic council. On these occasions prizes are distributed to those 
who are most distinguished for their merits and proficiency. 

The council of administration (or what is in our country called the faculty) of 
each college consists of the following officers : 

Provisor, or president, who has the oversight of the college. 
Censor, who has charge of the studies of the students. 
Almoner, or chaplain, who gives the religious instruction. 
Steward, (ceconome). 

Assistant or adjunct professors, (agreges). 

Directors of study (maitres d'etudes), who superintend the studies of the pupils 
when they are not with the professors. 

The royal colleges are divided into four classes, according to the amount of 
board paid by the scholars, and the value of the professors' salaries. 




Those of Paris and Versailles form the first class ; the board and salaries in 
which are the highest, and are as follows : — 

Francs. Dollars. 


'Pro visor, 
i Steward, 
salaries,^ Pl . ofessoI . r lst c ] asSj 

Professor of 2d do., 
Professor of 3d do., 
Director of study, 

900 168 50 

750 140 62£ 

5,000 937 50 

3,500 656 20£ 

do. do. 

3,000 562 50 

do. do. 

2,500 46S 75 

2,000 375 00 

1,200 225 00 

The second class of royal colleges, in regard to expenses and salaries of 
officers, embraces those of Rouen, Strasbourg, Lyons, Marseilles, Bordeaux. 




Professor of lst class, 
Professor of 2d do., 
Professor of 3d do., 
[_ Director of study, 

Francs. Dollars. 

750 140 62£ 

4,000 750 00 

2,500 468 75 

do. do. 

2,000 375 00 

do. do. 

1,800 287 50 

1,500 2S1 25 

1,000 187 50 

The third class comprises those of Rheims, Caen, Amiens, Douai, Metz, 
Besancon, Dijon, Grenoble, Nismes, Montpellier, Toulouse, Orleans, Angers, 
Nantes, Rennes. 

Francs. Dollars. 


r Provisor, 

c, , . I Steward, 
Salanes 'i Professor of; 

Professor of lst class, 
Professor of 2d do., 
Professor of 3d do., 
L Director of study, 

650 121 87£ 

3,500 656 201 

2,000 375 00 

do. do. 

1,600 300 00 

1,800 337 50 

1,500 281 25 

1,200 225 00 

800 150 00 

The fourth class of royal colleges includes those of Nancy, Avignon, Tour- 
non, Rhodes, Cahors, Pau, Poictiers, Bourges, Pontivy, Limoges, Clermont, 


Salaries, < 





Professor of lst order, 

Professor of 2d do. 

Professor of 3d do. 

Director of study 

Francs. Dollars. 

600 112 75 

3,000 562 50 

1,500 2S1 25 

do. do. 

1,400 262 50 

1.500 281 25 

1,200 225 00 

1,000 187 50 

700 131 25 

Besides the fixed sum for board, the scholars who bear their own expenses 
also pay fifty francs per annum for the use of books, &c. in the colleges in the 
department, and one hundred francs in the colleges which are situated in Paris. 

In each royal college there are forty-one royal scholarships or bursaries 
(bourses), which are appropriated to the maintenance of scholars in the follow- 
ing manner : — 

Scholars with entire bursaries, 20 making 20 bursaries. 

Do. with three-fourths of a bursary each, 12 do. 9 do. 

Do. with half of a bursary, 24 do. 12 do. 

Total, scholars, 56 

41 bursaries or foundations. 


Those "who have full bursaries are received altogether gratis ; the others 
must make up the price of board annually in advance. 

The value of royal bursaries differs in the different classes of royal col- 
leges : — 

Francs. Dollars. 

In Paris and Versailles it is 750 140 62^ per annum. 

In the 2d class of colleges, 625 117 18| 

In the 3d do. do. 550 103 12£ 

In the 4th do. do. 500 93 75 

The annual expenses of the royal colleges, so far as the government is con- 
cerned, are paid out of the budget. A few years ago, including professors' 
salaries, bursaries, &c. they amounted to 1,800,000 francs ($337,500 00). 

Normal School for the preparation of Professors for the Colleges. 

Before I take leave of this part of the subject, I will call the attention of the 
reader to a most important institution, which is situated at Paris (No. 115 rue 
St. Jacques) and which is maintained at the expense of the government. It is 
a school in which those who devote themselves to the vocation of professors in 
the colleges of France may prosecute their studies, and make those high attain- 
ments in the branches which they will have to teach at a future day, which will 
qualify them to enter with great advantage upon their offices as professors. 
This institution is under the immediate direction and government of the min- 
ister and royal council of public instruction. The board and instruction are 
gratuitous, and successful candidates are considered as royal beneficiaries 
(boursiers). They are chosen after a public examination (concours) which 
is held by the proper authorities in each Academy of the University. This 
examination is held annually from the 5th to the 10th of August. The appli- 
cants must have inscribed their names as such between the 15th of June and 
the 15th of July preceding. The principal conditions of admission are, — 1. 
Not to be under 17 nor over 23 years of age. 2. To have completed the 
course of study, including philosophy, in a royal or communal college in the 
kingdom, and the production of certificates of that fact as well attestations of 
morality, &,c. 3. To have obtained the grade of bachelor of letters and of 
sciences, the diplomas of which shall be presented, together with a legal au- 
thority from the applicant's father, mother or guardian, to contract the engage- 
ment which he has to make in entering this institution. Besides attending the 
lectures which are given in this institution, the pupils are allowed to attend 
those which are given by the faculties of sciences and letters in the College 
of France, the Museum of Natural History, &c. The course of studies ex- 
tends through three years. 

The following is an outline of the course of study, with the names of the 
teachers (Maitres de Conference, as they are called) and assistant teachers. 

Section of Letters. 

First Year. 
M. Lebas, Grammar and Greek Language. 

M. Gibon, Lathi, and French Literature. 
M. Filon, Ancient History. 
M. Gamier, Philosophy. 

Second Year. 
M. Guigniaut, History of Greek Literature. 

M. Nisard, History of French Literature. 

M. Mieholet, Modern History. 

M. Damiron, History of Philosophy. 

M. Ilinn, History of Latin Literature 

Section of Sciences 

Third Year. 
M. M. Guigniaut, ) Ancient, French, and Foreign 

Rinn, & Nisard, \ Literature. 
M. Damiron, Philosophy. 
M. Michelet, History. 

First Year. Third Year. 

M . Leroy, Mechanics. 

M. Peclet, Physical Manipulation and Construc- 
tion of Instruments. 
M. Guerin, Chemical Manipulations and Analyses. 
M. Delafosse, Geology, Mineralogy, and Botany. 
M. Valenciennes, Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, 

and Physiology. 
M. Duvivicr, Drawing-Master, Attached to the Sec- 
tion of Sciences. 
M. Chevet (adjunct), Chemistry. 
M. Callot, Physics. 

M. Levy, Algebra, Astronomy, Calculation of Prob 

lems, H(c. 
M. Leroy, Analytical and Descriptive Geometry. 
M Guerin, Chemistry. 
M. Delafosse, Botany. 

Second Year. 
M. Levy, Infinitesimal Analysis. 
M. P6clet, Physics. 

M. Delafosse, Mineralogy and Vegetable Physi- 


This institution owes its existence to a very enlightened policy. It was first 
established many years ago. It was, however, dissolved by Charles X. Under 
the present dynasty, and especially by the exertions of M. Guizot, it has been 
re-established and brought to its present flourishing state. 

5. Faculties. We come now to the highest courses of studies, which are 
taught by what are called the faculties. These faculties are five in number, 
viz. the faculties of theology, of law, of medicine, of mathematical and physical 
sciences, and of letters. The first three, it will be perceived, are for those who 
intend to devote themselves to the professions of theology, law and medicine. 
The other two — those of sciences and letters — are designed to qualify candi- 
dates for these professions, or to give instruction to those who, having no pro- 
fession in view, wish to devote themselves to literature in general, or to the 
business of authorship. 

The faculties are, in other words, the places, or to speak more properly, the 
groups of professors whose appropriate work is to deliver lectures on the 
subjects appertaining to their professorships, and to examine the persons who 
desire degrees in the respective faculties. I have already stated that the 
University of France is divided into twenty-six academies, each of which 
includes two or more departments. It does not necessarily happen that all 
these five orders of faculties are to be met with in the same academy. This 
may occasionally be so, as in the case of the Academy of Paris ; but it is a 
rare occurrence, and an academy has seldom more than one, two or three 
faculties within its limits, as will fully appear hereafter. 

At the head of each faculty is a dean, chosen from among the professors, and 
under the authority of the rector of the academy. He convokes and presides 
over its meetings, which must take place at least once a month, but oftener if 
necessary. The secretary, who is at the same time treasurer and keeper of the 
archives, conducts all the details of business, regulates the receipts, expendi- 
tures, &c. and keeps the accounts of the faculty. The dean performs the same 
duties in the faculty as the rector does in the academy. He looks after its in- 
terests, and sees that all the laws, statutes and regulations are duly observed. 

I suppose the theory of this organization to have intended that young men, 
after having completed the regular curriculum or course in college, or what 
may be equivalent, and received the certificate of that fact from the college 
authorities, which I have already spoken of fully, — should enter one of the fac- 
ulties of letters and sciences ; or both in succession, as the case might re- 
quire, and there attend a course of lectures, before they could enter any one of 
the faculties of theology, law or medicine. And many pursue this course. But it 
is not absolutely necessary. If a young man has received a certificate from a 
college that he has been examined and pronounced well acquainted with the 
studies pursued in the colleges, he may go to a faculty of letters, and, after an 
approved examination, receive a diploma from that faculty. He may do so with 
respect to the sciences, provided he is a sufficient scholar. 

It is, however, different in regard to the three other faculties, viz : those of 
theology, law, and medicine. A candidate for a degree in those faculties 
must enter as a regular student, and go through the course of lectures and 
studies, and then be examined by the faculty under whose direction he pursues 
his studies. 

The salary of a professor in all these faculties is 3,000 francs (less than $600) 
and is derived from the State ; but there are also some additions from inscrip- 
tion and examination-fees. Besides, most of these professors have other employ- 
ments, and many of them very lucrative ones, as in the case of the medical and 
law professors, and all are able to obtain considerable sums from their literary 

The faculties of theology are eight in number, and are situated in Paris, 
Aix, Bordeaux, Lyons, Rouen, Toulouse, Strasbourg, and Montauban. Two of 
these are Protestant, viz: those of Montauban, for the Reformed (Calvinists) and 
Strasbourg, for the Church of the Augsburg Confession (Lutheran). The other 
six are Catholic. As the number of professors, with their respective subjects 
of instruction, will appear in another part of this article, I will not state it here. 


A diploma from a faculty of letters, is requisite to enable a person to become a 
student in this faculty. The course of study for one who takes the degree of 
bachelor of theology, is three years ; for the degree of licentiate, it is neces- 
sary to have been a bachelor one year at least, and defended two theses, one of 
which must be in Latin. To obtain the degree of doctor in theology, the candi- 
date must defend a final and a general thesis. The fees in the theological 
faculties are not great. A diploma of bachelor of theology costs about 25 
francs, or less than five dollars. 

I would here add that the government gives annually to the Catholic semi- 
naries, for the education of young men for the ministry, 2,525 bourses, valued at 
400 francs each, making in all the enormous sum of one million and ten thou- 
sand francs, or one hundred and eighty-nine thousand three hundred and seventy- 
Jive dollars. Whilst to the Protestants it grants annually 30 entire bourses and 
60 demi-bourses, or Avhat would be (>0 entire bourses, which at 400 francs each 
make 24,000 francs, or $4,500. 

The faculties of law are nine in number and are situated in the cities of 
Paris, Strasbourg, Dijon, Grenoble, Aix, Toulouse, Poictiers, Rennes, and 
Caen. To be entitled to enter as a student in one of these faculties, or to take 
an inscription as it is termed, the student must have attained the age of 16 years, 
and be possessed of the degree of bachelor of letters. The periods of study 
are, for a simple certificate of capacity, one year ; for bachelor and licentiate, 
three years ; and for a doctorate, four years. 

The studies of the first year are : 1. Natural law, law of nations, general 
law. 2. A first course of French civil law. 3. History of Roman and French 

The studies of the 2d year are : 1. Institutes of Roman law. 2. Second 
course of French civil law. 3. Civil procedure, (Procedure Civile.) 

The studies of the 3d year are: 1. A third course of French civil law. 2. 
Commercial law. 3. Administrative law (Droit Administratif). 

The studies of the 4th year are : 1. Institutes of Roman law. 2. History of 
law. 3. Administrative law. 

The examiners for conferring degrees are the professors and their assistants. 
The inspectors-general of the University of France, have the right to be pres- 
ent, and if they deem it requisite, may themselves examine the candidate. 

The expenses for inscriptions, examination-fees, diplomas, and visas and ver- 
ifications for each student, for the whole period of four years amount to about 
1,032 francs, or $193 1-2. 

In each faculty of law there must be at least five professors and two assist- 
ants : the number may be increased at the royal pleasure. 

The faculty of law in the capital, embraces sixteen professors, many of 
whom are men of great distinction. The number of students in this celebrated 
school has this year been upwards of 3,000. 

Faculties of Medicine. The three great medical faculties are those of Paris, 
Strasbourg, and Montauban. Besides these, there are seventeen minor or sec- 
ondary schools of medicine, situated at Amiens, Marseilles, Angers, Besancon, 
Bordeaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lyons, Nancy, Rheims, Poictiers, 
Rennes. Nantes, Rouen, Toulouse. 

Candidates aspiring to the degree of doctor in medicine, must produce their 
register of birth, the consent of their parents or guardians, and a diploma of 
bachelor of letters and also that of sciences. 

The course for a full degree is four years ; the studies of which are : 

1st. year. Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, Medical Philosophy or Hygiene, Ex- 
ternal Pathology, Botany. 

2d year. Astronomy, Physiology, Practice Medicine, (Medicine Op6ratoire } ) Hy- 
giene, Pharmacy, External Pathology, ExtewHi Clinics. 

3d year. Practical Medicine, External Clinics, internal Pathology, Materia Medica, 
Internal Clinics. 

4th year. Internal Clinics, History of Medicine, Internal Pathology, Legal Medicine, 
Clinique de Perfectionnemcnt, Midwifery. 

Upon completing his studio?, the candidate may enter upon his trials, which 
are five in number, viz : 1. On Anatomy and Physiology. 2. Pathology and 


Nosology. 3. Materia Medica, Chemistry, and Pharmacy. 4. Hygiene arid 
Medical Jurisprudence. 5. Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 

The inscription and examination-fees are as follows : 1st year's inscriptions, 
(four in number,) 100 francs ; 2d year's inscriptions, 120; 3d year's inscriptions, 
140 ; 4th year's inscriptions, 140 ; 1st examination, GO francs ; 2d examination, 
70; 3d examination, 70; 4th examination, 80; 5th examination, 100; thesis, 
120 ; right of visa, 100 ; in all, 1,100 francs, or $20G 25. 

The students are examined for degrees by the professors. The Medical 
Faculty of Paris is very distinguished. At present it embraces 27 professors, 
(including 3 honorary professors,) and 61 agreges or assistants, besides a libra- 
rian, a keeper of the museum, and a chief of anatomical operations. The 
number of regular students this year, is about 4,000. In addition to these, there 
are nearly three thousand graduates and physicians from other medical institu- 
tions in France and other countries, who are admitted gratuitously to all the 
lectures and other advantages of this celebrated school. The students who 
intend only to take the degree of qfficier de sante, and those who are designed 
for the profession of pharmacy, have to pass through courses of study in the 
faculties of medicine less extended than those who take the degree of doctor in 
medicine. The females who are to become accoucheuses, are required to go 
through a prescribed course of study. They are allowed to attend certain lec- 
tures of the Medical School. 

Faculties of Sciences. — They are eight in number, and are situated at Paris, 
Strasbourg, Caen, Toulouse, Montpellier, Dijon, Lyons, and Grenoble. The 
subjects of study are : Differential and Integral Calculus ; Mechanics and As- 
tronomy ; Physical, Theoretical, and Practical Chemistry ; Different Branches 
of Natural History. In Paris, the Faculty of Sciences is composed of two 
sections, Mathematical and Physical, the former consisting of three courses, 
viz. : on Differential and Integral Calculus, Mechanics, and Astronomy ; 
the latter of four courses, viz. : on Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, Botany 
and Vegetable Physiology, Zoology and Physiology. There is also an addi- 
tional course of experimental physics, common to the two sections. 

The courses of the faculties of sciences are of nine months' duration. To 
obtain the diploma of bachelor of sciences, the applicant must possess that of 
bachelor of letters, and undergo an examination on the branches studied in 
this faculty. To become a licentiate or a doctor in this faculty, requires an 
attendance on two (in Paris, three) courses of lectures, two theses, &c. 

The fees in this faculty are small, being only 24 francs for the examination, 
and 36 for the diploma of a bachelor, making 60 francs, or $11 25. The ex- 
amination, inscriptions and diploma of a licentiate, cost 72 francs, or $13 50, 
whilst the examination and diploma of a doctor cost 120 francs, or $22 50. 

Faculties of Letters. — They are six in number, and are established in Paris, 
Strasbourg, Toulouse, Caen, Dijon, and Besancon. 

In the capital, the courses of lectures delivered by the professors of the 
faculty of letters, are nine. 

1. Philosophy. 2. History of Philosophy. 3. Greek Literature. 4. Latin 
Eloquence. 5. Latin Poetry. 6. French Eloquence. 7. French Poetry. 8. 
Ancient and Modern History. 9. Ancient and Modern Geography. 

The fees are the same in this faculty as in the faculty of sciences. 

Having completed the description of the various orders or classes of estab- 
lishments for education which are comprised in the University of France, from 
the schools for primary instruction up to the faculties, I proceed now to another 
survey of it, as divided into academies ; and in doing this, I shall give the 
names of the officers of academies and of the royal colleges, as they stood in 
1835. A few changes have since occurred, but it would .not be important to 
indicate them, even if it were possible to do so. It will be remembered that it 
has been stated that there are 26 academies in France corresponding to the 26 
royal courts, or rather the districts of the royal courts, embracing, each, from 
two to several departments. I shall follow the alphabetical order in which these 
academies occur. 

VOL. IX, 6 




1. Academy of Aix. 


This Academy embraces three departments ; 
Bouches-du-Rhone (Mouth of the Rhone), 
Basses-Alpes (Lower Alpes), et le Var, and 
Tile de Corse (Corsica). 
M. Desmichels, Rector. 
Messrs. Dupuy-Montbrun, 

M. Padignon, Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology (Catholic). 
M. Castellan, Dean. 

Messrs. Polge, Theology. 

Castellan, Ecclesiastical History and Dis- 
Reynaud, Biblical Studies. 
Thaneron, Sacred Eloquence. 

Faculty of Law. 
M. Bernard, Dean. 
M. de Julienne, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Messrs. Bernard, Roman Law. 

Bouteille, ^ 

Balzac, > Code Civil. 

De Fougeres de Villandry, J 

Bouteuil, Procedure and Criminal Law. 

Cresp, Code of Common Law. 

Barer" ' [ Supplcans or Assistants. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College, at Marseilles. 
Messrs. Deschamps, Provisor. 
Meline, Censor. 
Nitard, Steicard, (Econome.) 
L'Abbe Gautier, Chaplain, (Aumonier.) 
Messrs. Dunoyer, Philosophy. 
Raynaud, Rhetoric. 

Hazard, Second (class) Seconde. 

Pons, / u . . 

Toulousan, \ Hlsto T- 

Giscaro, Third (class) Troisicme. 

Cavalier Fourth (class) Quatrieme. 

Borel" y, Assistant. 

And S i t e , Ur ' \ F 'f th ^ class ) Cinquieme. 

Morly de Sainte-Erme, Sixth (class) Sizieme. 

Felix Salze, Physical Sciences. 

Darier, Special Mathematics. 

Soucheres, Elementary Mathematics. 
Internal students, 160; external, 230. Institu- 
tions, 5. Normal Schools for primary instruction, 2. 
Pensions, 41. Primary Schools. 1,659. 

Communal Colleges, — at Aix, Arles ; Tarascon, 
Barcelonnette, Castellane, Digne, Manosque, 
Seyne, Sisteron, Draguignan, Grasse, Lorgues, 
Toulon, Ajaccio, Basua, and Calvi, — in all, 16. 

Besides the three Communal colleges in the 
Island of Corsica, — at Ajaccio, Bastia, and 
Calvi, — a new institution, to be called the Paoli 
School, is about to be established. This institu- 
tion will owe its origin to a legacy of the cele- 
brated General Paoli, who bequeathed his 
estate to the government for the erection of an 
institution in which youth of his native island 
might be educated. Although the legacy was 
accepted in 1816, yet certain legai obstructions 
were originated which were not overcome until 
this present year. The income of the Paoli 
legacy is 200 pounds sterling or 5,000 francs per 
annum. There are to be six professors in this 
school, one of whom, according to the terms of 
the legacy, is to devote his time to the delivery 
of lectures on the evidences of Christianity and 
to demonstrate the support which Natural reli- 
gion yields to the doctrines of the Gospel. The 
government is to render the aid necessary to 
secure the object of Paoli's generous legacy. 

2. Academy of Amiens. 

This Academy embraces three departments ; 
Aisne, Oise, and Somme. 
M. Martin, Rector. 
M. dc Finance, ) r _ m ... 
M. Caresme, \ Ins V^ors. 
M. Candas, Secretary. 

There is a secondary school for Medicine at 

Royal College of Amiens. 
Messrs. Braive, Provisor. 
Fabre, Censor. 
Joumard-Vilain, Steicard. 
L'Abbe Crepin, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Mallet, Philosophy. 
Lebailly, Rhetoric. 

Jourdain-Lecoq., Second. 
Farochon, History. 
Fleutclot, Third. 
Lecoq., Fourth. 
Ponchelle, Fifth. 
Gisclard, Sixth. 

Thomas, Adjunct for the Sixth. 
Pollet, Physical Sciences. 
Delorme, Special Mathematics. 
Laurent, Elementary Mathematics. 
Internal students (boarders), 120 ; external, 180. 

Communal Colleges, — at Abbeville, Peronne, 
Chateau-Thierry, Laon, Saint-Quentin, Sois- 
sons, Vervins, Beauvais, Clermont, and Com- 
piegne, — in all, 10. 

Institutions, 2. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 50. 
Primarv schools, 2,097. 

This Academy comprehends three depart- 
ments ; Maine-ct-Loire, Mayenne, and Sarthe. 
M. Collct-Dubignon, Rector. 
M. de la Roussiere, j Iluaectors 
M.Pilatte, \ inspectors. 

M. Meziere, Secretary. 

There is a secondary school for Medicine at 

Royal College of Angers. 
Messrs. Gavinet, Provisor. 
Delmas, Censor. 
Beclunl, Steward. 
L'Abbe Noyers, Chaplain. 

3. Academy of Angers. 

Messrs. Delens, Philosophy. 

De Condren de Suzanne, Rhetoric. 
Sorin, Second. 
Duprey, History. 
Garrigues, Third. 
David, Fourth. 
Loclerc, Fifth. 
L'llerrniteau, Sixth. 
Morren, Physical Sciences. 
Bayan, Special Mathematics. 
Justus, Elementary Mathematics. 
Frilet de Chateau-Neuf, German and Eng- 
Internal students, 118; external, 110. 




Communal Colleges, at Beaug6, Beaufort, 

Chollet, Doue, Saumur, Chateau-Gontior, Cra- 
on, Ernee, Evron, Laval, Mayenne, Chateau- 

du-Loir, Courdemanche, Mamcrs, lc Mans, 
Sable, St. -Calais, and La Suze, — in all, 1!J. 

Institutions, J. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 17. 
Primary schools, 1,212. 

4. Academy of Besaneon, 

This Academy includes three departments, — 
Doubs, Jura, and Haute-Saone (Upper Saone). 
M. Ordinaire, Rector. 
M. Clairin, 

M. Bouclet, 


M. George, Secretary. 

Faculty of Letters. 
M. Genisset, Dean. 

Messrs. Benard, Philosophy. 

Genisset, Latin Literature. 
Bourgon, History. 
Perennes, French Literature. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Besangon. 
Messrs. Huart, Provisor. 
Boullier, Censor. 
Bonnet, Steward. 
L'Abbe Vallet, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Benard, Philosophy. 
Meuzy, Rhetoric. 
Soules, Second. 
Grosclerc, Third. 
Damiens, Fourth. 
Dornier, Fifth. 
Chauvin, Sixth. 
Darlay, Physical Sciences. 
Delly, Special Mathematics. 
Bouclie, Elementary Mathematics. 
JHuart, {Provisor), Natural History. 
Ratisbonne, German and English. 

Internal students, 110 ; external, 160. 

Communal Colleges, — at Beaume, Montbe- 
liard,Pontarlier, Arbois, Dole, Lons-le-Saulnier, 
Orgelet, Poligny, Salius, St. Amour, St. Claude, 
Gray, Lure, Luxeuil, and Vesoul, — in all, 15. 

Institutions, 2. Tensions, 21. Primary schools, 

5. Academy of Bordeaux. 

This Academy embraces three departments, — 
Charente, Dordogne, and Gironde. 
M. Ducasau, Rector. 

M. Cadres, Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology. 
M. Delort, Bean. 

L'Abbe Broussouse, Didactic Theology (Dogme). 
Delort, Ecclesiastical History and Discipline. 
L'Abbe Roux, Evangelical Morals. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Bordeaux. 
Messrs. L'Abbe Perret, Provisor. 
Ravaud, Censor. 
Eon, Steward. 
L'Abbe Sabatier, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Ladevi-Roche, Philosophy. 
Anot, Rhetoric. 
Soulie, Second. 
Rabanis, History. 
Demogeot, Third. 
Merand, Fourth. 
Courtade, Fifth. 

Boisse, ; <j. ,, 

Ract-Madaux, Substitute, ] lzl ' 
Leupold, Physical Sciences. 
Larrouy (Pierre) Special Mathematics. 
Valat, Elementary Mathematics. 
Dauzat, Natural History. 

Internal students, 170 ; external, 120. 

Communal Colleges, — at La Reole, Libourne, 
Angouleme, Confolens, Bergerac, Perigueux, 
j and Sarlat, — in all, 7. 

Institutions, 5. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 54. 
Primary schools, 1,209. 

6. Academy of Bourges. 

This Academy includes three departments, — 
Cher, Indre, and Nievre. 

M. Raynal, Rector and Hon. Inspector-General of 
the University of France. 

ifc25LJ*»— * 

M. Archambault de Montfort, Secretary. 
Royal College of Bourges. 

Messrs. Michelle, Provisor. 
Repecaud, Censor. 
Dubois, Steward. 
L'Abbe Ozouf, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Riaux, Philosophy. 
Agnant, Rhetoric. 
Jarriez, History. 

Chauselle, Second. 
Montonnier, Third. 
Lemercier, Fourth. 
Gargan, Fifth. 
Delaroche, Sixth. 
Denarp, Physical Sciences. 
Christian, Special Mathematics. 
Planche, Elementary Mathematics. 
Denarp, Natural History. 

Internal students, 129 ; external, 120. 

Communal Colleges, — at St. Amand, San- 
cerre, Chateauroux, Lachatre, Issoudun, St. 
Benoit-du-Sault, Clamecy, Cosne, and Nevers, 
—in all, 9. 

Institutions, 1. Normal schools, 1. Pensions, 21. 
Primary schools, 532. 




1, Academy of Caen 

This Academy comprehends three depart- 
ments, — Calvados, Manclie, and Orne. 
M. Marc, Rector. 

M. de Thoury, Secretary. 

Faculty of Law. 
M. Georges de Lisle, Dean. 
M. Lelaidier, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Messrs. Georges de Lisle, Roman Law. 

Lecerf, } Civil Coda 


Maillet-la-Coste, Latin Literature. 
De Gournai, Assistant. 
Bertrand, Oreek Literature. 
Delarue, History. 
Latrouette, Assistant. 


secondary school of Medicine at 

Deboislambert, Civil Procedure and Crim- 
inal Law. 
Le Bourguinon-Duperre- ) Commercial 
Feuguerolles, ( Code. 

TroUev' ( J ^ ss ^ stants i or Substitutes. 

Faculty of Sciences. 
M. Thierry, Dean. 
M. Delafoye, Secretary. 

Messrs. Bonnaire, Jun., Mathematics. 

Deslongschamps, Natural History. 
Thierry, Chemistry. 
Delafoye, Physics. 

Faculty of Letters. 
M. Delarue, Dean. 
M. Vaultier, Secretary. 

Messrs. Charma, Philosophy. 

Vaultier, French Literature. 

Royal College of Caen. 
L'Abbe Daniel, Provisor. 
Cabrie, Censor. 
Roger, Steward. 
L'Abbe Paulmier, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Cavsin, Philosophy. 
Berger, Rhetoric. 
Turgot, Second. 
Assolans, Third. 
Le Tellier, History. 
Gourbin, Fourth. 
Guesnault-Desrivieres, Fifth. 
Daligault, Sixth. 
Fauvel, Seventh. 
Hericher, Eighth. 
Masson, Physical Sciences. 
Bonnaire, Sen., Special Mathematics. 
Amiot, Elementary Mathematics. 
Chauvin, Natural History. 
Wheatcroft, English. 
Internal students, 212 ; external, 290. 

Communal Colleges, — at Bayeux, Falaise, 
Lisieux, Vire, Avranches, Cherbourg-, Coutan- 
ees, Mortain, St.-Hilaire-du-Harcouet, Saint- 
L6, Valognes, Alen9on, Argentan, Domfront, 
Seez, Pont-l ; Eveque ; — in all, 16. 

Institutions, 1. Normal schools, 3. Pensions, 25. 
Primary schools, 2,340. 

8. Academy of Caliors. 


This Academy includes three departments, 
Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, and Gers. 

M. Grancbcr, Rector. 

M. Delpy de la Cipiere, 

M. Leconte, 

M. Jourdan (Joseph), Secretary. 

Royal College of Cahors. 
Messrs. Clement du Mez, Provisor. 
Band us, Censor. 
Traversie, Steward. 
L'Abbe Dommergue, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Pichard, Philosophy. 
Michel, Rhetoric. 
Bazin, Second. 
Perdiix, Third. 
Lemarchaud, Fourth. 
Costes, Fifth. 
Bailly, Sixth. 

Pontus, Physical Sciences. 
Perrey, Special Mathematics. 
Jeunchomme, Elementary Mathematics. 
Jourdan, English. 
Isambert, Elementary Class. 
Lacombo, Natural History. 
Internal students, 90 ; external, ICO. 

Royal College of Auch. 

Messrs. Lary, Provisor. 
Moubet, Censor. 
Dupetit, Steward. 
L'Abbe Trielle, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Courtade, Philosophy. 
Mesnard, Rhetoric. 
Foncin, Second. 
Pcrret, Third. 
Louseau, Fourth. 
Croiset, Fifth. 
Deschatelliers, Sixth. 
r , ... {Physical Sciences and Special 
nelie ' ( Mathematics. 
Chouteau, Elementary Mathematics. 

Internal students, ; external, 

Communal Colleges,— nt Figeac, M artel, Con- 
dom, Lectoure, Agen, Aiguillon, Marmande, 
Mezin, Villeneuve-d'Agcn,— 9. 

Institutions, 1. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 47. 
Primary schools, 1,451. 

0. Academy of Clermont. 

This Academy comprehends four depart- 
ments, — Allier, Cantal, Hautc-Loire (Upper 
Loire), and Puy-de-D6me. 

Messrs. Dcsnanot, Rector. 
Morin, / , 
Largo! \ inspectors. 

Couvreu), Secretary. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Clermont. 

Messrs. Caillat, Provisor. 
Larochc, Censor. 
Jaubourg, Jun., Stcioard. 
L'Abbe Boudonot, Chaplain, 





Messrs. L'Abb6 Jalabert, Philosophy. 

Gonod, Rhetoric. 

Bonafous, Second. 

Guillemot, History. 

Mathicu, Third. 

Nee, Fourth. 

Pourcher, Fifth. 

Paul, Sixth. 

Lassasseigne, Physical Sciences. 

Duranthon, Special Mathematics. 

Blanchard, Elementary Mathematics. 

Nee, JVatural History. 

Home, English. 

Franceschini Italian. 
Internal students, 155; external, 191. 
Royal College of Moulins. 
Messrs. Pougin de Maisonneuve, Provisor. 

Servant-Beauvais, Censor. 

Tourraton, Steward. 

L'Abbe Gayrard, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Desmarest-Lamotte, Philosophy. 
Charvot, Rhetoric. 
Mare.chal, Second. 
Carriers, Third. 
Coulon, Fourth. 
Bocquin, Fifth. 
Faure, Sixth. 

. - ( Physical Sciences, and JVatural 
1 \ History. 

De Maizieros, Special Mathematics. 
Mallier, Elementary Mathematics. 
Priour, English. 
Lef'aure, ) „, 
Lenormand, \ Elementary 

Internal students, 132 

external, 101. 

Royal College of Puy. 

Messrs. GefFroy, Provisor. 

, Censor. 

, Steward. 

, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Lachat, Philosophy. 

Caboche, Rhetoric. 

Lebegue, Second. 

, History. 

Charbuy, Third. 

Bernissant, Fourth. 

Blanc, Fifth. 

Guillemot, Sixth. 

, Physical Sciences. 

Planavergue, Special Mathematics. 

Papon, Elementary Mathematics. 
Internal students, ; external, 
Communal Colleges, — at Ambert, Billom, 
Issoire, Riom, Thiers, Montlucon, Gannat, 
Aurillac, St.-Flour, Mauriac, Brioude, and Le 
Puy ; — in all, 12. 

Pensions, 30. Normal schools, 4. Primary schools, 

10. Academy of Dijon. 

This Academy includes three departments, — 
Cote-d'Or, Haute-Marne (Upper Marne) ; and 

Messrs. Berthot, Rector. 

Girard, Secretary. ■. 

Faculty of Law. 

Messrs. Proudhon, Dean. 

Oudeniaut, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Messrs. Ladey, Roman Law. 
Proudhon, i 

Morelot, > Civil Code. 
Carrier, ) 

t -„j„ i„„ \ Procedure and Criminal Ju- 
Ladey, Jun., j risprudencem 

Lorain, Commercial Law. 



Substitutes or Assistants. 

Faculty of Sciences. 

Messrs. Berthot, Dean. 

Gueneau d'Aumont, Secretary. 


Messrs. Berthot, Mathematics. 
Vannier, Assistant. 

™™Xsistant, j *—* *"«* 
Gueneau d'Aumont, Physics. 
Sene, Chemistry. 

Faculty of Letters. 
M. Mathieu, Dean. 


Messrs. Gardaire, Philosophy. 

Stievenart, Greek Literature. 
Mathieu, Latin Literature. 
Lodin-Lalaire, French Literature. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Dijon. 

Messrs. Lemoine, Provisor. 
Colliot, Censor. 
Bichot, Steward. 
L'Abbe Massip, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Tissot, Philosophy. 

Roux, Rhetoric. 

Pellerin, Second. 

Martin, (T. H.,) Third. 

Gerbier, Fourth. 

Nicard, Fifth. 

Martin, (L.,) Sixth. 

Pendaries, Substitute. 

Artur, Physical Sciences. 

Vannier, Special Mathematics. 

Cirodde, Elementary Mathematics. 

Artur, JVatural History. 

Marcus, German and English. 
Internal students, 88; external, 150. 
Communal Colleges, — at Arnay-le-Duc, Aux- 
onne, Beaune, Chatillon, Saulieu, Semur, Seure, 
Bourmont, Chaumont, Langres, Saint-Dizier, 
Wassy, Autun, Chalons-sur-Sadne, Cluny, Cha- 
rolles, Louhans, Macon, Paray, Tournus. — in 
all, 20. 

Pensions, 36. Norman schools, 2. Primary schools, 

11. Academy of Douai. 

This Academy comprehends two depart- 
ments, — Nord, and Pas-de-Calais. 
Messrs. Gratet-Duplessis, Rector. 

Landon, ) »««— «-^« 

VassedeS.-Ouen,i /n ^ c ^- 
Chatain, Secretary. 




Royal College of Dona i. 
Messrs. L'Abbe Vinay, Provisor. 
Nicolet, Censor. 
Campion, Steward. 
L'Abbe Lazerat, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Courtades, Philosophy. 
Jannet, Rhetoric. 
Delage, Second. 
Rezillot, History. 
Rara, Third. 
Cadart, Fourth. 
Lingrand, Fifth. 
Sauty, Sixth. 

Avignon Pollet, Physical Sciences. 
Warme, Elementary Mathematics. 
Maugin, JVatural History. 
Boucher, English. 

Internal students, 131 ; external', 110. 

Communal Colleges, — at Armentieres, Aves- 
nes, Bailleul, Bergues, Cambrai, Cassel, Ca- 
teau, Dunkerque, Estaires, Hazebrouek, Lille 7 
Maubeuge, Le Quesnoy, Saint-Amaud, Tur- 
coing, Valenciennes, Aire, Arras, Bethune, St.- 
Omer, Bapaume, — in all, 21. 

Institutions, 6. Normal school, 1. Pensions, 43. 
Primary schools, 2,643. 

12. Academy of Grenoble. 

This Academy embraces three departments, — 
Hautes-Alpes (High Alpes), Drome, and Isere. 
Messrs. Ferriot, Rector. 

Hermenous, Secretary. 

Faculty of Law. 
Messrs. Gautier, Dean. 

Desarteaux, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Messrs. Quinon, Roman Law. 
Gautier, ) 

Monseignat, \ Civil Code. 
Burdet, Jun., ) 

Civil Procedure and Criminal 
Gueymard, Commercial Law. 
Girerd, ) 

Gadot, V Substitutes. 
Taulier, ) 

Faculty of Sciences. 

Messrs. Breton, Dean. 

Gueymard, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Messrs. Ferriot, Mathematics. 
duet, Substitute. 
Gueymard, JVatural History. 
Breton, Physical Sciences. 
Leroy, Chemistry. 


There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Grenoble. 

Messrs. Maignien, Provisor. 
Aubert-Hix, Censor. 
Margain, Steward. 
L'Abbe Maignie, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Boulle, Philosophy. 
Demons, Rhetoric. 
Henry, Second. 
Couret, History. 
Bouvier, Third. 
Pupat, Fourth. 
Fab re, Fifth. 
Victor, Sixth. 
Q.uet, Physical Sciences. 
Dumoulin, Special Mathematics. 
Miege, Elementary Mathematics. 
Leroy, JVatural History. 
Clopin, English Language. 
Egli, German Language. 

Internal students, 133; external, 141. 

Communal Colleges, — Pont-de-Beauvoisin, 
Vienne, Briancon, Embrun, Gap, Montelimart, 
and Valence,— in all, 7. 

Institutions, 4. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 25. 
Primary schools, 1,120. 

13. Academy of Limoges. 

This Academy embraces three departments, — 
Correze, Creuse, and Haute-Vienne. 

Messrs. Merilhou, Rector. 

Andrieux, ) , 

Naviere Laboissiere, j ^P^tors. 
Francis Levasseur, Secretary. 

Royal College of Limoges. 
Messrs. Borredon, Provisor. 
Mareuge, Censor. 
Rufiat, Steward. 
L'Abbe Jaucourt, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Bertereau, Philosophy. 
Jouen, Rhetoric. 

Colin, Second. 

Bouriaud, Third. 

Senemaud, Fourth. 

Langle, Fifth. 

Dumas, Sixth. 

Abria, Physical Sciences. 

Allotte, Special Mathematics. 

Mai ret, Elementary Mathematics. 

Allote, JVatural History. 

Internal students, 88 ; external, 220. 

Communal Colleges, — at Eymoutiers, Mag- 
nac- Laval, Saint- Junien, Brive, Treignac, 
Tulle, Ussel, Uzerche, and Gueret,— in all, 9. 

Institutions, 5. Normal schools, 3. Pensions, 18. 
Primary schools, 464. 

14. Academy of Lyons. 

This Academy comprehends three depart- 
ments, — Ain, Loire, and Rh6ne. 

Messrs. Roulacroix, Rector. 

Vincent, ) T 
; j Inspectors. 

Marbot Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology, (Catholic.) 
L'Abbe Pages, Dean. 


Messrs. • , Didactic Theology. 

Pages, Evangelical Morals. 

Chouvy, Ecclesiast. History and Discipline- 

, Biblical Literature and Hebrew. 




Faculty of Sciences. 

Messrs. Boussingault, Dean. 



Messrs. Cournot, Mathematics. 
Clerc, Astronomy. 
Tabaraud, Physics. 
Boussingault, Chemistry. 
Jourdan, Zoology. 
Seringe, Botany. 
Fournet, Mineralogy and Geology. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Lyons. 

Messrs. Bedel, Provisor. 
Devallee, Censor. 
Bonnet Deville, Steward. 
L'Abbe Michel, Chaplain. 


Messrs. L'Abbe Noirot, f'hilosophy. 
liaison, Rhetoric. 
Legeay, Second. 
Monin, History. 
Carrol, Third. 
Lccomte, Fourth, 
Brun, Fifth. 
Bobet, Sixth. 

Foyer, Physical Sciences. 
Clerc, Special Mathematics. 
Cbachuat, Elementary Mathematics. 
Beaulieu, Natural History. 
Internal students, 27G; external, 264. 

Communal Colleges, — at Villefranche, Bourg, 
Nantua, Roanne, Saint-Charnond, and Saint- 
Etienne ; — in all, 6. 

Institutions, 10. Normal schools, 3. Pensions, 
52. Primary schools, 1,470. 

15. Academy of Metz. 

This Academy includes two departments, 
Ardennes and Moselle. 

Messrs. Meziere, Rector. 

B^X\ InSVeCt0TS - 
Marchal, Hon. Inspector. 
Paquin, Secretary. 

Royal College of Metz. 

Messrs, Chenou, Provisor. 
Ravaud, Censor. 
Marquet, Steward. 
L'Abbe Knapp, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Thiel, Philosophy. 
Gelle, Rhetoric. 
Labastide, Second. 

Huguenin (the younger), History. 
Ribout, Third. 
Huguenin (the elder), Fourth. 
Karr, Fifth. 
Estienne, Sixth. 
Desains, Physical Sciences. 
Girod, Special Mathematics. 
Debrun, ) Elementary Mathe- 

Papy (Substitute) \ inatics. 
Haro, Natural History. 
Reibel, German. 
Salomon, English. 
Internal students, 190 ; external, 240. 

Comjnunal Colleges, — at Sarreguemines 
Thionville, Charieville, Rhelel, and Sedan, — in 
all, 5. 

Institutions, 1. Normal schools, 2. Pensions, 26. 
Primary schools, 1,541. 

16. Academy of Montpellier. 

This Academy includes four departments, — 
Aude. Aveyron, Heraul, and Pyrcnees-Orien- 

Messrs. Gergonne, Rector. 

SeTaUeau,! 7 " 5 ^^ 5 - 
Quet, Secretary. 

Faculty of Medicine. 
M. Dubrueil, Dean. 


Messrs. Dubrueil, Anatomy. 
Lordat, Physiology. 

Duportal, Medical Chemistry and Phar- 
RarTenau-Delille, Botany. 
Ribes, Hygeian Institutes of Medicine^ 
Duges, Pathology, Chirurgical Operations 

and Preparations. 
Rech, Pathological Medicine. 
Golfin, Merapeutics and Materia Medica. 
Berard, General Medical Chemistry and 

Lallemaud, J admrgical CUnics ^ 

■ , History of Medicine. 

Delmas, Midwifery, Diseases of Women$c. 
Seneaux, Honorary Professor. 

In addition to these 16 professors, there are 28 
adjunct professors, several of whom are in constant 
service in aiding the other professors, and all are 
called in their turns. 

Faculty of Sciences. 
Messrs. Dunal, Dean. 

Marcel-de-Serres, Secretary. 

Messrs. Lentheric, Transcendental Mathematics. 
Gergonne, Astronomy. 
Provencal, Zoology. 

Marcel-de-Serres, Mineralogy and Geology. 
Balard, Chemistry. 
Larcher d'Aubencourt, Physics. 
Dunal, Botanic. 

College of Montpellier. 
Messrs. Dunglas, Provisor. 
Domergue, Censor. 
Guibert, Steicard. 
L'Abbe Falgues, Chaplain. 

Messrs. L'Abbe Flottes, Philosophy. 
Siguy, Rhetoric. 
Benezet-Roulaud, Second. 
Guibert, History. 
Mondot, Third. 
Dumas, Fourth. 
Loubers, Fifth. 
Delauras, Sixth. 




Martin, Physics and Chemistry. 
Lentheric, Special, Mathematics. 
Cach, Elementary Mathematics. 
Joly, JYatural History and German. 
Poinsot, English. 

Internal students, 140 ; external, 135. 
Royal College of Rodez. 
Messrs. Pujol-Montsales, Provisor. 
De Resseguier, Censor. 
Olier, Steioard. 
L'Abbe Carcenac, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Thibault (the elder), Philosophy. 
Pouxe, Rhetoric. 
Vialadieu, Second. 
Berthet, Third. 

Cantaloube, Fourth. 
Puech, Fifth. 
Mialet, Sixth. 

Larroque, Physical Sciences. 
Courtois, Special Mathematics. 
Petit (the younger), Elementary Mathe- 
Internal students, 59; external, 121. 

Communal Colleges, — at Agde, Bedarieux, 
Beziers, Clermont, Lodeve, Pezenas, Carcas- 
sonne, Castelnaudary, Limoux, Espalion, Mil- 
hau, St. Afrique, St. Geniez, Villefranche, 
Ceret, Perpignan, and Vinca, — in all, 17. 

Institutions, 2. Pensions, 36. Primary schools, 

IT. Academy of Nancy. 

This Academy embraces three departments, — 
Meurlhe, Meuse, and Vosges. 
Messrs. De Caumont, Rector. 

Hanr'iot, j inspectors. 

Gironde, Secretary. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of JVancy. 
Messrs. Ilennequin, Provisor. 
Humbert, Censor. 
Cuvier,' Steward. 
Garot, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Franck, Philosophy. 
Pitt, Rhetoric. 
Munier, Second. 
Vendryes, History. 

Craincelin, Third. 

Marchis, Fourth. 

Toussaint, Fifth. 

Blau, Sixth. 

Billet, Physical Sciences. 

Percin, Special Mathematics. 

Sauvage, Elementary Mathematics. 

Vautrin, JYatural History. 

Genaudet, German. 

Hinschliffe, English. 

Internal students, 110; external, 260. 

Communal Colleges, — at Dieuze, Luneville, 
Pbalsbourg, Pont-a-Mousson,Tou), Bar-le-Duc. 
Commercy, Etain, Saint-Mihiel, Verdun, Epi- 
nal, JMirecourt, Neuf-Chateau, Remiremont, 
Saint-Die, — in all, 15. 

Pensions, 25. Normal schools, 3. Primary schools, 

18. Academy of Nismes. 

This Academy comprehends four depart- 
ments, — Ardeche, Gard, Lozere and Vaucluse. 
Messrs. Nicot, Rector. 

Bouchet, Secretary. 

Royal College of JYismcs. 
Messrs. Moriau, Provisor. 

De Ferroul-Montgaillard, Censor. 
Domergue, Steward. 
L'Abbe Valz, Chaplain. (Catholic.) 
Galtier, Chaplain. (Protestant.) 

Messrs. Nougarede, Philosophy. 
Gazay, Rhetoric. 
Roussel, Second. 
Germain, History. 
Durand, Third. 
Bayol, Fourth. 
Mauranclion, Fifth. 
Prat, Sixth. 

Deloche, Physical Sciences. 
Roustan, Special Mathematics. 
Guibert, Elementary Mathematics. 
Internal students, 118 j external, 140. 
Royal College of Jlvignon. 
Messrs. Patru, Provisor. 
Julien, Censor. 
Bouchet, Steward. 
L'Abbe Alexis, Chaplain. 
Messrs. Llabour, Philosophy. 

Dallier-Fleurizelle, Rhetoric 
Ivijiinassc, Second. 
RaHtoul, History. 
Banal, Third. 

Collet, Fourth. 

Rigaud, Fifth. 

Chabert, Sixth. 

Blanchet, Physical Sciences. 

Duchambon, Special Mathematics. 

Reybert, Elementary Mathematics. 

Gleich, German and English. 

Internal students, 98 j external, 60. 
Royal College of Tournon. 
Messrs. Roche, (Pascal,) Provisor. 

Paillet, Censor. 

Gardiol, Steward. 

L'Abbe Dumesnil, Chaplain. (Catholic.) 

Sardinous, Chaplain. (Protestant.) 
Messrs. Dumoulin, Philosophy. 

David, Rhetoric. 

Wartel, Second. 

Desdouis, History. 

Boubec, Third. 

Neuser, Fourth. 

Pelatan, Substitute. 

Ricard, Fifth. 

Cazal, Sixth. 

Petit, Physical Sciences. 

Goure de Villemontee. Special Mathematics. 

Castelncau, Elementary Mathematics. 

David, JYatural History. 

Murphy, English. 

Ricard, Italian. 

Sardinoux, German. 

Internal students, 149 ; external, 26. 
Communal Colleges,— at Alais, Bagnols, Le 
Vigan, Uzes, Aubenas, Mendc, Apt, Carpen- 
tras, Orange, Pertuis, — in all, 10. 

Institutions, 2. Pensions, 26. Norman schools, 4. 
Primary schools, 1,594. 




19. Academy of Orleans. 

This Academy includes three departments, 
Indre-et-Loire, Loiret, and Loir-et-Ciier. 

Messrs. Nouseilles, Rector. 
Godin, ) T 
Lecomte, j ***»*»: 
Roche, Secretary. 

Royal College of Orleans. 

Messrs. Donet, Provisor. 
Soilly, Cenmtr. 
Corlin, Steward. 
L'Abbe Pouguet, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Lafaist, Philosophy. 
Dumaige, Rhetoric. 
Dubas, Second. 
Fleury, History. 
Beon, Third. 
Feraud, Fourth. 
Larrieu, Fifth. 

Bigo (in charge of 5th), Sixth. 
Barth (in charge of 6th), Substitute. 
Dubois, Seventh. 
Petit, Physical Sciences. 
Lauzeral, Special Mathematics. 
Guiot, Elementary Mathematics. 

Watson, English. 
Barth, German. 

Interna! students, 140; external, 170. 
Royal College of Tours. 
Messrs. Renard, Provisor. 

Archambault, Censor. 
Lelorain, Steward. 
L'Abbe Rabiet, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Renard, Philosophy. 
Hatry, Rhetoric. 
Tiercelin, Second. 
Blanchard, Third. 
Gliick, Fourth. 
Beaussier, Fifth. 
Daubion, Sixth. 
Petitbon, Physical Sciences. 
Borgnet, Special Mathematics. 
Meunier, Elementary Mathematics. 
Smith-Size, English. 
Internal students, 91; external, 116. 

Communal Colleges, — at Montargis, Chinon, 
Lochfcs, Blois, and Komorantin, — in all, 5. 

Institutions, 3; Normal Schools, 2 ; Pensions, 31 ; 
Primary Schools, 730. 

20. Academy of Paris. 

This Academy comprehends seven de art- 
ments, — Aube, Eure-et-Loir, Marne, Seine, 
Seine-et-Marne, Seine-et-Oise, and Yonne. 

Department of Aube. 

Communal College, — at Troyes. 

Pensions, 12; Primary Schools, 509. 

Department of Eure-et-Loir. 

Communal Colleges, — at Chartres, Chateau- 
dun, Nogent-le-Rotrou, — in all, 3. 

Institutions, 1 ; Normal Schools, 1 ; Pensions, 11 ; 
Primary Schools, 482. 

Department of Marne. 
- Royal College of Rheims. 

Messrs. Lachapelle-Marchand, Provisor. 
Varin, Censor. 
Soisson,* Steward. 
L'Abbe Macquart, Chaplain. 


Messrs. L'Abbe Brunon, Philosophy. 
Dizy, Rhetoric. 
Flamanville, Second. 
Laigle, Substitute. 
Carlier, History. 
Monnot-des-Angles, Third. 
Lejeune, Fourth. 
Charpentier (Toussaint), Fifth. 
Charpentier (Philippe), Sixth. 
Gros, Physical Sciences. 
Caron, Special Mathematics. 
Faudot, Elementary Mathematics. 
Charpentier (Toussaint), Natural History. 
Kientz, German. 
Internal students, 204 ; external, 113. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Communal Colleges, — at Chalons-sur-Marne, 
Epernay, Sainte-Menehould, Vitry-le-Francois, 
— in all, 4. 

Pensions, 12 J ; 
Schools, 740. 

Normal Schools, 1 ; Primary 

I now proceed to give a succinct but complete view of all the literary insti- 
tutions of Paris and of the department of the Seine, which have any connection 
with the University, and are under the control of the Royal Council of Public 

Academy of Paris.* 


Mons. the Minister of Public Instruction, Grand 
Master of the University of France is, 
ex-officio, Rector. 
Rousselle, Inspector-General of the Studies, 
is charged with the administration of 
the Academy, 


Messrs. Taillefer, Messrs. Artaud, 

Bourdon, Viguier, 

L'Abbe Guillon, Auvray, 

De Cardaillac, Gaillard. 

• The seat of the Academy of Paris is said to be at the Sorbonne, only because the Academic Council holds its sessions there. 
VOL. IX. 7 




Academic Council. 

Mons. the Minister of Public Instruction, Grand 
Master of the University of Fiance, 
and Rector of the Academy of Paris, 
is President. 
Villemain, Lahure, 

Ct. Rambuteau, Lefebvre, (I.) 

Martin, Aube, 

Messrs. Rousselle, 
L'Abbe Guillon, 
De Cardaillac, 

L'Abbe Mercier, 

Baron Dubois, 
Baron Thenard, 


Faculties of the Academy of Paris. 
Faculty of Theology (Catholic). 

[The lectures are given at the Sorbonne.] 

The Faculty of Theology has been almost 
nominal since the late revolution. Within a few 
weeks the following' persons have been appointed 
by the archbishop of Paris, and confirmed by the 
minister of public instruction, to deliver public 
lectures at the Sorbonne. 

M. L'Abbe Mercier, Dean. 
Messrs. L'Abbe Mercier or ) ~ , c • , 

L'Abbe Frere, j Sacred Saryturea. 

L'Abbe Glaire, Hebrew. 

L'Abbe lcard, Ecclesiastical History and 

L'Abbe Receveur, Dogmatic Theology. 

^ i b 1 5 , ^ Gui,lon > or j Sacred Eloquence. 

L'Abbe Groult-Darcy, or ' Theological 
Ravinet, \ Morals. 

By a royal ordonnance of 25th December, 
1830, it was ordained that from and after the 
1st of January, 1835, no one can be nominated 
or appointed to the functions of bishop, vicar- 
general, canon, cure, or professor in the facul- 
ties of theology, if he has not obtained the degree 
of doctor in theology, for the functions of profes- 
sor, adjunct, or substitute in a faculty of the- 
ology j the grade of licentiate in theology, for 
the functions of archbishop, bishop, vicar-gen- 
eral, dignitary or member of a chapter, cure of 
chief city of a department or arrondissement, 
unless he has at least performed the office of j 
cure or assistant ; the grade of bachelor in 
theology, for the functions of cure of a chief 
place of a canton, unless he has filled, during 
ten years, the functions of cure or assistant. 
Faculty of Law. 
The school of law is held at the Place Pan- 

M. Blondeau, Dean. 

M. Reboul, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer. 
Messrs. Blondeau, i Elementary Course of 

Du Caurroy, ) Roman Law. 





Berriat St. Prix, ) Crim. Juris., and Civil 

De Portetz, \ and Crim. Procedure. 

Bravard, Commercial Code. 

Pellat, Pandects. 

Baron de Getando, Administrative Law. 

Macarel, Assistant. 

Royer-Collnrd, Law of JYations. 

Poncelet, History of Law 


Civil Code. 









The number of students of law who attended 
this faculty, in 1835, was nearly 3,000. 

Faculty of Medicine. 
The school of Medicine is held in the rue de 
Vecole de M^decine. 

M. Orfila, Dean. 

Messrs. Cruveilher, Anatomy. 

Baron Alibert, Materia Medica, and The' 

Orfila, Medical Chemistry. 
Baron Desgenettes, Hygiene. 
Deyeux, Pharmacy. 

Andra" 1 ' i Internal Pathology. 

Genly 11 ' 1 ' j External Pathology. 

Baron Richerand, Operations and Prepa- 

Moreau, Accouchements, diseases of women, 

Adelon, Legal Medicine. 






Cloquet (Jules), 

Internal Clinics. 

External Clinics. 

Broussais, Senior, Pathology and general 

Pelletan, Medical Physics. 
Richard, Medical JYutural History. 
Berard (the elder), Physiology. 
Jury or committee to examine candidates for 
the gra; e of officier de Sa te 
Messrs. Baron Richerand, P< esident. 
Cruveilher, ) 



Cruveillier, ) 
Andral, J 
Domange, ) 

Honorary Professors. 
Chev. de Jussieu, 
Baron Dubois. 

Agreges, or assistant profess rs who take the 
place of the other professors when they are pre- 
vented from performing their duties by sickness, 

Messrs. Bayle, 

Broussais, Jun., 


Martin Solon, 




Dubois (d'Amiens), 

A r vers, 



Cloquet (Hip.), 

De Lens, 








Royer-Collard (II.), 












Berard (Aug.), 


Sanson (Alph.), 

De Kergaradec, 




Paron du Chatelet, 


Pavet de Courtcille, 





Baron Thcvenot de 


St. Blaise, 








Dubois (Paul), 



Boycr, Jun., 





There are three directors to aid the profes- 
sors, three assistants in anatomy, three chiefs of 
clinics, and eight other persons employed in 
various offices relating to the school, and in 
taking care of the implements, &c. 

The number of regular medical students at 
Paris, in 1835, was about 4,000 ; including those 
which were not regular, 7,050. 

Faculty of Sciences, (at the Sorbonne.) 

Baron Thenard, a Peer of France, Dean. 
Grandjjan de Fouchy, Secretary. 

Messrs. Lacroix, Differ, and Inieg. Calculus. 
^^i Lefebure de Foncry, Substitute. 

Biot, Physical Astronomy. 

Levy, Substitute. 

Baron Poisson, Mechanics. 

Francceur, Algebra Superior. 

Dulong, Physics. 

Baron Thenard, Chemistry. 

Beudant, Mineralogy. 

De Mirbel, Botany and Veg. Physics. 
GeofFroy-Saint-llilaire, Zoology and Phys- 

Adjunct Professors. 

Messrs. Libri, Calculation of Probabilities. 
Pouillet, Physics. 

De Saint-Hifaire, Botany and Veg. Physics. 
Ducrotay de Blainville, Zoology and Com. 

Constant Provost, Geology. 

From twelve to fifteen hundred persons an- 
nually attend the courses of lectures of this 

Faculty of Letters, (at the Sorbonne.) 

Messrs. Victor Leclerc, Dean. 
Due, Secretary. 


Messrs. Boissonade, ) ~. T r .. 

David, Substitute, \ Greek Literature. 

Lomin^SaJ. j Latin Eloquence. 
Patin, Latin Poetry. 

V^Zt'\ FrenchEl0(iuence - 

Saint-Marc-Girardin, French History, Lit- 
erature and Poetry. 

Poret n Suft I Histor y °f Ancient Philosophy. 
Royer-Collard, ) History of Modern 

Joupproy, Adj. Prof. \ Philosophy. 
Lacretelle, (the younger,) Ancient History. 
Guizot, (late Min. of Pub. Inst.) ) Modern 
Micbelet, Sub. \ History. 

, Geography. 

Fauriel, Foreign Literature. 



There are five Royal Colleges and two Par- 
ticular* Colleges in Paris, all of which are in 
possession of full powers. The government, 
modes, and objects of instruction are the same 
in all these colleges. There is a general con- 
cours, or contest for prizes annually between the 
students of these colleges and the Royal College 
of Versailles, which is twelve miles distant from 

Three of the Royal Colleges of Paris, (the 
College of Louis-le- Grand ; the College of Henry 
IV.; and the College of Saint-Louis,) receive 
both boarders and day-pupils, (internes and 
externes.) The other two (the College of Bour- 
bon, and the College of Charlemagne,) receive 
only external or day-scholars. 

The Institutions and Pensions of Paris are 
required to send their pupils to the different 
colleges. This law is not, however, strictly 
enforced, as the reader has already been in- 

Rorjal College of Louis-le-Grand, (Rue St.-Jacques.) 

Messrs. J. Pierrot, Provisor. 

Emond, Censor des Etudes. 

Roger, Substitute. 

Bruzard, Steward. 

L'Abbe Tberou, Chaplain. 

Rev. Mr. Boissard, Protestant Minister. 

* These Particular Colleges depend upon their own resources 
for support, and are directly under their own government. 

Thillaye, Physics. 

Mathematics, Special and 





Guibert, Sub. 

Heguin de Guerle, French Literature. 

Desforges, | RhetgriCm 

Lorain ) 

Du Rozoir, } 

Rosseuvv-St.Hilaire, Adj. {History and Ge 

Guillardin, Sub. C ography. 

Wallon, Adj. ) 


Chardin (the elder), Adj 


Roberge, Adj 

Heguin de Guerle, supplied 

by M. Sarret, 
Barrot, Adj. ) 

Pourmarin, ) .-,.,>, 

Lauwereyns, -«dj. $***"■ 

Durand, Adj. \ 

Arvers, JVa'tural History. 

Guillard, Maugras, 1 

Deheque, Veiien, | Assistants 

Sarret, Didier, )■ and 

Ouizille, Tisserand and | Adjuncts. 

Bigourdan, J 

Sarret, German. 

Wilkin, English. 

Auberti, Italian. 







Messrs. Jouannin, J Professors in the 
Desgranges, f Royal School for 
Bianchi, t Oriental Languages 
Cor, ; attached to this" College. 

Besides the preceding 1 orders of Professors, 
there are attached to this College, three super- 
intendents, live elementary masters, three 
teachers of drawing, one of music, one writing, 
one of military and gymnastic exercises, fifteen 
maitres d'Etudes, and five physicians, including 
a dentist, an oculist, and an apothecary. 

The number of Internal students is 502 : External, 

College of Henry IV., (in the ancient house of 


Messrs. Liez, Provisor. 
Drevet, Censor. 
Gregoire, Stcicard. 
L'Abbe Peyre, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Mauser, ) n , ., , 

G\bo° h :<idj.\ Philoso P h y- 

Despretz, Physical Sciences. 
Navarre, Special Mathematics. 
Bouche, Elementary Mathematics. 

Meissas ( -Adjuncts " l Mathematics. 

RV | ««»■* 

Poulain, ^ 

Chanut, Special Adj. > History. 
Duruy, Adj. ) 

Destainville, Adj. J Second ' 

Riant, I T]id 

Harmant, \ ltlxra " 


Clachet, Adj. 

De Calonne, \ P; ,. 7i 

Villemeureux, Adj. \ m J tn " 

Veissier, ) ~. , 

Feugere, Adj. \ klIt ' 1 ' 

Milne-Edwards, Natural History. 

Mac-Carthy, English. 

Stahl, German. 

Besides these Professors, there are five ad- 
juncts in mathematics, four elementary teachers, 
"three teachers of drawing, two of writing, one 
of gymnastics, twenty-one maitres d'Etudes, and 
nine physicians, dentists, oculists, apothecaries, 
&c. &c. 

Internal students, 380 ; External, 365. 
College Royal of Saint-Louis, (at the ancient Col- 
lege of liar court, rue de la Harpe.) 

Messrs. Poirson, Provisor. 
Emery, Censor. 
Letermelier, Steward. 
L'Abbe Molroguier, Chaplain. 
L'Abbe Sabaticr, Adj. Chaplain. 

Me S3 r..ValeUe,,„ ito/ ,, i!( 

ssa. !•*!»«** 

Delisle, Special Mathematics. 

Vincent, 1 Elementary 

Binct-Saintc-Preuve, Adi. > „, ,, „ .• J 

T r , .,, a l- J ( Mathematics. 

Janson-Durville, Adj. ) 

Charpentier, ) r>,„, 
Bcllaguet, ' j R ^orui. 
Dumont, } 
Sedillot, \ History. 
Ansart, ) 



Messrs. Ansart, 

Huguet, Adj. 

Leroy, ) 

Huguet, Adj. \ Fifth. 

Defrenne, Adj. ) 

Lurat, ) ~. , 

Genouille.^dj. \ * ixt ' 1 ' 

Salacroux (the younger), Natural History. 

Egger, Substitute. 

Roguet, Substitute in Mathematics. 

O Sullivan, English. 

Schoen, German. 

In addition, there are four elementary teachers, 
six supervisors, two teachers of drawing, one of 
writing, nine of music, one of dancing, fourteen 
maitres d'etudes, and seven physicians, dentists, 
&c. &c. 

Number of Internal students, 253 ; External, 484. 

The three preceding Royal Colleges are on 
the south side of the Seine, the two following 
are on the north side. 

Royal College of Charlemagne, (at the house of the 
Grand Jesuits, in the rue St. Antoine.) 

Messrs. Dumas, Provisor. 
Belin, Censor. 
Pront, Steward. 

Messrs. Bouillet, Philosophy. 

Bary, Physical Sciences. 
Rouby, Special Mathematics. 
Levy, Elementary Mathematics. 
Dufour, Adjunct. 
Langlois, / D , . . 
Daveluy, j ketone. 
Cayx, \ 

Toussenel, Adj. Spec. > History. 
Haussard, Adj. } 

Meissas, Geometry. 

De JNeufforge, Adj. 
Fremion, | „, . 

Betolaud, Adj. \ l Im 
"Viguier, Adj 
Maitorey, Arithmetic 





Bonvalot, \ ~. ,. 

Cappelle, Adj. j ****■ 

Chaine, Elementary Classes. 

Compt (Achilles), Natural History. 

Quicherat, "I 

Gerusez, | 

Rossignol, J» Sup. Adjuncts. 


Darragon, j 

Donndorf, German. 

Ludger, English. 

There are also four physicians, surgeons, den- 
lists, oculists. 

The number of students (all External,) is 840. 

Royal College of Bourbon, (in the building of the 
Capuchins, rue St. Croix.) 

Messrs. Alexandre, Provisor. 
Clerc, Censor. 
Lecointre, Steward. 


Messrs. Saphary, Philosophy. 
Cazalis, Physics. 
Binet, Special Mathematics. 
Camus, Elementary Mathematics. 
Loupot, Adjunct. 
Planche, \ 

Lemwe, Adj. ( R} ^ . 
Kagon, i 

Taranne, Sup. ) 




History and Geography. 




Natural History. 

Messrs. Jarry tie Mancy, 
Filon, Adj 
Merruau, Adj. 

JWJ' „,.[ Second 
Pottier, Adj. ) 


Hisard, Sup. ! 

Raynaud, Adj. 


Valatour, Ad), 


Pi lay, Adj, 


Herbette, Adj 


BourjotSt. Hilaire, Sup, 

Baron de Lieliliaber, German. 

Spiers, English. 

Besides these, there are two teachers of the 
elementary classes, two adjuncts to natural 
history, and three physicians, including- a 

The number of students (all External,) is 850. 

College of Stanislas, (in the rue Notre-Dame-des- 
Champs, No. 34.) 

Messrs. L'Abbe Aug6, Director. 

L'Abbe Buquet, Prefect of Studies. 
L'Abbe Petit, Director of the Middle Coll. 
L'Abbe Milleriot, Director of the Little 

L'Abbe Ravinet, Prefect of Religion. 
L'Abbe Garson, Steward. 

Messrs. Gibon, Philosophy. 

Desdouits, Mathematics and Physics. 



Sauzier, Second. 
Cabaret-Dunaty, Third. 
Thedenat, Fourth. 

, Fifth. 

Thedenat (the younger), Sixth. 
Gillette, Natural History. 


Messrs. Carey, German. 
Denie, English. 

Besides these, there is a teacher of music, 
three physicians, including a dentist, and seven 
maitres d'etudes. 

The number of students (all Internal,) 250. 

This College does not receive External stu- 

College of Rollin, (rue des Postes, No. 34.) 

Messrs. De Faueonpret, Director. 

Ballard-Luzy, Gen. Prefect of Studies. 
Boullard, Prefect of the Middle College. 
Tournet, Prefect of the Little College. 
L'Abbe Senac, First Chaplain. 
L'Abbe Dieuzaide, Second Chaplain. 
Landois, Steward. 

Messrs. Poret, Philosophy. 
Lefevre, Physics. 
Sturm, Special Mathematics. 
Laisne, Elementary Mathematics. 
Rinn, Rhetoric. 
Magin, History. 
Guerin, Second. 
Legay, Third. 
Toussaint, Fourth. 
Boistel, Fifth. 
Prat-Marca, Sixth. 
Valenciennes, Natural History. 
Haussard, Adjunct in History. 
Hermann, German. 
Wilkin, English. 
Gobert, Drawing. 
Monginot, Accounts. 

In addition to these Professors, there are five 
elementary teachers, four teachers of divisions, 
seventeen maitres d'etudes, and five physicians, 
surgeons, &c. &c. 

The number of pupils (all boarders,) is 330. 

This College does not receive External stu- 

Institutions.— There are in Paris, 33 Institutions for boys, and 35 for girls. — 
Total, 68. 

Pensions. — There are in the city of Paris itself, 72 Pensions for boys, and 
51 for girls. There are in the portions of the Department of the Seine which 
are outside of Paris, 39 Pensions for boys ; making in all, 162 Pensions in 
the Department of the Seine, of which 123 are in Paris. 

Normal Schools, — for Primary Instruction, 2. 

the Department, of which 381 are in the city of Paris. Of these 596 schools, 
67 are schools on the plan of Mutual Instruction. 

Department of Seine-et-Marne. 

Communal Colleges, — at Meaux, Melun, Ne- 
mours, and Provins, — in all, 4. 

Institutions, 2. Pensions, 9. Primary schools, 

Department of Seine and Oise. 
Royal College of Versailles. 

Messrs. Thery, Provisor. 
Sandras, Censor. 
Loustau, Steward. 
L'Abbe Quinton, Chaplain. 

Messrs. Vacherot, Philosophy. 

ZZt Maisiere,, j «-*• 

Anquetil, Second. 
Bouchitte, } ». „. 

Petit, \ Histor y- 

Sicamois, Third. 
Leduc, Fourth. 
Marchand, Fifth. 
Seignette, Sixth. 
Galy-Cazalat, Physical Sciences. 
De Montferrand, Special Mathematics. 
Faure, Elementary Mathematics. 
De Balzac, Natural History. 
Madden, English. 
Simon, German. 
Internal students, 191 ; external, 250. 




Communal Colleges, — at Etampes and Pon- 
toise, — in all, 2. 

Institutions, 5. Pensions 
Primary schools, 776. 

35. Normal schools, 1. 

Department of Yonne. 

Co7nmunal Colleges, — at Auxerre, Avallon, 
Joigny, Movers, Sens, Tonnerre, — in all, 6. 
Pensions, 10. Primary schools, 570. 

This Academy comprehends 
ments,— Basses-Pyrenees, Haules- 

Messrs. Lcyson, Rector. 

Balencie, ) T . 

Ducondut, \ lectors. 
Dumenge, Secretary. 

Royal College of Pau. 

Messrs. L'Abbe Gattrez, Provisor. 
Roll and, Censor. 
Debourlachier, Steward. 
L'Abbe Cambot, Chaplain. 


Messrs. L'Abbe Batbie, Philosophy. 
Lafeuillade, Rhetoric. 

21. Academy of Pau. 


three depart- 
Pyrenees, and 

Bade, Third. 
Gouze, Fourth. 
Puyalet, Fifth. 
Lavigne, Sixth. 
Rlermet, Physical Sciences. 
Frottois, Special Mathematics. 
s, i ( Elementary Mathematics. 
^ ' I Natural History. 

Deboudachier, Spanish. 
O'Moran, English 
Internal students, 57; external, 90. 

Communal Colleges. — Orthez, St. -Palais, Ar- 
geles, Bagiieres, Tarbes, Vic-Bigorre, Aire, 
i Dax, Moni-de -Marsan, St -Sever, — in all, 10. 

Institutions,!. Pensions, 32. Normal schools, 2. 
I Primary schools, 1,734. 

22. Academy of Poitiers. 

This Academy embraces four departments, — 
Charent-Inferieure, Deux-Sevres, Vendee, and 
Messrs, Ranc, Rector. 

Abribat, Secretary. 

Faculty of Law. 

Messrs. Boncenne, Dean. 
Daguin, Secretary. 


Messrs. Fradin, Roman Law. 
Guillemot, 1 

Grellaud, > Civil Code. 

Pervinquiere (Abel), ) 

r, ( Procedure and Criminal Juris- 

Boncenne, j prudence . 

Foucart, Administrative Law. 
Becanne, Code of Common Law. 
Perrinquiere, ) SubstituteSi 


There is a secondary school of Medicine at 

Royal College of Poitiers. 

Messrs. Carbon, Provisor. 
Desroziers, Censor. 

Savatier, Steward. 

L'Abbe Marsault, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Mazure, Philosophy. 
Delaistre, Rhetoric. 
Mesnard, History. 
Audinet, Second. 

E&.),i™ M - 

Raynal, Fifth. 

Mostolat, Sixth. 

Bissey, Physical Scie7ices. 

Demere, Special Mathematics. 

Drot, Elementary Mathematics. 

Auzenat et Doosset, Elementary Classes. 

Hippeau, English. 

Internal students, 130 ; external, 201. 

Communal Colleges, — at Chatellerault, Civ- 
ray, Loudun, La-Rochelle, Rochefort, Saintes, 
St.-Jean-d'Angely, Melle, Niort, St.-Maixent, 
Thouars, Bourbon-Vendee, Fontenay, and Lu- 
9on, — in all, 14. 

Institutions, 4. Pensions, 34. 
Primary schools, 1,536. 

Normal schools, 1. 

23. Academy of Rennes. 

This Academy comprehends five depart- 
ments. — Cdtes-du-Nord, Finislere, Ile-et-Vilaine, 
Loire-Infer, and Morbihan. 

Messrs. Legrand, Rector. 
Tardive!, i 
Gouby, > Inspectors. 
Rabusson, ) 
Grouet, Secretary. 

Faculty of Law. 

Messrs. Vatar, Dean. 

Pontallie, Secretary and Treasurer. 



Par<?et, Roman Law. 


Morel, \ Civil Code. 


rp U . t.|' ti;j„»j S Procedure, and Crim. B.dard, j Jur ^ 

Felix Vatar, Common Law. 

Lepoitevin, Substitute. 

Goujon, Charged with the functions of Do. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 
Rennes, and also one at Nantes. 

Royal College of Rennes. 

Messrs. Henry, Provisor. 
Terrien, Censor. 
Coppale, Steward. 
L'Abbe Panaget, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Caro, Philosophy. 

Nove-Josserand, Rhetoric. 
Lchuerou, History. 
Nicolas, Second. 




Leroy, Third. 

Tranois, Fourth. 

Roth man n, Fifth. 

Fablet, Sixth. 

Dupre, Physical Sciences. 

Lepord, Special Mathematics. 

Bourdonnay-Duclesio, j ^aUcsP ^^ 

Internal students, 109; external, 353. 

Royal College of Nantes. 

Messrs. Delmas, Provisor. 
Lesne, Censor. 
Bernard, Steward. 
L'Abbe David, Chaplain. 


Messrs. L'Abbe Lechat, Philosophy. 
Boyer, Rhetoric. 
Riou-Kerangal, Second. 
Savagner, History. 
Charpentier, Third. 
Allery, Fourth. 
Janvier, Fifth. 
Legoff, Sixth. 

Gascheau, Physical Sciences. 
Dorveuu, Special Mathematics. 
Midy, Elementary Mathematics. 
Plihon, English. 

Internal students, 146 ; external, 101. 

Royal College of Pontivy. 

Messrs. P6rier, Provisor. 
Doucin, Censor. 
Chevalet, Steward. 
L'Abbe, Trcgoet, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Dubreuilh, Philosophy. 
Fabre, Rhetoric. 
Coutonce, Second. 
Lemee do Boisleard, Third. 
Gandin, Fourth. 
Fleury, Fifth. 
Lebouhellcc, Sixth. 
Azema, Physical Sciences. 
Jouanno, Special Mathematics. 
Le Gal, Elementary Mathematics. 

Internal students, 91 ; external, 53. 

Commmial Colleges, — at Vitre, Do], Fougeres, 
St.-Servan, Guingamp, Lannion, Dinan, St.- 
Brieuc, Quimper, rSt.-Polde-Leon, Quimpcrle, 
Ancenis, Paimboeuf, Auray, Josselin, Lorient, 
Ploermel, and Vannes, — in all, 18. 

Institutions, 3. Pensions, 35. 
Primary schools, 941. 

Normal schools, 2. 


This Academy comprehends two depart- 
ments, — Eure and Seine-lnferieure. 

Messrs. Badelle, Rector. 
Uorneille, ) , 
Lerond, J Ins P^ors. 
Leroy, Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology (Catholic). 

Messrs. L'Abbe, Dean. 

L'Abbe Malleville, Secretary. 


Messrs. L'Abhe Lecceur, Theology. 

L'Abbe Malleville, Evangelical Morals. 
L'Abbe, Ecclesiasl. Hist, and Discipline. 

There is a school of Medicine of considerable 
distinction, at Rouen, and partly sustained by 
the city. There are seven professors in it. 

Royal College at Rouen. 

Messrs. Faucon, Provisor. 
Galtier, Censor. 
Mevil, Steward. 
L'Abbe Coniam, Chaplain 

Academy of Rouen. 


Messrs. Bach, Philosophy. 
Magniez, Rhetoric. 
Pelletier, Second. 

»™»-.j History. 

Girl'ard, Third. 
Grout, Fourth. 
Houe, Fifth. 

Gout gaud-Dugazon, Adjunct. 
Subbathier, Sixth. 
Pendaries, Adjunct. 
Person, Physical Sciences. 
Dainez, Special Mathematics. 
Gors, Elementary Mathematics. 
Pouchet, Natural History. 
Bach, German. 
Bard, Englis'h. 

Internal students, 164; external, 491. 

Communal Colleges. — at Aumale, Dieppe, Eu, 
Havre, Montivilliers, Evreux, Gisors, Vernon, 
Bernay, — in all, 9. 

Institutions, 3. Pensions, 68. Normal schools, 2. 
Primary schools. 1,712. 

25. Academy of Strasbourg 1 . 

This Academy includes two departments, — 
Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin (Lower and Upper 

Messrs. Cottard, Rector. 
■ Herve, ^ 

Willin, > Inspectors. 
Lefournier, ) 
Dupain, Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology for the Church of the Augs- 
burg Confession, ^Lutheran) at Strasbourg. 

Messrs. Bruch, Dean. 

Fritz, Secretary. 


Messrs. , Theology. 

Willm, Evangelical Morals. 
Fritz, Exegesis. 

Bruch, Sacred Eloquence. 
Jung, Ecclesiastical History. 
Richard, Doctrine of the Cal. Con. 

Faculty of Law. 

Messrs. Kern, Dean. 

Pothier, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Messrs. Heimburger, Roman Law. 
Kern, ) 

Aubry, > Civil Code. 
Bleechel, ) 

Rauter, Procedure and Crim. Juris. 
Thieriet, Code of Common Law. 

Rau^" 1 '' i Substitutes. 

Faculty of Medicine. 
Messrs. Cailliot, Dean. 

Dupain, Secretary. 





Messrs. ■, Clinigue Interne. 

Erhmann, Anatomy. 

Stoltz, Ace. Cliniq. d'Acc. 

Goupil, Physiology and Clinique Externe. 

Masuyer, Medical Chemistry. 

Meunier, Medical Physics and Hygiene. 

Caillot, Med. Operat. and Exter'. Pathology. 

Tourdes, Internal Pathology. 

, Legal Med. and Epidem. Maladies. 

Fee, Botany. 

Coze, Pharmacy and Materia Medica. 

Rochard, Honorary Professor. 

Besides these, there are twenty-one Agreges 
or assistant professors. 

Faculty of Sciences. 

Messrs. Duvernoy, Dean. 
Sorlin, Secretary. 


Messrs. Scrlin, Application of Mathematics. 
Sarrus, Pure Mathematics. 
Duvernoy, Natural History. 
Fargeaud, Physics. 
Persoz, Chemistry. 

Faculty of Letters. 

Messrs. Hullin, Dean. 

Schweighaeuser, Secretary. 


Messrs. Schweighaeuser, Greek Literature. 
Caresme, Substitute. 

Hullin, French Literature. 
De St.-Venant, Latin Literature. 
Cuvier (Ch.), History. 
Bautain, Philosophy. 

Royal College of Strasbourg. 

Messrs. Derome, Provisor. 
Martinet, Censor. 
Louis, Stcicard. 

L'Abbe Delahaye, Chaplain (Catholic). 
Dietz, Chaplain, (Protestant). 


Messrs. Bataille, Philosophy. 
Caresme, Rhetoric. 
Delcasso, History. 
Genin, Second. 
Geffrov, Third. 
01 ry, Fourth. 
Staelhe, Fifth. 
Bouvier, Sixth. 
Fargeaud, Physical Sciences. 
Finck, Special Mathematics. 
Chaloupin, Elementary Mathematics. 
Fargeaud, Natural History. 
Sontag, German. 
Montalant, English. 

Internal students, 121 ; external, 203. 

Communal Colleges, — at Bouxviller, Hague- 
nau, Saverne, Schelestadt, Wissembourg, Alt- 
kirch, Belfbrt, Colmar, Thann, Mulhausen, 
Rouffach, and Obernai, — in all, 12. 

Institutions, 1. Pensions, 15. Normal schools, 2. 
Primary schools, 1,543. 

26. Academy of Toulouse. 

This Academy comprehends four depart- 
ments, — Ariege, Haute Garonne, Tarn, and 
Messrs. Ozaneaux, Rector. 

Larroque, f 

Denfert, > Inspectors. 

Vidal, ) 

La Salle, Secretary. 

Faculty of Theology, at Toulouse (Catholic). 


-, Dean. 

D'Haubech, Secretary. 


Messrs. , Didactic Theology. 

, Evangelical Morals. 

, Substitute. 

Jamme, Ecclesias. History and Discipline. 
D'Haubech, Sacred Literature and Hebrew. 

Faculty of Theology, at Montauban,for the Hel- 
vetic Confession, (Protestant). 

M. Bonnard, Dean. 

Messrs. Jalaguier, Evangelical Morals. 

, Theology. 

Bonnard, Hebrew. 
Montet, Ecclesiastical History. 
Floris, Philosophy. 
Encontre, Latin and Greek. 

Faculty of Law. 
Messrs. Malpel, Dean. 

Boisgiraud, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Messrs. Bencch, Roman Law. 
Malpel, \ 

Delpech, > Civil Code. 
Laurens, ) 

Carle, Criminal Law. 
Fcrradon, Code of Common Law. 

Mesplies, \ 
Deloume, f e„.w*,,*„ 
Dufour, } SubsMut ™- 
Vacquier, ) 

Faculty of Sciences, 

Messrs. Romieu, Dean. 

, Secretary. 


Messrs. Romieu, Pure Mathematics. 

Leon, Application of Mathematics. 
Moquin-Tandou, Natural History. 
Pinaud, Physics. 
Boisgiraud, Chemistry. 

Faculty of Letters. 

M. Fleury de l'Ecluse, Dean. 


Messrs. Monin, History. 

Cabantous, French Literature. 
Gatien-Arnoult, Philosophy. 
Sauvage, Latin Literature. 
De l'Ecluse, Greek Literature. 
Darnel, Substitute. 

There is a secondary school of Medicine at 
Toulouse, in which there are eight professors, 
and six substitutes. 

Royal College of Toulouse. 

Messrs. Vidal, Provisor. 

Chadrin de Belval, Censor. 
Touraton, Steward. 
L'Abbe Martin, Chaplain. 


Messrs. Mahuzies, Philosophy. 
Bouchcz, Rhetoric. 
D'Andre, Second. 




Olleris, History. 

Ducoin, Third. 

Meric, Fourth. 

Belcastol do Montvaillant, Adjunct. 

Laburthe, Fifth. 

Prevost, Sixth. 

Bergounioux, Seventh. 

Lortal, Eighth. 

Deguin, Physical Sciences. 

Murailhe, Special Mathematics. 

Yauthier, Elementary Mathematics. 

Butts, English. 

Yvanoz, Spanish. 
9uan, Drawing. 
Toussaint, Writing. 

Internal students, 112; external, 239. 

Communal Colleges, — at St-Gaudons, Foix, 
Pamiers, St.-Girons, Alby, Ga iliac. Casiel- 
Sarrazin, Moissac, Montauban, — in all, 'J. 

Institutions, G. Pensions, 55. Normal schools, 2. 
Primary schools, 1,327. 

T have now completed the survey of the University of France, including all 
the establishments of education and instruction which are connected with it, or 
are under the direct control of the royal council of public instruction. 

A summary of the whole is, that there were in France last year (1835), in 
connection with the University of France and under the direction of its council, 
acting in the name of the king : — 

Faculties of theology, of which two are Protestant and six Catholic, . 8 

Faculties of law, ........ 9 

Faculties of medicine, ....... 3 

(There are also seventeen secondary schools of medicine). 

Faculties of science, ........ 8 

Faculties of letters, ........ 6 

Normal school to educate professors of colleges, .... 1 

Royal colleges, ........ 40 

Communal and other colleges, ...... 321 

Normal schools to prepare teachers for primary schools, ... 58 
(This does not include some schools which serve as normal schools, though 

not called by that name). 

Institutions, . . . . . . . . . 145 

Pensions, ......... 1,099 

Special schools of commerce, industry, &c., . . . . 15 

Primary schools, including two hundred infant schools, . . . 42,517 

The number of students in the royal colleges was, last year, 15,047. 

The number of students in the several faculties is very large, but I have not 
been able to ascertain it with precision. 

The number of pupils in the normal schools is about 2,000. 

It is probable that the number of children and youth who attend the primary 
schools, during some portion of the year, is not much less, if any, than 4,000,000. 

In the year 1815, there were 2,113 law students; 4,216 students of medicine ; 
5,233 theological students ; 9,000 students in the royal colleges ; 28,000 in the 
communal and other colleges; 39,623 in pensions; and 737,369 pupils in pri- 
mary schools. From which it is apparent that the cause of education has made 
very great progress in France during the last twenty years. 

Indeed, very great progress has been made in the cause of education during' 
the last five years. This is especially true in relation to the schools for pri- 
mary instruction, which portion of the system has been in reality created since 
the revolution of July, 1830. This part of the University, or system of educa- 
tion, is now brought, in the opinion of Mr. Guizot, to as good a state as law is 
likely to bring it. What is wanted to render it perfect is the greater, or rather 
general, prevalence of pure religion, which would render it possible to have 
teachers of a truly pious character. On this great point the system is defective, 
and will remain so until the pure gospel gains a powerful sway over this mighty 
nation. May that blessed day soon arrive ! At present many of the teachers 
of the primary schools are the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine, an order of the 
Catholics who devote themselves to teaching. 

A few days before the dissolution of the late cabinet, Mr. Guizot submitted 
to the chamber of deputies a long report of the state of secondary education in 
France, comprehending the colleges, faculties, &c. That report was com- 
mitted to a large committee who have not, at the time of writing this article, 
made their report upon it. As the report of Mr. Guizot is not yet printed, I am 
not sufficiently acquainted with its details to undertake to state them. But I 
learn from Mr. Guizot, that it proposes very important improvements in the 



organization and especially in the studies of the higher establishments of edu- 
cation throughout the kingdom, and he has hopes, if his life should be spared a 
few years, of seeing those improvements introduced and established. 

I ought, perhaps, to state here, that the mode of choosing professors in the 
colleges and faculties by concours, or examination, has become very general in 
France. It is now used in almost every department of higher education. The 
professors in the law and medical schools are all chosen in this way. The pro- 
fessors in the Protestant theological faculties or schools are chosen, ordinarily, 
in the same way. The professors in the Catholic theological schools are nomi- 
nated by the archbishops. In a concours of this kind, a committee, appointed 
by the council of public instruction or some subordinate power, examines the 
applicants, hears them lecture on assigned topics, and read essays on certain 
theses, &c. &c. All is done openly. Sometimes this process takes several 
days or evenings. This was the case lately in choosing a professor in the 
medical school in this city. As many as eight or ten, if not more, evenings 
were spent in hearing the applicants, in the presence of seven examiners and 
several hundred students. That this plan secures the appointment of men who 
can express what they know with the greatest readiness and propriety is cer- 
tain. It is probably not less certain that it prevents the appointment, in many 
cases, of men of profound attainments, who cannot conceive with rapidity nor 
speak with facility. 

The length of this article is too great to allow me to make any further 
remarks on the state of education in France. It is my intention, if God spare 
my life, to give in a subsequent article, probably for the next number of the 
Quarterly Register, an account of the important establishments for the promo- 
tion of knowledge in France, which are not connected with the University, 
including the celebrated royal institute. At the close of that article I shall 
give, if possible, a full statement of the number of pupils in each class of estab- 
lishments for education in France. In the present article I have aimed at 
giving the reader an insight to the system of general education which is 
comprised in the University of France, or rather which constitutes what is 
called by that name. 




[Communicated by the Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D., LL. D.] 

To the Editor of the American Quarterly Register, — 

Sir, — The works of Dr. Buchanan, pertaining to India, have been repub- 
lished in America, and extensively circulated; but the collation of his manu- 
script Indian copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch by Mr. Yeates seems almost 
unknown. Having- recently had occasion to consult this work at the college 
library, it occurred to me that it deserved more attention than it had received, 
and that some account of it might be acceptable. My first intention was, to 
give merely an abridgment of Yeates's collation ; but, on a recollection of the 
interest that had been taken in the subject of oriental inquiries on our side of 
the Atlantic, I thought it might be gratifying to your biblical readers to have 
some account of what preceded the discovery of the manuscript Pentateuch. 
It was perceived that names, which might otherwise be omitted, would be of 
use to authenticate facts, and that it were false modesty to withhold them ; 
the inclosed account is therefore respectfully submitted to you by 

Yours with regard, A. Holmes. 

Cambridge, May 12, 1836. 

An oriental copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch has long been a desidera- 
tum. A discrepancy in the chronology of the early ages of the world, 
between the Hebrew, Ethiopic, Samaritan, and Greek copies of the Pen- 
tateuch, induced literary theologians to desire such a copy, for the purpose 
of comparison, to ascertain, if possible, whether the Hebrew copy, used 
by the translators of our English Bible, be correct. Among these inquirers 
was a distinguished Hebrew scholar of our own. The late Dr. Stiles, at 
an early period of his ministry at Newport, R. L, wrote to Syria, to obtain 
information of every thing interesting relative to the Jews, their disper- 
sions, locations, rites and usages, and copies of the Law used in their 
synagogues or places of worship. A few years afterward he wrote to 
J. Z. Holwell, Esq. author of Historical Events relating to the Empire of 
Hindoostan, to obtain information in oriental history ; particularly, to as- 
certain, whether the Jews of Cochin and at Patna were in possession of a 
Hebrew Pentateuch — an inquiry which continued to engage his attention 
to the close of life. The institution of the Asiatic Society, with the learned 
Sir William Jones at its head, gave him great delight, and rekindled his 
zeal in the oriental cause, in the very evening of his days. In recent 
histories of Hindoostan he had found a new account of a colony of Jews at 
Cochin, on the coast of Malabar. Having procured and read the Disserta- 
tions of Sir William Jones, it occurred to his mind that this eminent ori- 
entalist would undertake the inquiries which he wished to be made; and 
he accordingly wrote to him a letter, dated 18 January, 1794, the year 
preceding his death. This letter, consisting of more than seventy quarto 
pages, he sent to Calcutta, directed to the care of the Hon. Suetonius 
Heatly, chief judge of appeals at Decca, Bengal, with whom in early life 
he was acquainted ; but before it reached India, Mr. Heatly and Sir 


William Jones had deceased. A. Lambert, Esq. the administrator of Mr. 
Heatly's estate, a member of the Asiatic Society, forwarded the letter to 
the President of the Society, who caused it to be read at the first meeting 
after its reception. Mr. Lambert wrote a letter to Dr. Stiles, informing 
him that the letter would be answered by Sir John Shore, President of the 
Society, as soon as he should receive replies to the inquiries which he had 
directed to be made at Cochin and Cranganore, respecting the points which 
his " commendable zeal wished to have ascertained." 

Connected with the desire of a search for an oriental copy of the Hebrew 
Law, Dr. Stiles expressed a wish to have a very extensive territory in the 
East, especially from the Caspian eastward, and north of India and Tibet, 
"travelled by some persons of Hebrew literature, and of sagacious discern- 
ment of national character, who may discover such rational distinguishing 
traits, as you, Sir, have in the Afghans, who, from your account, I doubt 
not, are of Hebrew original, and of the Ten tribes. Your situation, in 
the oriental countries, gives you an advantage for the prosecution of this 
research; and I hope for more fruits of your inquiries on this subject." 
In this letter he expresses a great desire to see a copy of the patriarchal 
ages and chronology, as found in the Pentateuch of Cochin; and re- 
spectfully asks Sir William's offices in obtaining for him this gratification. 
Though Cochin is at some distance from Bengal, yet, by the assistance of 
some of his learned connections, visiting that coast, he judged that the 
desired object might be attained. Having pointed out what particular 
parts of the Pentateuch he wished to be copied, he expressed a desire to 
have them in the very character in which they are found in the manu- 
scripts, whether the present Hebrew letter, or of another oriental paleo- 
graphy ; and to know whether their copy was obtained from the modern 
Jews, or whether they have been possessed of it in another line of deriva- 
tion from the days of Nebuchadnezzar. He wished also for " a list of any 
and all other books of the Old Testament, in their possession, of this origi- 
nal derivation. St. Thomas found a Hebrew damsel singing Hebrew 
Psalms at the court of an Indian prince at Cranganore, near Cochin." 

A war with the natives of India caused a delay of the expedition for 
research; and before it was accomplished, Sir John Shore had returned to 
England. How far the letter of Dr. Stiles may have had influence in the 
selection of the places of research, or in the discovery of the manuscript 
before us, we know not. The facts, that the zeal of the writer was com- 
mended at Cochin; that his desired inquiries were directed to be made; and 
that, when replies should be received, Sir John Shore was to have answered 
the letter; and that Dr. Buchanan takes distinct notice of it, render it 
probable, that there was such an influence. 

In the Memoir, dated at Calcutta, 12 March, 1805, Appendix K. en- 
titled "Jewish Scriptures at Cochin," Dr. Buchanan observes: "There is 
reason to believe that scriptural records, older than the apostolical, exist 
on the coast of Malabar. At Cochin there is a colony of Jews, who retain 
the tradition that they arrived in India soon after the Babylonian captivity. 
There are in that province two classes of Jews, the white and the black 
Jews. The black Jews are those who are supposed to have arrived at that 
early period. The white Jews emigrated from Europe in later ages. What 
seems to countenance the tradition of the black Jews is, that they have 
copies of those books of the Old Testament that were written previously 
to the captivity, but none of those whose dates are subsequent to that 

" Some years ago, the President of Yale College, in America, an emi- 


nent archaiologist, addressed a letter to Sir William Jones, on the subject 
of these manuscripts, proposing that an inquiry should be instituted by the 
Asiatic Society; but Sir William died before the letter arrived. His object 
was to obtain the whole of the fifth chapter of Genesis, and a collation of 
certain other passages in the Old Testament; and also to ascertain whether 
the manuscripts at Cochin were written in the present Hebrew character, 
or in another oriental paleography." 

In 1806, the year after the date of the Memoir, Dr. Buchanan, under 
the auspices of the marquis Wellesley, commenced his travels, and was 
attentive to the investigation of the History and Literature of the Christians 
and Jews of these parts of the East. He travelled from Calcutta to Cape 
Comorin by land, and made excursions in the interior of that extensive 
peninsula, where he met with Jewish colonies. Here he found a copy of 
the Hebrew Law, which was one special object of research.- — By his 
Researches it appears: That the Black Jews colonized on the coast of 
India long before the Christian era; that the very imperfect resemblance 
of their countenance to the Jews of Europe indicates that they have been 
detached from the parent stock in Judea many ages before the race of 
Jews in the West; and that they are descendants from those ancient dis- 
persions recorded in the Sacred History ; that corroborative of this is the 
fact, that certain of these tribes do not call themselves Jeics, but IJeni- 
Israd, or Israelites; that in the record chests of the synagogues of the 
Black Jews of Cochin have been discovered old copies of the Law, some of 
which are complete, and for the most part legible ; that at the remote 
synagogues of the same description of Jews, situated at Tritooa, Paroor, 
Chenotta and Malch, have been found many old writings, among which 
are some of great length in Rabbinical Hebrew, but in so ancient and 
uncommon a character, as to require much time and labor to ascertain 
their contents ; that they have, in most places, the book of the Law, the 
book of Job, and the Psalms, but know little of the Prophets; that some 
of them have even lost the book of the Law, and only know that they are 
Israelites from Tradition, and from their observance of peculiar rites; and 
that in a cofTer of a synagogue of the Black Jews, in the interior of Malayala, 
there has been found an old copy of the Law, written on a roll of leather, 
about 50 feet long, composed of skins sewed together, so worn out, in some 
places, as to be patched with pieces of parchment. 

Such is an historical sketch of the result of Dr. Buchanan's Jewish re- 
searches in this part of India. The " old copy of the Law," last mentioned, 
claims our particular attention. It is precisely what the antiquarian and 
biblical inquirer was solicitous to find; and it furnishes an important con- 
firmation of the correctness of the Hebrew copies of the Old Testament 
used by the best translators, including the copy used for the Version of our 
own English Bible. — Of this manuscript an account will now be given. 

Indian Copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch. 

This Roll, with several other oriental manuscripts, was carried by Dr. 
Buchanan to England, and given, with the other manuscripts to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. It was regarded as of sufficient importance to en- 
gage the careful examination of those who were competent to estimate its 
value. The learned Thomas Yeates, late of the University of Oxford, was 
designated for this service; which he soon after performed, to the high 
approbation and grateful acceptance of the public. After taking an exact 
copy of the manuscript, he proceeded to compare it with other manuscripts 


and printed copies of the Law ; and his Collation was printed at Cam- 
bridge, by the Syndics of the University, in 1812. It is entitled, 





Containing an exact Description of the Manuscript, and a Notice of some 
others, (Hebrew and Syriac,) 


The Rev. Claudius Buchanan, D. D. 

In the year 1806, 

And now deposited in the Public Library, Cambridge." 

By Thomas Yeates, 
Late of the University of Oxford. 

In the preliminary remarks, Mr. Yeates observes, "The derivation of 
the manuscript is announced in the printed label affixed to it : — ' This 
Manuscript,. on a roll of Goat-skins dved red, was found in the Record 
Chest of one of the Synagogues of the Black Jews, in the interior of 
Malayala in India, by the Rev. Claudius Buchanan, in the year 1S06.' 
Those Jews, on being asked certain questions about it, could give no 
precise account of it: some replied, that it came originally from Senna in 
Arabia; others of them said, it was brought from Cashmir. The Cabul 
Jews, who travel annually into the interior of China, remarked, that in 
some synagogues the Law is still found written on a roll of leather; not 
on vellum, but on a soft flexible leather, made of goat-skins, and dyed red, 
which agrees with the foregoing description of Dr. Buchanan's roll. 

" We know very well that the Jews, in the time of Moses, had the art of 
preparing and dying skins; for rams 1 -skins dyed red, made a part of the 
covering for the tabernacle (Exod. xxvi. 14,) ; and it is exceedingly 
probable, that the very autograph of the Law, written by the hand of Moses, 
was written on skins so prepared. The ancient rules prescribed to the 
Jewish scribes direct, that the Law be so written, provided it be done on 
the skins of clean animals, such as sheep, goat, or calf-skins : therefore 
this manuscript and many others in the hands of the Jews, agree in the 
same as an ancient practice. The Cabul Jews, as aforesaid, show that 
copies of the Law. written on leather skins, are to be found among their 
people in India and China; and hence we have no doubt, that such are 
copies of very ancient manuscripts." 

" Description of the Cambridge Roll, 

"Or, Indian Copy, which also may be denominated Malabaric, from 
that part of India in whose vicinity it was found. It consists of strong 
leather skins, thirty-four in number, and sewed together. The text occu- 
pies one hundred and seventeen columns, and the length of the roll, in its 
present condition, measures nearly fifty feet, by about two feet broad. The 
columns contain fifty lines, and are about a palm, or four inches in breadth. 
It contains the fragments of three different rolls; and the skins are of two 
qualities, partly red, and partly brown. Some of them are in very good 


preservation; others much impaired by time, and flawed in many places; 
but the writing is nevertheless clear and legible, it having gunk into the 
substance of the skin. Some fcw places are defaced from accident, per- 
haps from its conveyance from so great a distance. The old skins have 
been strengthened by patches of parchment on the back; and in one place 
four words have been renewed by the same supply. The text is written in 
the square character, and without the vowel points and accents ; and the 
margin of the columns is every where plain, and free from writing of any 
sort. It has all the spaces and minutim of the most correct Ma sore tic 
copies, and some few peculiarities not common in those of the Western 
Jews. Several of the skins have the ornamental writing or Corona?, for- 
merly belonging to a most superb and highly finished copy. The text of 
Genesis occupies fifty-seven columns, and concludes the last with a space 
equal to four lines. 

" As the roll is found to consist of fragments of copies purely Oriental, 
and seemingly unconnected with the Western Jewish copies, we may now 
conclude the same to be ample specimens of copies in those parts of the 
world. It is true indeed that a great part of the text is wanting, and the 
whole book of Leviticus; yet, notwithstanding the large deficiencies of the 
manuscript, it ought to be a satisfaction to know, that herein are ample 
specimens of at least three ancient copies of the Pentateuch, whose tes- 
timony is found to unite in the integrity and pure conservation of the 
Sacred Text, acknowledged by Christians and Jews in these parts of the 
world. The following Collation confirms the truth of this remark; and if 
such specimens, furnished by this manuscript, are allowed their proper 
weight and importance, we can have little room to doubt of the general 
purity of the entire copies; so that we now have no reason to expect, from 
Hebrew manuscripts obtained from the Oriental Jews, any new or ex- 
traordinary emendation of the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch. 

" Dr. Kennicott conjectures, that a considerable change had taken place 
in the state of the Hebrew text," during a remote period. "Admitting," 
says Mr. Yeates, " that such conjecture is founded in fact, and that such 
an important change of the Hebrew copies then extant took place by general 
revision, or rather corruption, by the Jews in the West, or in some coun- 
tries ; yet it by no means proves, that such supposed reformation of the text 
by designing Jews was universal, and extended to the coast of Malabar. 
The integrity of that part of the Hebrew text in the Cambridge Roll, 
compared with the most esteemed and genuine printed text, is a direct 
evidence to the contrary. 

"But again; the integrity and immutability of the Hebrew text is an 
article of that importance to the whole Christian world, that its defence 
must be supported against the dangerous consequences of uncertain and 
unfounded conjecture. The printed text of the Hebrew Scriptures through- 
out Europe, extant in the several popular and most esteemed editions, both 
among Christians and Jews, is attested by the manuscript under considera- 
tion ; and it proves that our Western copies do still exist in their ancient 
form and purity, without having suffered any change or material corruption. 
The testimony of this Malabaric copy is found so truly important in this 
point, that after having once most carefully collated it with the text of 
Vander Hooght, I resumed my labor of a second collation with a copy of 
Athias's Bible, printed at Amsterdam, 1661 : the sameness and identity of 
the text in the three copies demonstrates their fidelity as having one com- 
mon origin, and of consequence the genuineness of our printed text. The 
learned defenders of the Sacred Scriptures will doubtless take up the argu- 
ment in an improved form, to the advantage of Revelation." 


" The chronology of the patriarchal ages, computed from the sums of 
years recorded in Genesis, is a point of considerable importance in all 
collations of the Hebrew text, especially since the Hebrew, Samaritan, and 
Greek copies are found to differ so much in the computation of time ; and 
consequently, have given rise to several discordant systems. The only 
hopes of discovering the true and original reckoning, have been placed in 
the supposed existence of manuscripts differing from those hitherto known; 
and hence an Oriental copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch has long been a 
desideratum. The Indian Roll contains the entire text of Genesis, which 
is sufficient for the purpose; and its derivation from Jcivs of very early 
settlement in India, (perhaps the remnant of the ancient dispersions in the 
time of Nebuchadnezzar) determines this to be an Oriental copy in every 
sense of the word, and its testimony in this respect must be interesting. 
The question is, Does this copy agree with the Western Hebrew copies, in 
the sums of years recorded in Genesis? — the answer is declared in the 
affirmative; and is a fact of that importance, that the entire text of those 
verses has been accurately and faithfully copied from the Roll, and inserted 
in -the Collation, for the satisfaction of the learned." 

" Dr. Kennicott was solicitous for copies of the Hebrew Scriptures from 
the Jews of India and China. He notes a very ancient copy of the Pen- 
tateuch at Cai-Fong-Fu, in the province of Ho-nan, mentioned by Le 
Long, Bibleoth. cap. 2; and to enrich his collations with so great a 
treasure, he corresponded with persons of great weight and influence both 
at Madras and Canton, to which latter place he sent a copy of Vander 
Hoo^ht's Bible, with hopes, at least, of a collation ; but it appears his 
laudable endeavors proved fruitless in those remote countries. The dis- 
covery of an Indian copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch was reserved for the 
eventful period of the nineteenth century, and for a Discoverer, (guided, 
as it were, by an apostolic spirit, to the very place where it had been re- 
served from time immemorial,) the excellent Claudius Buchanan, whose 
track led him also to the discovery of Syriac manuscripts of the Old and 
New Testament, no less important to sacred literature.'' 

" The Collation was made at the desire and charge of the Donor of the 
manuscript, the Rev. Dr. C. Buchanan, and at the recommendation of the 
Rev. Dr. Marsh, Margaret Professor of Divinity, and other learned gen- 
tlemen of the University." Dr. Marsh, having examined the manuscript, 
and Mr. Yeates's Collation, gave the following opinion in a Note : 

"A manuscript Roll, of the Hebrew Pentateuch, apparently of some 
antiquity, and found among the Black Jews in the interior of India, must 
be regarded at least as a literary curiosity, deserving the attention of the 
learned in general. And as this manuscript appears, on comparison, to 
have no important deviation from our common printed Hebrew text, it is of 
still greater value to a theologian, as it affords an additional argument for 
the integrity of the Pentateuch." After a further illustration of the subject, 
Dr. Marsh adds: "the manuscript appears for these reasons to merit 
particular attention. A description and collation of it therefore must cer- 
tainly interest every biblical scholar." 

Mr. Yeates makes grateful acknowledgments to the Syndics of the 
University Press, for printing the Collation, as well for his benefit, as for 
the cause of Biblical Literature. In this connection, we are reminded of 
our obligations to Mr. Yeates for the Collation, and to the University of 
Cambridge for its reception on this side of the Atlantic. — Before the pub- 
lication of the Researches, I had exchanged letters with Dr. Buchanan 
on the subject of his Inquiries in India. On the 18th of November, 1811, 


I informed him, that his "Memoir" and his "Researches," had been re- 
printed in America, and were attracting that attention and exciting that 
interest among the numerous readers in our country, which writings of BO 
philanthropic, pious, and literary a character may justly claim. In this 
letter I observed, that, of all his discoveries no one had so strongly arrested 
my attention and excited my curiosity, as the " Old Copy of the Books of 
Moses, written on a Roll of leather," found among the Black Jews in the 
interior country of India; that no sooner did I learn, by his Appendix to 
the " Star in the East," that he had discovered such an ancient manuscript 
copy of the Pentateuch, than I exclaimed with Archimedes, Evnyxu ; that 
his pleasure, in this discovery, ought as much to have exceeded that of the 
philosopher of Syracuse, as the value of religious exceeds the value of 
mathematical truth. "If this manuscript" — it was subjoined — "should 
throw light on the most ancient parts of the Holy Scriptures, or if it merely 
confirm the correctness of the Hebrew Bible from which our version was 
made, it will render an important service to the cause of truth and of our 
holy religion. In one of the Notes, which, as editor of the American 
edition, I affixed to the Memoir, a presumption was expressed, that this 
manuscript was in the Buchanan Collection at the University of Cambridge. 
It is very highly gratifying to be assured of this fact, as we now are, by a 
Note in your Researches, and especially to learn, that the collation of 
this Roll of the Pentateuch is now finished, and is to be printed at the 
expense of the University. The publication will do great honor to that 
venerable seminary. In the mean time, in the apprehension that we may 
not obtain a copy of this work in America, or, if we should, in consideration 
of the peculiar advantages with which its readings may be compared with 
those of Vander Hooght, Kennicott, and with the Septuagint, Samaritan, 
and other versions by the Oriental scholars formed under your auspices at 
Cambridge, I take the liberty to solicit the favor, that you would procure 
such a comparison to be made, and honor me with a communication of the 
result. All I would presume to ask is, that a comparison of the text in 
your manuscript be made with other copies, in the passages pointed out 
by president Stiles, in his Letter to Sir William Jones, for the purpose of 
ascertaining the patriarchal chronology. Not knowing what are the con- 
ditions of the proposed publication of the Roll of the Pentateuch, you will 
pardon me, Sir, for inquiring what those conditions are, and whether our 
Universities may yet become subscribers to the work ; as also for respect- 
fully suggesting whether (if it be too late for subscription) these Univer- 
sities, particularly the Universities of Harvard, in Cambridge (Mass.), and 
of Yale, in New Haven (Conn.), the two oldest and most respectable 
Seminaries in New England, may each be honored with a copy as a dona- 
tion. It certainly would be most gratefully received, and diligently ex- 
amined ; for, much as we are in our infancy in letters and arts, the oriental 
languages are considerably attended to among us, and the study of Biblical 
Literature has of late become sensibly revived. ... It may be grateful to 
you, Sir, to be informed, that since the first impression of your Memoir in 
February last, a second edition has been printed ; that the profits of the 
American editions, both of this work and of the Researches, are devoted 
to the benefit of the Natives of India; that contributions are going forward 
in our country for the translation of the Bible into the languages of the 
East; and that several young men from our Universities have devoted 
themselves to the Indian mission. — Believing that the cause in which you 
are engaged is the cause of truth, and that it will prevail, and praying 
that you may live to witness the celebration of the Christian rites at the 
VOL. ix. 9 


temple of Juggernaut, and holy sacrifices and a pure offering presented at 
the now sanguinary and polluted altars of Moloch, and that the blessings 
of millions ready to perish may come upon you, I am, Sir, with great con- 
sideration and respect, Your obedient," &c. 

In a letter dated " Kirby Hall, Borobridge, Yorkshire, 31 December, 
1811," Dr. Buchanan wrote, that he had had a slight stroke of paralysis in 
his right hand, which made it painful for him to write; but he very oblig- 
ingly made answer to my last letter. " It gives me much satisfaction to hear 
that my Researches and Memoir are published in America for the benefit 
of the Translations in India. I shall request the University of Cambridge 
to present a copy of the Hebrew Collations (to which you refer) to the 
Universities of Harvard and Yale, America, as soon as they are published, 
which is not yet the case. They will be left at Messrs. Cadell & Davies, 
Strand, London, to await your order." 

The copies were accordingly sent for, and at length procured and pre- 
sented to the two Colleges. A Note of acknowledgment was received from 
the President of Harvard, inclosing the following Vote : 

*' At a meeting of the Corporation of Harvard College, Nov. 28, 1815, 

" The President laid before the Board a letter from the Rev. Dr. Holmes, 
which was accompanied by the late edition of Yeates's Collation of the 
Indian Copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch, just received from Cadell & 
Davies, with whom it had been deposited to be delivered to the order of 
Dr. Holmes, but in consequence of the war had not been obtained till now. 
It appears that we are indebted for this work to the University of Cam- 
bridge, England, at the instance of the late Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, 
Dr. Holmes having in a letter to Dr. Buchanan, soon after the issuing of 
Proposals for printing the Collation, expressed a desire that our University 
might have a copy, either by subscribing or by receiving it as a donation — 

" Voted, That the thanks of the Corporation be presented to Dr. Holmes 
for his provident kindness in taking effectual measures to procure for our 
public Library this interesting work ; and also that the thanks of this 
Board be given to the University of Cambridge, England, for their valuable 
donation, with the expression of our high respect. 

" Attest. John T. Kirkland, President." 

Professor Kingsley, in a sketch of the History of Yale College, lately 
published in the American Quarterly Register, takes notice of the Colla- 
tion of the Hebrew copy of the Pentateuch presented to the Library of that 
College, of which he is Librarian. Pie also commemorates the antiquarian 
President, who seemed to anticipate, though he did not live to witness, 
the discovery of the manuscript in the very place which he indicated. 
Having mentioned the letter of Dr. Stiles to Sir William Jones, and the 
intended answer by Sir John Shore, he remarks : " It deserves to be here 
stated, that the opinion of President Stiles, as to the existence of such a 
manuscript, was afterwards fully confirmed." After mentioning Dr. Bu- 
chanan's discovery of the Hebrew copy of the Pentateuch in the record- 
chest of one of the synagogues of the black Jews in the interior of Malayala, 
its Collation by Mr. Yeates, and its publication at the University press at 
Cambridge in England, he adds — "a copy of it was sent to Yale College 
Library." The worthy professor never lost sight of this subject. In a 
recent letter to me, he writes : " I have often, when looking at this volume, 
thought of the high gratification which the sight of it would have given 
President Stiles, and the enthusiasm with which he would have run over its 


pages. It will remain a memorial of the literary sagacity of one, to whom 
this College is deeply indebted, and a respect for whom will always be in- 
creased in proportion as his character is understood." 

James Wintiikop, Esq. for many years Librarian of Harvard College, a 
learned antiquary, was highly gratified by the perusal of Yeates's Collation 
soon after its reception. On this occasion he wrote to me : " 1 return 
Yeates's Collation with many thanks. It appears to agree wonderfully 
with the printed Hebrew text. The confirmation is strong, and the agree- 
ment of chronology establishes that point." 


[Communicated by a Missionary at the Sandwich Islands.] 

I wish to direct the attention of the Christian public to the distressing 
fact, that heathen nations decrease rapidly before the march of civilization ; 
to assign some causes for the fact, and to speak of the influence which a 
fact of this kind should exert on the conduct, of Christians. 

No one at all conversant with history or acquainted with heathen nations, 
will deny that such is the fact. Look at South America. Where is her 
once numerous population 1 Gone, gone forever ! Where are the former 
occupants of the West Indies ? Perished, — swept as with the besom of 
destruction. And how is it with the once numerous tribes who lined the 
shores of the Atlantic, where she washes what is now called New England? 
Where are the warriors who once spread terror through the whole country, 
or who hunted their game where smiling villages with their numerous, 
busy population are now seen ? Not a vestige remains of them to show 
the traveller where once they kindled their council-fires, or lay in ambush 
to surprise and destroy their unsuspecting foe. And I surely need not 
ask, what are the prospects of the remaining tribes of Indians at the West 
and South ! Thrust from the ranks of civilized nations, when about to 
assume the only standing which could prevent their irretrievable ruin, and 
trodden to the dust by the very men who had sworn to protect them, the 
heart of every Christian and philanthropist in the land bleeds in anticipa- 
tion of their speedy and utter extinction ! So at the Sandwich islands, 
and other islands of the Pacific where men from Christian countries have 
commenced the work of civilization. Two, at the lowest computation — I 
think three — die, where one is born ; and full half who are born, die before 
they reach the age of three years. And this mortality obtains where means 
of civilization are most abundant. A member of this mission in a recent 
visit to Tahiti saw a missionary of the London Missionary Society, who had 
labored a few years on one of the Friendly islands, unfrequented by men 
from other countries, and he stated the increase to be as two to four, or as 
great as the decrease at Tahiti, and the Sandwich islands. Wherever 
civilization has gone to the aid of the heathen, professedly to raise them 
from their degradation, they have sickened at her approach, and her 
embrace has been to them the embrace of death. Did heathen nations 
know the result of their intercourse with men from lands professedly Chris- 
tian, they would cry out like the Ekronites on the approach of the ark of 
God — would flee from contact with men of other countries as they would 
avoid the plague. 


But why is it so ? Why should the heathen shrink away and die at the 
approach of civilization ? Most certainly there is no necessity that such 
should be the result. The heathen are ignorant, and uncivilized, and 
they need the aid of civilization, and they might derive incalculable benefit 
by their intercourse with men from Christian countries. The cause, then, 
why they derive no benefit from such intercourse, must be sought in the 
character of foreigners who visit them, and in the course they have seen 
proper to pursue. 

One reason why the intercourse of foreigners with heathen nations has 
proved so disastrous, may be found in the fact, that the wants of the 
heathen have in consequence greatly increased, while the facilities for sup- 
plying those wants have been withheld. Merchants visit uncivilized nations 
and make a display of their trinkets and goods; others land on their shores 
and build honses, and purchase horses, and live after the style of their own 
country. The people see the superiority of the method of living adopted 
by their visitors, and they pine for these untried gratifications. Still, even 
if they may contrive to obtain these foreign commodities for a season, they 
cannot be said to derive benefit, permanent benefit, unless they are put in 
a way to supply their own wants. But those who profess to desire the 
civilization of the heathen, are not forward to teach them the arts and 
usages of civilized life. They would keep them in ignorance, would ren- 
der them dependent that they might the more easily take advantage of their 
necessities. How was it with the Cherokee and Choctaw tribes of Indians ? 
While they continued their savage mode of life, were roving in their habits, 
idle, and intemperate, and of course, wasting away, little fear was expressed 
as to their influence on the community around them ; they might indeed 
be vicious, and idle, and improvident, but they were a surer prey to the 
harpies who hovered about them, ready to seize and bear away the last 
pittance in their possession. But no sooner did these tribes cease their 
wandering habits, and resolve on cultivating their soil, and becoming 
skilled in the arts and usages of civilized life, than they were compelled to 
feel the iron hand of oppression wresting from them their all, and driving 
them naked into the wilderness. And I aver that this is the very spirit 
with which Christians have approached heathen nations. 

But the chief reason why the intercourse of foreigners with heathen 
nations has proved so disastrous, is found in the fact, that many of them 
have introduced almost every vice which can disgrace and ruin soul and 
body, while they scarcely practise a single virtue before the heathen. 
This is a most affecting truth. Multitudes — not of the lower classes of 
society only — but men who would be thought gentlemen, intelligent, and 
honorable, and who may have occupied a high rank in society at home — I 
say, multitudes of these men no sooner land on heathen shores, than they 
plunge headlong into scenes of dissipation; wallow in the slough of sinful 
indulgence. The miseries thus entailed upon the heathen are shocking 
beyond description, and are nearly irremediable. To specify,— look at the 
Sandwich islands. For fifteen years the gospel has been preached at these 
islands, and every means employed to heal the maladies of the soul 
and body. Yet, after all, notwithstanding the force of example in their 
teachers, notwithstanding medical assistance and instruction to parents 
in rearing their children, notwithstanding every agency we can bring to 
bear upon the people, and notwithstanding the favorable changes which 
have actually taken place among them, the people are not healed ; disease 
and death are not prevented ; the people continue to decrease. And 
why? Disease has contaminated their blood ; the seat of life is tainted, 


and loathsome and deadly diseases are transmitted from generation to 
generation. Oh, what disclosures will be made at the bar of God ! What 
an account will Christian nations be called to render to the Judge of all the 
earth ! 

In view of these facts, let Christian nations feel their indebtedness to 
the heathen. Paul felt that he was a debtor to men of every character and 
description. So should Christians all feel, and in view of this indebt- 
edness, should they act. Oh, my friends, my Christian brethren, how 
cheerfully ought you, ought we all, to toil for the degraded heathen ! Had 
Christians been prompt in obeying the command of their ascending Lord, 
had they not waited till unprincipled men had polluted the heathen, and 
sown among them the seeds of disease and death, how much misery had 
been saved to the world ! How much more easily might the gospel have 
been introduced into heathen lands ! How many more might have been 
saved from perdition ! I do assure you, dear friends, that I am often 
ashamed when I look into the face of a heathen, and I pray God to help 
me and you too, to be faithful in laboring in their behalf, that our garments 
may be clean from their blood. 


We make an extract below from a letter lately received by us from another 
missionary at the Sandwich islands, written in behalf of his brethren. Some of 
the views expressed in it have been often repeated by us. But they are truths 
which need to be enforced and reiterated till they have produced among all 
Christians their appropriate effect. The conversion of the heathen is not a 
hopeless work, but it is an exceedingly difficult one. The missionary and his 
patron need energy, zeal, purity of motive, a spirit of prayer, but pre-eminently 
patience. They are not dealing with matter — they are not constructing rail- 
roads, nor making a turnpike over a mountain. If they were, the business 
might be done with all speed. But they are at work on the mind of man in 
ruins, in stupid debasement, with forms of evil worn into him. A pagan is 
depraved in another sense from what an Englishman is. The fact, however^ 
furnishes no cause for discouragement. We are able, with the aid of the divine 
Spirit, to influence the human mind in all the stages of its earthly departures 
from God. While in a state of probation, the gospel can save it, if it is applied 
perseveringly, patiently, in full hope, and with unceasing prayer. 

It is a great work to convert all nations ; a great work to translate the 
Sandwich Islanders from darkness to light. Much has been done. Much re- 
mains undone. The body of heathenism is dead, but its spirit lives. The 
wooden gods are destroyed, and they profess to adopt the unseen and till 
lately the unknown God ; but they will at first naturally transfer to him the 
impressions, associations, and attributes, which have, for ages, attached to the 
imaginary gods of their fathers. They have learned that it is foolish to bow 
down to a block, but, with few exceptions, they have not wisdom to worship 
Him who is a Spirit in spirit and in truth. An idolatrous nation may embrace 
Christianity at once, and be called a Christian people, but a new name does not 
avail to change the substance designated by it. There needs to be a new 
creation and not a nominal transfer. 

The rites of the ancient religion were rigid, the form precise — the form 


being all that required attention. It might be expected, therefore, that in 
adopting a new religion, whether Christian, Mohammedan, or Jewish, they would 
be attentive to the external forms. Hence the Society and Sandwich Islanders 
have been spoken of as shaming the inhabitants of Christian lands in their 
efforts to be at the place of worship ; in their attention, while there, to what is 
said; in their general performance of the duty of secret and family prayer; in 
their observance of the Sabbath ; and in their abstinence from theft and other 
crimes. And this is true. But it is not proof that they are better than the in- 
habitants of Christian lands ; for their zeal in the forms of idolatry might 
also rebuke the disciples of Christ. It may be evidence rather that they are 
influenced by more efficient motives in the production of external observances 
than are found in Christendom, or else that temptations to depart from a form of 
godliness are weaker or fewer in these islands than in Old or New England. 

In addition to the influence of their former religion upon that which they 
have lately adopted, the nature of their government deserves regard. The 
pleasure of the chiefs has been a forcible motive in directing and propelling the 
movements of this people. If it be inquired, " What induced the chiefs to 
adopt the Christian religion and enjoin it on their subjects?" the reply might 
be, They were weary of the old system, and wished for a change ; or it might 
be ascribed to a supernatural influence. However we may account for the ex- 
istence of the desire of the chiefs that Christianity should be the religion of 
their subjects, there can be no doubt but that the expression of that desire 
would weigh much with the multitude ; for the servile and benighted are apt to 
regard the voice of the king as Herod's was regarded on his birthday, when he 
made an oration to the people. 

I have by me a composition of Laanui, one of the last chiefs, written four 
years ago, and delivered as a speech at a public examination of the schools, of 
which the following is a translated extract. Having spoken of former times 
and of Rihoriho's sailing to England and dying there, he proceeds thus: "The 
kingdom was transferred to Kauikeaouli his younger brother. This is his 
proclamation. 'The individual in my kingdom, who learns the word of God, he 
is a man for me ; the person who does not learn, he is not mine.' This was the 
voice of the king. AH men heard it. The word of God spread; all men at- 
tended to it from Hawaii to Kauai, and all the chiefs. A good king he, attending 
himself to the word and law of God, and his own law also. Thus he made 
known his pleasure, and so did his guardian [Kaahumanu.] They two went 
together and spread the word and the law and the salvation of Jesus all around 
the islands from Hawaii to Kauai." Thus far the extract, which is probably a 
fair account of the matter. 

The principal personages in the nation have, with few exceptions, been the 
first to unite with the churches formed at the different stations. To such an 
extent have the churches been composed of the Sandwich Islands' wise, and 
mighty, and noble, that one must be struck with the inapplicability to their case 
of the apostle's language to the Corinthians, where he says, "Ye see your call- 
ing, brethren," &c. Hence it might be expected that many would be pressing 
into the church ; and such has been the fact. And it has been a difficult point 
to decide how many and whom to admit. For it would not be strange, if, in 
such a tide of public opinion in favor of Christianity, many should mistake the 
nature of Christ's kingdom, as did the disciples in early times, and hope to find 
in it distinction and glory among men. And this mistake has existed, insomuch 
that humility is not the most striking characteristic of those who profess to 
follow the meek and lowly servant of all. As an illustration of this, one of the 
High School scholars inquired, if it were right for professors of religion to 
carry burdens. But what struck me forcibly on the subject was this ; When 
the Marquesan mission was going forward, and the question was in reference 
to suitable persons to accompany the families as domestics, it was deemed 
unadvisable to select members of the church for this purpose, as they would 
probably feel above the vocation. And this not because there are none in 
humble life among the disciples, but because, in their view of it, there is some- 
thing in being discipled, which changes their rank from the lower to the higher 

1836.] THJ2 MICO CHARITY. 71 

You will not understand me to say, that the popularity of our cause has been 
to its disadvantage ; — that question 1 do not now agitate — but only that, as a 
natural consequence of its popularity, many will wish to be united to it, who 
will not endure unto the end, and that their failure should excite in us and in 
our friends at home neither surprise nor discouragement. 

The strict and general observance of the Sabbath has been justly mentioned 
to the credit of this people. But the amount of credit given them should be 
subject to some discount in turning it into the moral currency of New England, 
from the fact that the people would generally as soon rest two days in seven as 
one. The temptation to do so is probably quite as strong as to spend them in 
labor either for themselves or the chiefs. 

It is sometimes remarked that no stage-coaches are rattling here to profane 
the sacred hours ; no steam-boats discharging their passengers and smoke. 
True ; and so far as the absence of these renders a day quiet, the Sabbath has 
little pre-eminence above the other six. It is much easier for this people to 
abstain from active employments than for those in the United States, and, 
looking at the external observance of the Lord's day, one might think that the 
descendants of the Puritans furnish less evidence of regard for it than is seen 
here. But when half the piety, intelligence, and enterprise of our native land 
are found here, it will be more difficult for them to obey the voice which says, 
"In it thou shalt not do any work." 

Mr. Ellis, in his Polynesian Researches, if I do not misremember, mentions 
the case of a native of the Society islands, who suffered his canoe to be lost on 
the Sabbath for want of tying up, — a work he was too conscientious to do. But 
might not this instance as well be adduced to exemplify the force of remaining 
superstition on his conduct, as the existence of Christian principle. — It was a 
disputed point among some natives at Lahaina, whether an individual who had 
died on the Sabbath could be a Christian because she performed this last work 
of her life on the tabu day, and the decision, if I mistake not, was against her. 

It was my purpose to make some further observations of a similar character 
on other points of reform, but there is neither time on my part nor necessity on 
yours ; for our friends, who, like you, have the world under their eye, will be 
profited little or nothing from the remarks already made. It requires more 
wisdom than I possess, to report the state of this mission so that either those in 
error should be corrected, or those in the right be preserved there. I feel, 
however, no hesitation in saying always, and, every where, that the conversion 
of the world is a great work — much greater, I think, than the churches seem 
to imagine. He who will correct their views on this subject, Avill promote, in 
no small degree, the cause of missions. The men actually engaged in teaching 
the heathen, have, it may be hoped, as much of that faith commended by James, 
in the conversion of the world, as those have who remain at home ; but they do 
not think it so easy to be accomplished as our friends at home do. 


This arises from the sum of money bequeathed by a liberal person in London, more 
than a century since, the annual proceeds of which were to be applied to the redemption 
of Christian slaves in Barbary. As slavery in that form has ceased to exist for a con- 
siderable time, this fund had accumulated to the amount of upwards of .£100,000. A 
scheme has, in consequence, been sanctioned by the court of chancery, for devoting the 
proceeds of this fund to the establishment of schools in the British colonies where slavery 
has been recently abolished. The Rev. J. M. Trew, formerly of Jamaica, with teachers 
selected by him, has proceeded to that island, to act as the agent of the trustees. The 
first object is the formation in Jamaica of a normal school, or school for the preparation 
of teachers. The Scriptures will be the basis of education. 





Table, showing the number of Graduates at Harvard, Yale, and Dartmouth Colleges? 
each year, from 1801 to 1S35 inclusive, and the number ivho have died in each class, 
at those institutions, during said period. 




JVo. of 

No. of 

JYo. of 



Have died. 


Have died. 


Have died. 











































' 1807 

































































































































































































35 years. 


355 | 

2,263 | 344 

| 1,168 | 166 | 

The foregoing table shows that of 1,864 persons who have been graduated at Harvard 
college since 1801, 355 are known to be dead ; making one in 5^ of the whole number 
who have died. Of 2,263 who have been graduated at Yale during the same period, 
344 have died ; being about one in 6$. The number of graduates at Dartmouth since 
1801, is 1,168, of whom 166 have died ; being one in 7 of the whole number. Will 
gome Alumnus of one of those institutions assign the reasons for this difference? J. F. 



1. Lectures on Eloquence and Style. By Ebenezer Porter, D. D., late President of 
the Theological Seminary, .Andover. Revised for publication by Rev. Lyman 
Matthews, Pastor of the South Church, Braintree,Mass. Andover: Gould & 
Newman. 183G. pp. 180. 

The following is the most complete list of Dr. Porter's publications, which we have 
been able to make. It is probable that some single sermons are not included. 
3. Missionary Sermon, Hartford, Conn. 1806. 

2. Fatal Effects of Ardent Spirit, Hartford, 1811. 

3. Great Effects from Little Causes, a sermon before the Moral Society, Andover, 1815. 

4. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Israel W. Putnam, Portsmouth, N. H. 1815. 

5. Character of Nehemiah, a sermon, Andover, 1816. 

6. Sermon at the Dedication of the Chapel of the Theol. Sem., Andover, 1819. 

7. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Thos. J. Murdoch, Portland, Me. 1819. 

8. Sermon at the Installation of Rev. D. Oliphant, Beverly, Mass. 1819. 

9. Young Preacher's Manual, or a Collection of Treatises on Preaching, Boston, 1819, 
1 vol. 8vo. A second edition, enlarged, has since been published. 

10. Sermon before the American Education Society, Boston, 1820. 

11. Signs of the Times, a sermon delivered at the Public Fast, Andover, 1823. 

12. Analysis of Vocal Inflection, (Pamph.) Andover, 1824. 

13. Analysis of the Principles of, Rhetorical Delivery, 1 vol. 18mo., Andover, 1827. 
The 7th edition is now .(1836) in press. 

14. Rhetorical Reader, and a course of Rhetorical Exercises, 1 vol. ISino., Andover, 
1831. Fourteen editions of this book have been published. 

15. Syllabus of Lectures, (Pamph.J Andover, 1832. 

16. Treatise on Spiritual Mindedness, by John Owen, D. D., abridged by Ebenezer 
Porter, D. D. Boston, 1833, 1 vol. 18mo. 

17. Lectures on Homiletics and Preaching, and on Public Prayer, together with 
Sermons and Addresses, 1 vol. 8vo. 1834. An edition of this volume was published in 
London, in 1835, with a Preface, and with Notes by Rev. J. Jones of Liverpool. 

18. A Practical Exposition of the 130th Psalm, by John Owen, D. D. abridged 
by Ebenezer Porter, D. D. Boston, 1834, 1 vol. 18mo. 

Since the death of Dr. Porter, there have been published from his manuscripts — 

19. The Biblical Reader, consisting of Rhetorical Extracts from the Old and New 
Testament?, revised for publication by T. D. P. Stone, Andover, 1834, 1 vol. ISmo.; and 

20. Lectures on Eloquence, 6zc. the title of which is given at the head of this article. 
Dr. Porter also published some sermons in the American National Preacher; and 

various essays, biographies, etc. in the Connecticut Evangelical Magazine, the Pano- 
plisL the Spirit of the Pilgrims, and the American Quarterly Register. 

The Lectures on Eloquence do not comprise an entire course. They were intended 
as a sequel to those which have been incorporated into the author's Analysis of 
Rhetorical Delivery. He was induced to enlarge on the vocal organs, by the urgent 
request of those whose judgment he regarded, and because no instruction on the abuses 
of those organs, had been accessible in any regular form to young ministers. The 
Lectures on Style are also designedly limited in extent, embracing only a few topics, 
the discussion of which was deemed most important in its bearing en the reputation 
and usefulness of the American pulpit. All the lectures discover that good sense, that 
careful discrimination and cultivated taste, visible in the author's previous publications. 
They are well worth the study, not only of theological students, but of all who aie 
preparing to become public speakers or to influence the public mind by the press. 
VOL. IX. 10 


2. The Way to do Good; or the Christian Character Mature. The Sequel to the 
Young Christian and Corner Stone. By Jacob Abbott. Boston: William 
Peirce. 1836. pp. 348. 

Some of the critics on Mr. Abbott's works have seemed to us wholly to overlook the 
great object which he has had in view. They have been disposed to find fault because 
they did not discover in his volumes a systematic statement of the Christian doctrines, 
or all the important truths of the Bible, exhibited with equal technicality and promi- 
nence. But as this was not his object, he has of course left it unaccomplished. He 
wisely judged that he was not called to add to the already large number of excellent 
systematic treatises of divinity. His object is to illustrate, especially for the benefit of 
the young, some of the truths of the gospel. This he has done with great skill and 
effect, as thousands will testify on both sides of the Atlantic. He has awakened a new 
interest in old truths. He has broken in upon the dream of listlessness in which multi- 
tudes of minds were dozing, and presented before them in attractive forms the powers of 
the world to come. He has followed in this respect the highest example. Without a 
parable spake He not unto them. We do not say that Mr. Abbott is, in all cases, 
sufficiently guarded in the use of language. Some theological terms are not easily, if 
at all, exchangeable. Circumlocutions destroy or vary the meaning. Technical phra- 
seology might have been employed by Mr. Abbott, in some instances, without dis- 
advantage to his general plan, while it would have preserved him from being misunder- 
stood. If he should study attentively some standard theological system, it would aid 
him in his power of expressing his views fully and safely, while it would not, in the 
least, cramp or mar the power and beauty of his illustrations. In the efforts of a 
fertile and highly inventive mind, there may be danger of departing insensibly from the 
truth as it is in Jesus. A simile may be pressed too far, or the truth intended to be 
illustrated may be darkened by excessive explanation; the simple language of Scripture 
being most pertinent in the case. 

We have read parts of " The Way to do Good," with much satisfaction. The story 
of Alonzo, with which the volume opens, is told with great distinctness, and with the 
utmost truth to nature. 

3. Memoir of the Rev. Samuel Green, late Pastor of Union Church, Boston. By 
Rev. Richard S. Slorrs. Boston : Perkins & Marvin. 1836. pp. 412. 

This Memoir will be found to be very instructive to several classes of persons. The 
Christian minister cannot read it without great advantage. It is full of evidence that 
its lamented author was wise to win souls, that he preached the great doctrines of the 
gospel with all boldness and lov<^, expecting the immediate blessing of the Holy Spirit, 
that he labored from house to house, comforting the feeble-minded, supporting the 
weak, and patient towards all men, seeking for nothing so much as that Christ might 
be formed in them the hope of glory ; it shows that he was supremely desirous, in all 
the relations of a pastor and preacher, to stand complete in the whole will of God. 
More powerful preachers have, doubtless, stood up in the pulpits of Boston — preachers 
whom the world have called more attractive and eloquent. But a more honest, simple- 
minded, affectionate, holy, impressive preacher has rarely been found in Boston, or in 
any other city. As we saw him bending over his pulpit, anxious to gather all his flock 
into the fold of Christ, as we heard his mingled tones of expostulation and tenderness, 
as we listened to the outpourings of his holy soul in prayer, we thought of the days 
when Boston had ministering at her altars, a Cooper, a Foxcroft, and an Increase 

Heads of families will find much instruction in the volume. Mr. Green was en- 
dowed with eminent gifts as the priest at the domestic altar. There was a tenderness, 
a faithfulness, a subdued mildness, a sweet and sacred affection, an entire appropri- 


ateness, which struck every one who had the privilege of being present. Pie combined 
in his family-prayers, in a remarkable degree, faithfulness and discrimination, with 
kindness, and the absence of all indelicacy and personality. 

To ministers in affliction, and cut off by personal indisposition from their duties, the 
volume will be full of interest. Mr. Green was an uncomplaining sufferer. Through 
several long years, he could not engage in his almost idolized work of preaching the 
gospel. The fire burned within him, but his feeble tenement would not allow it to 
flame forth. Yet in this heavy affliction, he was cheerful ; he did not dwell on the 
dark aspects of the providence, he submitted calmly to the trial of doing nothing. Yet 
in intervals of comparative strength, no one was more industrious, or more willing to 
resort to the performance of any accessible business. 

To young men preparing for the ministry, the work will not be without advantage. 
Mr. Green was not ashamed, nor unwilling, at any time, to engage in manual labor. 
When fifteen years of age, he was apprenticed to a mason and a bricklayer. He chose 
this trade, from the fact that it would afford leisure., four or five months in the winter, 
for attending school. His evenings, if spent at home, were almost uniformly devoted 
to reading. He went so far sometimes, as to read to his fellow-workmen essays on 
astronomy, and on other subjects, which he had prepared. Yet, he never permitted 
these things to interfere with the hours of manual labor, but he was, at all times, 
punctual, obedient, and faithful to his master. 

We might enumerate other characteristics of the volume, but we forbear. We 
earnestly advise our readers, especially all those who are in the ministry, or who are 
preparing for it, to purchase it, and read for themselves. It cannot fail to stimulate 
them in their high calling. The biographer has made a good use of his materials. His 
own remarks, which are occasionally interspersed in the narrative, are striking and ap- 
propriate, drawn as they are from treasures of personal and pastoral experience. No 
religious biography has of late appeared more ably edited than this. We confidently 
anticipate and hope that it will have a wide circulation and extended usefulness. 

4. Letters on the Difficulties of Religion. By Catharine E. Beecher. Hartford, 

Conn. : Belknap & Hammersley. 1836. pp. 350. 

These letters, the author informs us, are portions of discussions which have taken 
place during the last eight or ten years, between the writer and several of her friends. 
Though there have been many alterations and additions in preparing it for the public, 
yet the discussions on the topics, and between the persons here introduced, actually 
took place. No character, circumstance, or fact is alluded to, which has not a foun- 
dation in reality. This work, so far as we can judge from a perusal of some portions 
of it, and from the declaration of competent judges who have read it, is of a highly 
practical character, and very opportune. It discusses topics of great present interest, 
in a style at once vigorous and conciliatory. 

5. Christian Memoirs ; or, the JYature of Conviction of Sin and Regeneration 
Illustrated in JYarratives of the Conversion of Eminent Christians. Compiled 
by Heman Humphrey, D. D., President of Amherst College. Boston : Wil- 
liam Peirce. 1836. pp. 297. 

This volume is taken up with narratives of the early life, the conviction and the con- 
version of John Bunyan, Thomas Halliburton, George Trosse, Andrew Burn, Charles 
Martyr, William Howard, James Gardiner, William Grimshaw, Thomas Bateman, and 
Richard Baxter. All the narratives are intended to show the nature of the Holy 
Spirit's operations on the soul of man in regeneration. While the substantial features 
of the work of grace in respect to all these men are similar, yet the striking varieties 
in the leligious exercises of the different men give much additional interest to the 


volume. Perhaps the mass of Christians will learn more readily from such narratives 
the nature of true religion, than from any formal and didactic exhibition of it. The 
doctrine seems, as it were, to be clothed in flesh and blood. It comes warm to the 
sympathy and heart of the Christian. At the same time, the religious experience is 
very distinct and scriptural, and seems to be connected with an uncommonly small 
alloy of human passion and animal excitement. Both the design and execution of the 
volume are excellent. It is intended that a second volume shall follow, exhibiting the 
Christian experience and holy living of such men as Owen, Edwards, Brainerd, 
Howard, Mather, &c. 

6. The Child's Book on the Sabbath. By the Rev. Horace Hooker. New York : 
Leavitt, Lord & Co. 1835. pp. 279. 

This book is intended to instruct children and youth in respect to the Christian 
Sabbath. The most important facts in relation to its origin, nature, intention, change, 
necessity, manner of observance, violations, motives for keeping it, and the dangers 
which threaten it, are brought out in language, and with the illustrations appropriate to 
interest children and youth. It is apparent to every person of adult years, that the 
Sabbath is regarded by children at the present day, generally, with much less reverence 
than it was in the time of our fathers. The barriers which those holy men set up, have 
been broken through. The causes and the remedies of this increased desecration of 
the sacred day, are worthy of a careful and thorough investigation. It is certain that 
there is but little hope for our country, if the children of this generation shall come 
generally to profane what their grandfathers so loved and honored. Mr. Hooker has 
done well to endeavor to interest children in the reasons and arguments for the Sabbath. 
They are handled perspicuously, and in an attractive manner. We repeat the sug- 
gestion of the author, that parents might profitably make a chapter of this book the 
groundwork of a short exercise with their children after meeting on the Sabbath. 

7. Views in Theology. By Lyman Beecher, D. D., President of Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary. Published by request of the Synod of Cincinnati. Truman 
& Smith. 1836. pp. 240. 

The chapters in this book are on natural ability, moral ability, original sin, total de- 
pravity, and regeneration. The Synod of Cincinnati, before whom Dr. Beecher made 
his defence in respect to the charges preferred against him by Dr. Wilson, (the cause 
being heard on an appeal by the latter from the decision of the Presbytery of Cincin- 
nati.) requested Dr. Beecher to publish, at as early a day as possible, a concise statement 
of the argument and design of his sermon on native depravity, and of his views of 
total depravity, original sin and regeneration, agreeably to his declaration and ex- 
planation before the Synod. This small volume is the result of this request. It is 
written in a kind and conciliatory manner, with the author's usual vigor of language 
and conception, and we trust it will be received in the same spirit in which it was 

8. Memoir of Rev. Gregory T. Bedell, D. D., Rector of St. Andrew's Church, 

Philadelphia. By Stephen H. Tyng. Second edition, enlarged and improved. 
Philadelphia: Henry Perkins. 1836. pp.402. 

Dr. Bedell, like Mr. Green, was one of those elect spirits, who properly belong to no 
sect, but who are representatives of the great family of the redeemed on earth and in 
heaven. He was, indeed, as his biographer remarks, a decus et tutamen to the Episcopal 
communion, yet he loved the true followers of Christ of every name, and co-operated 
earnestly with them in the performance of many works of mercy. The memoir is 


certainly one of the most instructive and spiritual, which we ever read. It is prepared, 
in almost all respects, on broad and catholic grounds, and will be about equally ac- 
ceptable to all the disciples of Jesus. Dr. Tyng has performed his duty with excellent 
judgment and taste. The book will have a wide circulation, and become a standard 
biography. All candidates for the ministry will do well to study it till they become 
imbued with its spirit. It ought to be mentioned, with gratitude to the Giver of every 
good and perfect gift, that this country is becoming remarkable, the world over, for its 
excellent religious biographies. We can point to not a few which are models in this 
department of writing, which will cause the subjects of them, though dead, to speak 
for the edification of thousands till the end of time. 

9. Luther's German Version of the Gospel of John, ivith an Interlinear English 

Translation, for the use of Students. By Charles Follen, Professor of the 
German Language and Literature in Harvard University. Boston : James 
Munroe & Co. 1835. pp. 160. 

This will be a very welcome present to all beginners in the German language. The 
text is given together, and also with a literal, English, interlinear translation. Dr. 
Follen has made a few variations from Luther's text, to adapt it to the present state of 
the German tongue. All these variations are, however, specified. 

10. Manual of Classical Literature. From the German of J. J. Eschenburg, 
Professor in the Carolinum at Brunswick ; ivith additions by N. W. Fiske, 
Professor of the Latin and Greek Languages, Amherst College. Phila- 
delphia : Key & Biddle. 1836. pp. 664, 800. 

This book has been prepared by professor Fiske, with great toil and expense of time. 
It is, in very important respects, an original work, rather than a translation. Especially, 
has it been adapted to the wants and circumstances of the American student. No one 
who has given much attention to the languages of Greece and Rome, but must have 
felt the need of some such thorough and comprehensive digest as Fiske's Eschenburg 
furnishes. Many of the college libraries in this country might be searched in vain for 
a multitude of facts contained in this volume. We trust that there will be a large and 
increasing demand for it. 

11. A Grammar of the Latin Language; for the use of Schools and Colleges. 
By E. A. Andreivs and S. Stoddard. Boston : Crocker & Brewster. 1836. 
pp. 323. 

Both the authors of this grammar have been employed, for a long time, in different 
parts of the country, in communicating classical instruction. They were, consequently, 
prepared to understand what the public wanted in a grammar. The universal favor 
with which their production is received, was not unexpected by us. It will bear a 
thorough and discriminating examination. In the use of well-defined and expressive 
terms, especially in the Syntax, we know of no Latin or Greek grammar which is to be 
compared to this. 



The number of persons admitted to view* the British Museum from 1829 to 
1834, inclusive, has been as follows : — 

1829 1630 1831 1832 1833 1834 

68,101 71,336 99,912 147,896 210,495 237,366 

Number of visits paid to the reading-room for the purposes of study or 
research : — 

1810 1815 1820 1825 1830 

1,950 4,300 8,820 22,800 31,200 

1831 1832 1833 1834 

38,200 46,800 58,800 70,266 

Visits by artists and students to the galleries of sculpture: — 

1831 1832 1833 1834 

4,938 4,740 4,490 5,645 

Visits to the print-room : — 

1832 1833 1834 

4,400 2,900 2,204 
Receipts and expenses for 1834 : — 

£ s. d. 

Receipts, 18,825 4 9£ 

Expenses, 18,577 1 6 

Surplus in hand, 248 3 3£ 

Estimated expense for 1835, 17,796 


Number of emigrants from the United Kingdom during 1832, 1833, and 1834. 

1832 1833 1834 

British North America, . . . 66,339 28,808 40,060 

United States, 32,980 29,225 33,074 

Cape of Good Hope, .... 202 517 288 

Australian Settlements, . . . 3,792 4,134 2,800 

Total, . . . 103,313 62,684 476,222 


The last of the Anticopernicans, who mny be said to belong to the old school, 
is the Jesuit Riccioli, whose Almagestum Novum is a most enormous monument 
of reading and industry. His attack upon the Copernican system alone consists 
of more than two hundred double column folio pages ; and being at such length 
it i.s not easy to pick out any quotations sufficiently complete to be intelligible 
by themselves. He endeavors to turn the discoveries of Galileo against himself, 
by trying to show that the descent of a heavy body, according to the law dis- 
covered by the last-named philosopher, would be impossible if the earth were 
in motion. His argument shows that he did not comprehend the law of motion 




already referred to. Ho admits the 
very great merit of the Copernican 
system, and its applicability to the ex- 
planation of all astronomical phenome- 
na ; arid one of his remarks is, in be- 
ginning to show how the motion of 
the earth's axis explains the precession 
of the equinoxes: — " We have not yet 
exhausted the depth of the Copernican 
hypothesis, in which the further we go, 
the more shall we find of talent and 
valuable sagacity." Riccioli takes as 
much pains to develope the Copernican 
system in a favorable light, before he 
proceeds to refute it, as Copernicus 
himself, and a good deal more space. 
It has even been suspected that Ric- 
cioli was in heart a Copernican, but 
unable, as a Roman Catholic and a 
Jesuit, to declare himself. 

The church of Rome, or the court it 
may be, for no council was called on 
the subject, stopped the mouth of Gali- 
leo by means of the Inquisition, as all 
readers are aware (a. d. 1633). The 
first actual prohibition of the Coperni- 
can system was by the five Cardinals 
who had the superintendence of the 
Index Expurgaforius. These prelates 
suspended the work of Copernicus until 
its errors were corrected (which must 
have been either ignorance or irony, 
for the heresy runs from beginning to 
end), and entirely prohibited that of 
Foscarini, a Carmelite, who must be 
considered as the introducer of the doc- 
trine into Italy. Up to this time the 
contest had been carried on, the times 
considered, with something like mod- 
eration. The tone of contempt with 
■which the orthodox party set out sub- 
sided into admiration of the beauty of 
the system. Indeed, examples are not 
wanting in which the opponents of the 
now received system were the more 
moderate and gentlemanlike of the two. 
Witness Morin (by no means a man of 
quiet temper in a personal dispute) 
who, after admitting the talents of Co- 
pernicus and his followers, cites the 
following from the justly celebrated 
Kepler: — "The vulgar herd of learned 
men, not much wiser than the illiterate, 
produce authorities . . . blind in their 
ignorance . . . &c." Which remark 
Morin quotes, not to complain or re- 
taliate, but to observe — " This evidently 
shows that they have taken up this doc- 
trine, not so much for the sake of dis- 
pute and exercise, as because they ac- 
tually wish to promote the belief of it." 

The system of Newton overturned 
both the Ptolemaic, the Copernican, 
and the Tychonic, in the sense in which 
they were asserted by their various 
supporters. The first and third as- 
sumed the absolute stability of the 
earth, the second that of the sun. 
Those who are at all acquainted with 
the nature of relative motion will see 
that we might (not without inconve- 
nience, but without inaccuracy) assume 
any one point of the universe we please 
for a fixed point, provided we give all 
other points, not their absolute motions, 
but the motions which they have rel- 
| atively to the centre chosen. A sat- 
i ellite of Jupiter, a point in Saturn's 
ring, a cloud in the atmosphere of the 
earth, a shooting star in its descent, 
| might either of them be assumed to be 
fixed, provided the proper relative mo- 
tions were given to all other bodies. 
The result of Newton's system may 
be expressed as follows : — 

All the primary planets describe 
ellipses (nearly) about a point in the 
sun, and all satellites describe ellipses 
(nearly) about points in or near their 
primaries ; in the meanwhile the centre 
of gravity of the whole system may be 
(probably is) in motion towards some 
point of the heavens, depending upon 
the impulse originally given to it, and 
with it the whole system. This motion 
of the centre of gravity will be in a 
straight line, unless the attraction of 
the fixed stars be sufficient to alter it 




EDWARD JBNN1SON, Conjr. inst. pastor, Mount Vernon, 

New Hampshire, A jiril 6, 1»36. 
JOHN W. SALTER, Cong. hist, pastor, Milford, N. H. April 

NATHANIEL PINE, Pres. onl. pastor, Peterborough, N. H. 

June 8. 
JOHN B1RKLEY, onl. pastor, East Hanover, N. H. June ?8. 
SAMUEL LEE, Cong. inst. pastor, New Ipswich, N. H. May 


MIRON M. DEAN, 'Baptist, ord. evansr. Monkton, Vermont, 

May 3, 1S36. 
CALVIN D. NOBLE, Cong. ord. pastor, Rochester, Vt. June 

THOMAS BALDWIN, Jr. Cong. ord. pastor, Peru, Vt. June 

B. C. SMITH, Con?, ord. evanj. Windsor, Vt. June 28. 
HENRY B. HOLMES, Cong.' inst. pastor, Springfield, VL 
June 29. 

DANIEL O. MORTON, Con?, inst. pastor, Winchendon, 

Massachusetts March 2, 13o6. 
CHAKLES BOYTER, Cong. inst. pastor, Truro, Ms. March 

WILLIAM P. APTHORP, Cong. ord. evang. Ward, Mae*. 

April «». 




NATHAN BENJAMIN, Cong. ord. miss. Williamstown, Ms. 

April 21. 
AARON HA YNES, Bap. ord. pastor, Medwav, Ms. April 19. 
BURR BALDWIN, Cong-, ord. pastor, Ashfield, Ms. April 30. 
LORENZO L. LANGSTROTH, Cong. ord. pastor, Andover, 

Mass. May 11. 
WAKEFIELD GALE, Cong-, inst. pastor, Gloucester, (Sandy 

Bav Parish,) Mass. May 4. 
PARSONS COOK, Cong. inst. pastor, Lynn, Mass. May 4. 
THOMAS R. LAMBERT, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. 

Mav 1U. 
GORDON WINSLOW, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. 

Mav 8. 
JOHN GOODHUE, Cong. ord. pastor, Marlboro', Ms. May 4. 
GEORGE W. STACY, "Univ. ord. pastor, Carlisle, Ms. May 

TOBIAS PINKHAM, Pres. ord. pastor, Dracut and Lowell, 

Mass. May 18. 
ALFRED GREENWOOD, Cong-, ord. pastor, West Barn- 
stable, Mass. Mav 18. 
EZEK1EL RUSSELL, Cong. ord. pastor, North Adams, Ms. 

May 22. 
CHARLES FITCH, Cong-, inst. pastor, Boston, (Free Chh.) 

Mass. May 31. 
WILLIAM H. K1NGSLEY, Cong. ord. pastor, Ipswich, Ms. 

June I. 
EMERSON DAVIS, Cong. inst. coll pastor, Westfield, Mass. 

June 1. 
HENRY J. LAMB, Cong. inst. pastor, Chelsea, Ms. Jane 8. 
JOSEPH HAVEN, Cong. inst. pastor, Billerica, Ms. June 8. 
HORATIO BaRDVYELL, Cong. inst. pastor, Oxford, Mass. 

June 9. 
HOMER BARROWS, Cong. ord. pastor, Middleboro', Mass. 

LEWIS SAEIN, Cong. ord. miss. Hadlev, Mass. June 15. 
GEORGE L. CARLTON, Bap. ord. pastor, Andover, Mass. 

June 15. 
EPAPHRAS GOODMAN, Cong. inst. pastor, Dracut, Mass. 

June 15. 
DAVID CUSHMAN, Cong. ord. evang. Millville, (Mendon,) 

Mass. June 23. 
JOHN S. DAVENPORT, Cong. ord. pastor, Bolton, Mass. 

July 14. 
JOSEPH KNIGHT, Cong. inst. pastor, Peru, Mass. July 6. 
•PRESTON CUMMINGS, Cong. inst. pastor, Wrentham, Ms. 

July 6. 

pastor, Fairfield, 


Connecticut. May 25, 1836. 
JOEL R. ARNOLD", Cong. inst. pastor, Walerbury, Conn. 

June 15. 
CORNELIUS B. EVEREST, Cong. inst. pastor, Bloomfield, 

Conn. June 22. 
MARTIN ROOT, Cong. inst. pastor, East Windsor, Conn. 

June 29. 
LEWIS D. HOWELL, Cong. inst. pastor, Derby, Ct. June 8. 

JOHN C. F. HOES, Ref. Dutch, ord. pastor, Chiitenango, 

New York, April 21, 1836. 
JOHN ABEEL BALDWIN. Ref. Dutch, inst. pastor, New 

York. N. Y. Mav. 
JOHN FOWLER, Pres. inst. pastor, Ulica, N. Y. May 9. 
ELUiU DOTY, Ref. Dutch, ord. miss. New York," N. Y. 

Mav 16. 
LEVI GRISWOLD, Cong. inst. pastor, Otisco, N Y. Mav 17. 
GEORGE POTTS, Pres. inst. pastor, New York, N. Y. May 

R. G. THOMPSON, Pres. inst. pastor, Yorktown, N. Y. 

May IS. 
B. VaN KEUREN, Ref. Dutch, ord. miss. Vill. ot Warwick, 

Orange Co. N. Y. .Mav 31 
MALTBY GELSTON, Cong. inst. pastor, Augusta and Gor- 

liam, N. Y.June 10. 
P. A. PROAL, Epis. instituted rector, New York, N. Y. June 

DANIEL LADD, Cong. ord. miss, to the Island of Cyprus, 

New York, N. Y.June. 

JACOB ENNIS, Ref. Dutch, ord. miss. Bergen, New Jersey, 

M trc i 7. 1838. 
JOSI !•:: MAHON, Pres. ord. pastor, Lawrencevillc, N. J. 

April 27. 

WILLIAM STERLING, Pres. inst. pastor, Reading, Penri- 

h, Dec '. i 35. 
MATTHEW B. HOPE, Pres. ord. miss. Penn. April 7, 183S. 
JOSEPH s. TRAVELLI, Pies. ord. evang. Philadelphia, Pa. 

April 12. 
WILL' \.M W. TRACY, Pres. ord. evang. Philadelphia, Pa. 

April 12. 
RUFI BABCOCK, Bap inst. pastor, Philadelphia, Pcnn. 

M i« 13. 
WILLIAM BEAK, Pies, oi |. pa I rr. Marple 'Town, Penn. 

May 19. 
1A •:'■ G RAFF, Pres. inst. pastor, West Chester, Penn. 

April ;9. 

ROBERT BURWELL. Pres. inst. pastor, llilltboro', North 
Carolina, May 15, 1836. 


June 8. 1835. 

•d, Georgia, 
linois, June 

JULIUS A. REED, Cong. ord. evang.;icy, 
8, 1836. 

HERMAN MORTON, Pres. inst. pastor, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
April 27, 1836. 

J. L. WILSON, D. D. Pres. inst. pastor, Cincinnati, O. May 5. 
BENJAMIN W. CHIDLAW, Pres. ord. pastor, New London, 
O. May 26. 

Whole number in the above list, 71. 

Institution .. 


1 New Hampshire 5 

— Vermont 5 

Total 71 Massachusetts 30 

Connecticut 5 

OFFICES. New York 11 

Pastors * 54 New Jersey. 






7 Peunsylvaui 

1 North Carol 1 

2 Georgia 

7 Illinois 

— Ohio 






Presbyterian... IS 1835. December.. 

Episcopalian 3 1S36. March 

Baptist 5 April 

Univeisalist 1 May...... 

Dutch Reformed 5 June , 

Not specified 1 July , 


71 Total 71 




of Clergymen and Students in Theology. 

E. SCIIERMFRHORN, ret. 32, Skowhegan, Maine, 1836. 
'THOMAS ROB1E, a-t. 77, Harrison, Me. April 24. 
WILLIAM ALLEN, set. 58, Bap. Jefferson, Me. April. 

NEHEMIAH ORDWAY, ast. 93, Cong. Pembroke, New- 
Hampshire, June, 1836. 

ASA BURTON, D. D. at. 84, Cong. Thetford, Vermont, 1836. 

JOHN PRINCE, LL. D. at. 86, Unit. Salem, Massachusetts, 

June 7, 18S6. 
JONATHAN L. POMROY, set. 67, Cong. Worthington, Ms. 

June 4. 
BELA JACOBS, ,Tt. 52, Bap. East Cambridge, Ms. May 22. 
MATTHIAS MUNROE, Prot. Epis. South Blidgewate'r, Ms. 


JOSEPH WOOD, set. 54, Windsor, Broome Co. New York, 

May 13, 1836. 

at 78, Pres. Caldwell, New Jersey, 

June 22, 1836. 

WILLIAM H. MITCHELL, at. 36, Prot. Epis. Virginia, 
AutilS, 1836. 

Kentucky, May 12, 

t. 83, Meth. Enis. Ch. Louisville, 

Whole number in the above list, 13. 


From 30 to 40 2 

50 00 3 

60 70 1 Maine.. 

70 80 2 New Hai 

80 SO 3 Vermont 

90 100 1 Massach 

Noi specified 1 New Yo: 

— New Jer: 

Total 13 Virginia 

Sum ol a|] the ages sped- Kcntuck 

fieri 800 

Avemgeage 67 Total... 


Protestant Epis 


Noi s] ecified.., 

1836. April 



Not specified. 

Total 13 Toln 





AUGUST, 1836. 


To the Secretary of the American Education Society. 
Rev. and dear Sir, — 

I am well acquainted with a clergyman now successfully laboring in the 
vineyard of our Lord, a brief account of whose past life may be neither uninter- 
esting nor unprofitable to those indigent young men who have commenced, or 
who contemplate beginning, a course of preparation for the gospel ministry. 
Such an account I esteem it a privilege to communicate to you ; and you are at 
liberty to secure its publication in the American Quarterly Register, or the 
Boston Recorder, or to make such other disposition of it as your judgment shall 
dictate. I believe that many young men of piety and respectable talents, who 
would gladly be prepared to declare the glad tidings of the gospel to their per- 
ishing fellow-men, are deterred from entering upon a course of preparation by 
the forbidding and peremptory monitions of poverty. And probably not a few 
who have begun their preparatory education, are often tempted to return to the 
field or the mechanic's shop, to avoid the painful struggles which arise from the 
same source. If the subsequent history of one of poverty's children shall tend 
to encourage the latter to persevere in their course, and determine the former 
to begin, then will the writer rejoice that he 'has not labored in vain, nor spent 
his strength for naught.' 

Truly Yours, . 

E. was born in Massachusetts soon after the commencement of the present 
century. His parents were poor, both in the good things of this world, and, 
what was far worse, destitute of faith. Neither of them had made a profession of 
religion ; neither of them was hopefully pious. His father was a mechanic ; and, 
having quite a large family, could barely earn enough in a year to meet his cur- 
rent expenses. His advantages for acquiring what is termed a common school 
education, were extremely limited. His parents having acquired hardly the 
first rudiments of learning, were not prepared to feel the importance of giving 
their son opportunity and means of obtaining much more knowledge than them- 
selves possessed. As soon as he became old enough to handle the hammer and 
the saw, he was deprived of the eight or ten Aveeks' summer school, and re- 
quired to aid his father in mechanical business. After that period, the principal 
means he enjoyed of obtaining the rudiments of a common education, was the 
winter school. This generally commenced the first of December and closed 
the latter part of February, At that time, and in the place of his nativity, he 
was the schoolmaster usually employed, who would keep the greatest number 
of weeks for the minimum compensation. And if a scholar then could read with 
a loud voice, and utter his words with unusual rapidity, he was considered an 
unusually good reader. If he could "do a sum" in the Double Rule of Three, 
and spell fluently words of three syllables, and write his name with tolerable 
legibility, he was regarded as having "finished his education.''' Having lived 
the first dozen years of his life in such a place, and in such unfavorable circum- 
stances, it is not to be wondered at if at that age E. found himself not only the 
son of poverty, but the child of great ignorance. Of English grammar, he knew 
nothing. Geography, he had scarcely heard named. Of history, sacred or pro- 

VOL. IX. 11 


fane, he had read but very few pages. The ordinary rules of composition had 
never been brought within his reach ; so that, had he attempted to write a letter 
to a friend, the meaning could hardly have been decyphered. 

Before E. had entered his Fourteenth year, he became hopefully pious. He 
united with the Congregational church in his native town. The clergyman of 
the place, alter considerable conversation with him, began to manifest an in- 
terest in his behalf, and often directed his attention to the ministry. He began to 
feel, soon alter his hopeful conversion, that it would be a great privilege to de- 
clare the Saviour to perishing sinners, provided he could only be prepared for 
the great and responsible work. "But. how can I think of such a thing?" he 
inquires. "My Father is a poor man — he needs my help — he cannot and will 
not permit me to begin a course of study. I dare not propose the thing to him. 
Besides, who am I — an obscure, ignorant individual — that I should aspire to the 
honor of preaching to others ihe unsearchable riches of Christ." Thoughts like 
these, for a while seemed utterly to forbid his looking forward to so great and 
glorious a work. Still, lie could not long at a time rest easy. Often the work 
of the ministry would present itself so forcibly to his mind, that he felt as though 
he must break through every obstruction, and prepare for it. Then again his 
circumstances alt appeared to be so forbidding, that he could not summon reso- 
lution to take the first step towards preparation. Thus his mind vacillated be- 
tween ardent desires to begin the preparatory process to this great work and 
despair of ever accomplishing the object, Cor nearly two years. Meanwhile his 
services were becoming more and more valuable to his father; and of course 
the difficulty of obtaining his consent to relinquishing future claim upon his son's 
time and labor, was constantly augmenting. But at length, after frequent con- 
sultation with ihe clergyman above named, and looking repeatedly to God for 
guidance, E. disclosed bis feelings to his parents. His mother objected. His 
father, who had then become hopefully pious, did not absolutely refuse to listen 
to him ; but gave him no reason to hope that his desires could be gratified. 
Thus all the expectations which he had permitted himself to indulge, were at 
once blighted. It was his duly to obey his parents ; and besides, they greatly 
needed his labor. He continued to work with his father — still pondering upon 
the great object which had Cor two years engrossed many of his thoughts ; and 
which had greatly increased his love of books and his love of study. When he 
was sixteen and a half years of age, his father, after many struggles with in- 
terest and probably prejudice, and repeated solicitations from some ministers of 
the gospel, was prevailed upon to yield a reluctant assent to his wishes. This 
obstruction removed, others equally formidable presented themselves. He had 
no classical books— and what was worse, he had no money with which to pur- 
chase them. He had no friends, or thought he had none, to whom he could 
repair for the pecuniary aid he needed. But his minister, kindly interesting 
himself in his behalf, made his case known to some members of the church, and 
to one or two clergymen at a distance. Through their instrumentality, arrange- 
ments were at length made by which he might, if he Avould go some sixty miles 
from home and take up his abode as a "charity scholar" amongst entire stran- 
gers, receive instruction in classical studies. So with much effort, he obtained 
money enough to purchase a Latin grammar, and on the 12th of August, 18 — , 

began his journey to W . At that time, he was extremely diffident; or 

rather, oppressed with bashfulness. He could hardly hold up his head, if he 
met a man in the street ; and, having seen but a little of society, he was not 
prepared to make a very favorable impression upon strangers. Under all his 
disadvantages, however, he felt that he must go forward. So, with a pack, the 
contents of which, together with the clothes upon his back, would hardly have 

commanded twenty-five dollars, he wended his way towards W . Now 

walking, and now riding, he was able to get about one half of the distance the 

first day. He had a letter of introduction to Mr. of R . Having arrived 

at R he presented his letter. Mr. , having read it, surveyed him very lei- 
surely, and began to question him. E., unpolished and uncouth as he was, and withal 
having nothing prepossessing in his external conformation, and nothing in his 
dress lo commend him, but a long, coarse, greyish coat and satinet pantaloons 
considerably worn, now imagines that he must have made rather a sorry appear- 


ance. Mr. treated him kindly, gave him some good advice, and told him 

that possibly something might be done for him at R , provided he should not 

succeed at W . Next morning, with no very consolatory forebodings, and 

leaving no enviable impression behind, he proceeded on his journey. Weary 
and worn with a long walk over muddy roads, he presented himself in the even- 
ing before Mr. of W . In a day or two, appearances were not so 

flattering as he anticipated, he became homesick, disheartened, and anxious to 
leave. He felt that he could not remain there ; and after expressing in a bash- 
ful manner his thanks for favors received, he returned to R . Mr. was 

greatly surprised to see him, and knew not at first what course to pursue. E. 
saw the state of things, and proposed, or at least thought strongly of returning 

to the labors of the mechanic. But through the Christian kindness of Mr. , 

he was induced to stay for a short period. Mr. found in him the power of 

somewhat rapid acquisition of knowledge, and providing one week for his board 
the next, and hearing his recitations himself, he had the pleasure of presenting 

him the ensuing autumn, for admission to college. With all his want of 

prepossessing exterior, and his uncouthness, E. was admitted a member of the 
freshmen class. He regrets now that he had not been more thoroughly fitted 
to enter college ; but by studying from fourteen to sixteen hours per day, with 
a delight that never diminished and a vigor that never flagged, he was so well 
prepared that he was readily admitted. During his collegiate course, numerous 
were his struggles with poverty, many were his discouragements. He received 
occasionally some little charitable assistance. By teaching a school in the 
winter, he was enabled to meet a part of his expenses. In his dress, he was 
obliged to practise strict economy, and at times, to say that his dress was decent, 
would have been stretching that term to its lowest meaning. Still he felt that he 
must go forward. He can now reflect on many hours of sadness, in which, as he 
looked over his embarrassments and anticipated the future, he was strongly 
tempted to relinquish his studies, and give up all thought of ever entering the 
ministry. Not knowing from what source to derive the means of purchasing 
needful books, or to procure his necessary raiment, being unable to tell how he 
should meet the demands of his next bill for tuition and board, and trembling in 
view of a debt already contracted, and constantly accumulating, it seemed to 
him at times as though he could not proceed. Then looking again upon the 
wants of the world, and reflecting that God will provide for him who conscien- 
tiously pursues the path of duty, he felt it his duty to trust in God and advance. 
Thus he struggled along through college. With all his pecuniary embarrass- 
ments, together with occasional ill health, he was numbered amongst the first 
in his class, and left the walls of his Alma Mater with gratitude to God that he 
had been enabled to persevere thus far. Still his poverty seemed to impede 
his progress. He was considerably involved in debt. Should he commence 
the study of his profession, or by teaching a school, endeavor first to liquidate his 
pecuniary obligations ? These were the questions which agitated his mind. 

For a season, he engaged in the business of instruction. Having pursued 
this for nearly a year, he began the study of theology, with a worthy private in- 
structor. He had not the means requisite to study at a theological seminary, as 
he thought ; but the principal reason why he did not resort to such an institution 
was, he had not been apprised of the advantages which it would afford him. He 
now regrets on many accounts that he did not pursue the most thorough course 
of theological instruction, which any of our oublic institutions prescribe. As it 
was, he went through the system usually pursued by his instructor's students, 
and then received approbation to commence preaching. By the Divine blessing 
he was soon settled in the gospel ministry, and, in a little time, was enabled to 
pay the debt which he had contracted in obtaining his education. He has con- 
tinued till the present time, laboring where he was first settled. His labors 
have been blessed at different times ; and there is reason to believe that he will 
have a goodly number of "souls for his hire." His people appear to be happily 
united in him, and their attachment to him seems to have been yearly increas- 
ing. God grant that his usefulness may be augmented a hundred fold. 

To the above brief account, dear Sir, allow me to subjoin a few remarks. 


1. I would say one word to such pious young men as may desire to engage 
in the great work of the ministry, but are deterred from beginning a course of 
preparation by their poverty. It is true, my young friends, that poverty looks 
like a poor auxiliary to a course of education ; but you should by no means re- 
gard it as an insuperable obstruction. E. very seriously doubts whether he 
should ever have been a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, if he had been rich. 
He believes that his poverty served as a needful stimulus to him during all his 
academical and theological training — it threw around him healthful restraints, 
excited him to a self-denial which a competency had never dictated, and in fact 
has proved one of his most valuable preparatives for the peculiar trials and diffi- 
culties of the ministry. Let no young man, then, be prevented by his poverty 
from beginning a course of study for the ministry, provided he have respectable 
talents and ardent piety, especially as he may now on so favorable terms receive 
assistance from the American Education Society. 

2. Let such as have begun the preparation for the great work and are at 
times tempted to give it up as a hopeless task, look at the example of E. There 
were times when he was beset by just such temptations. Suppose he had 
yielded to them and gone back ; Who now had occupied his important station in 
the ministry ? Who had been the instrument of the hundred hopeful conver- 
sions which appear to have resulted from his labors ? Look then to his perse- 
verance, and go onward. Wait on the Lord, and ye shall renew your strength. 

Have you occasional ill health ? So had E. Are you in debt? So was he 
some hundreds of dollars before he had completed his preparatory education. 
Have you scarce a friend to call upon for pecuniary aid ? It was thus- with him. 
Are your clothes old and worn ? His were at times hardly within the range of. 
decency ; and where he should obtain his next supply, he knew not. Can you 
have none but second-hand books to study ; and are you obliged to sell your 
present classics to obtain those you will next need? He passed through the 
same difficulty. Are you taunted by the inconsiderate with being charity stu- 
dents^ He partook of the same reproach, if reproach it can be called. But 
after all, he held on "the even tenor of his way," and now he stands high in 
the affections of a large people, and has been laboring with pleasing success 
for years in the vineyard of our Lord. " Go ye and do likewise." 

In conclusion, allow me to urge upon the attention of every young man who 
is looking forward to the great work of the gospel ministry, the importance of 
a thorough preparation. E. often regrets that his preparation was so hurried as 
to exclude the extended and thorough training which now seems to him invalu- 
able. It is only by hard study that he has been able to make up, in some de- 
gree, since he entered the ministry, the deficiency in his preparatory education. 
Let every young man who would prove as a burning and shining light in some 
golden candlestick, set his mark high, and aim to be thoroughly trained for the 
holy calling on which he has his eye. The times — the exigencies of the church, 
demand a well educated, able ministry. To use the language employed on 
another occasion, " The ministry should be well educated ; men of sound in- 
tellects, clear heads, vigorous thought, and minds well stored with the great 
truths of the gospel. They should be perfectly at home on all the great points 
of theological truth ; should be able to defend these points against all the open 
or insidious attacks of the opposer ; should understand the wiles and arts of in- 
fidelity and false religion ; and, clad in the panoply of the truth of God, they 
should go forth, pulling down the strong holds of error and sin. The enemy is 
on the alert. He is cultivating his intellect. He is tasking all his resources to 
build up new defences and safeguards for his errors. He is seeking out the 
weak and unguarded spots disclosed by the professors and advocates of Chris- 
tianity, and preparing for a desperate onset. The conflict is, and is to be, be- 
tween the truths of the gospel of Christ, and the multiplied phases of infidelity. 
"The devil, knowing that his time is short, has come down with great wrath." 
He is whetting up the intellects of his followers, and preparing them for. the 
great conflict, preparatory to which, have already taken place a few skirmishes. 
The victory is not to be won by the sword. The field of conflict is not one of 
the bayonet, the cannon, the battle-axe. The strife and war are altogether of a 
different order. Mind is coming, and has come, into contact with mind. There 




is, and is to be, a grappling of intellectual energy— a trial of moral courage — a 
battle with bloodless, spiritual weapons, mighty by the power of God, or weak 
through the power of sin. I say, then, that the ministry must he composed of 
men of intellect, men of study, men of reading, men of theological learning, 
thoroughly furnished for the conflict. They should be of this character, 
whether you retain them here, or send them to the far West, or to the distant 
islands of the sea, or wherever you send them. Otherwise, they either will not 
grapple with the infidel intellect, or if they do, they will be discomfited, and 
become a burden and reproach to the cause which they profess to support. 
Better have ten men competent and well qualified to perform the duties of an 
able and faithful minister, than ten times ten " who cannot teach and will not 


The American Education Society 
has now been in operation more than twenty 
years, and by the blessing of God has. risen 
from small beginnings to its present extend- 
ed movements. It has since its commence- 
ment aided in all, 2,495 young men. About 
eight hundred ministers, now living and 
preaching the gospel, have already, through 
its direct instrumentality, been introduced 
to their fields of labor. Some of these have 
exerted a wide and holy influence in 
heathen lands, others are in conspicuous 
stations in churches and benevolent institu- 
tions in the United States. During the year, 
the Society has aided one thousand and 
forty beneficiaries at 159 institutions ; and 
from most of the States and Territories of 
the Union, as follows, viz., in 17 theological 
seminaries, 223 ; in 35 colleges, 507 ; and 
in 107 academies and schools, 319. Its re- 
ceipts have amounted to $63,227 76, and its 
expenditures to $66,208 92, which, with the 
debt of last year, $1,079 13, amounts to 
$67,288 05, leaving a debt of $4,060 29. 
The receipts, exclusive of legacies, are 
larger than in any preceding year. The 
number of new applicants that have been 
received on the funds of the Society is 237. 

Maine Branch. 

Maine has not been surpassed the last 
year by any State in the Union, according 
to her population, for efforts in raising up 
an educated ministry. She has richly en- 
dowed her school of the prophets, by one 
hundred and thirteen thousand dollars in 
addition to former contributions. In her 
Theological Seminary, Colleges and Acad- 
emies, 77 young men have been aided by 
the Society the past year, in the sum of 
$4,193. Of this amount she has paid into 
the treasury through her Branch organiza- 
tion $2,525. The Rev. William L. Mather, 
who has been an acceptable Agent of the 
Society during five years, is expected to 

take charge of that Branch as its principal 
active officer. 

New Hampshire Branch. 

This Branch, it will be recollected, raised 
the year before the last more funds than 
any other, according to the number of young 
men under its care. Twice the amount was 
contributed that was appropriated to its 
beneficiaries. This was the result of the 
labors of an efficient Agent. During the 
year just closed, not so much agency has 
been performed, and the consequence is, 
much less money has been contributed for 
this object. The number of beneficiaries 
under the patronage of the Branch, is 39. 
The appropriations amount to $2,267, and 
the collections to $1,438. 

North Western Education Society. 

Vermont has one hundred and seven 
beneficiaries of this Society at her Institu- 
tions of learning. To these have been ap- 
propriated $5,905, and yet but $1,827 have 
been raised towards this appropriation. Not 
one half of this, probably, would have been 
contributed, had not an Agent of the Society 
labored four or five weeks in behalf of 
the cause. The deficiency of funds this 
and the preceding year, is complete demon- 
stration that the services of Agents are in- 


Massachusetts, which is the seat of opera- 
tions of the Parent Society, contributes 
annually to this cause far more than any 
other State in the Union. She has raised 
for this object in various ways, nearly 300,- 
000 dollars. She has uniformly had at her 
Theological and Academical Institutions, 
more beneficiaries than any other State. 
Having as many educated Ministers as, she 
has thousands of souls within her borders, 
she knows by happy experience how to 
appreciate an able and faithful ministry. 




Two hundred and sixty-two young men 
have received the patronage of the Society 
during the past year. The State is organ- 
ized into 15 auxiliaries, and has contributed 
the last year about $ 20,000 ; of this, nearly 
$5,000 were raised in Boston. 

Rhode Island Auxiliary. 

This State must be considered on the 
advance, in respect to an educated ministry; 
though she h r s done but little in connection 
with the American Education Society. The 
number of young men assisted within the 
boundaries of that auxiliary is small ; so also 
is the amount of funds contributed. 

Connecticut Branch. 

Connecticut has done well for the cause 
of the Education Society. The number of 
her beneficiaries has increased, and the 
amount of collections in the different towns 
has been greater than usual. This is owing 
to' the judicious and efficient agency of the 
Secretary of that Branch, the Rev. Ansel 
Nash. Ninety-three young men have been 
patronized at her Academies, Colleges and 
Theological Institutions. To these individ- 
uals $5,498 have been appropriated, and 
$4,938 of this sum have been contributed 
within the bounds of the State. In the 
enterprise of supplying the world with the 
heralds of the cross, Connecticut will take 
a prominent part. 

Illinois Branch. 

This Branch has under its patronage 
twelve young men. Owing to a deficiency 
in the returns, it is not known what has 
been the amount of receipts into its treasury. 
It is expected, that an Agent will be em- 
ployed immediately in that field of labor. 

Presbyterian Education Society. 

This Society, in connection with the 
Western Education Society, whose seat of 
operations is at Cincinnati, has aided during 
the past year 450 beneficiaries in 97 Institu- 
tions of learning. The receipts from collec- 
tions, in churches and individual donations, 
amount to $22,334 34. During the same 
period of time there have been paid to 
beneficiaries within its bounds, $24,410. 
The Rev. Wm. Ration is its Secretary and 
General Agent. 

The Young Men's Education Society of 
JVtio York City. 

This Society has been in successful opera- 
tion during the past year. The number of 
beneficiaries connected with the Society, 
is 23. 

Young Men's Education Society, New- 
ark, JV. J. 

This Association has pursued the object 
for which it was called into being with the 
ardor and enterprise characteristic of the 
young. ' 

Western Education Society, JVei.v York. 

This was among the earliest in the work 
of education, and has pursued its course 
with enlargement and consistency. The 
field of its present operations embraces the 
seventeen western counties of the State. 
It has aided eighty-four young men during 
the year, and has paid into the treasury of 
the Presbyterian Education Society $2,040. 
The Rev. Alanson Scofield continues its 

Utica Agency. 

During the year $2,825 have been ex- 
pended by this agency in aid of 53 benefi- 
ciaries. The Secretary, Rev. O. S. Hoyt, 
has, with perseverance and success, pursued 
his labors. The amount collected on this 
field, comprising the central and northern 
part of this State, is annually increasing. 

Philadelphia Education Society. 
This Society, for more than half of the 
last year was without the labors of an agent, 
and consequently but a small portion of the 
field has been visited. Late in the last 
autumn Rev. Eliakim Phelps entered on 
the services of this Society as its Secretary 
and General Agent, to labor in the States of 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ma- 
ryland, and Virginia. The receipts from the 
field embraced by the Philadelphia Educa- 
tion Society amount to $4,415 49. 

Western Education Society. 
The annual meeting of this Society was 
held at Cincinnati in October last, at which 
time the report states that seventy-one ben- 
eficiaries had been aided, and that $4,215 
had been collected. Since that time the 
Secretary and General Agent, the Rev. 
John Spaulding, performed a successful 
agency in the South, and increased the 
pecuniary resources of the Society by ob- 
taining large donations and subscriptions. 
This Society includes at present the largest 
portion of the great valley of the West, and 
is each year extending its influence and 
enlarging its resources. 

Western Reserve Branch. 
This efficient auxiliary has during the 
year steadily advanced. Notwithstanding 
the feeble state of health of the Secretary, 
Rev. Ansel R. Clark, the pecuniary re- 
sources have been more than ample to meet 
all their expenditures. The receipts into 
the treasury have been $3,253 40. Of 
this sum, $2,119 are appropriations to forty- 
seven beneficiaries in ten institutions of 
learning. Of these, twenty were new ap- 
plicants. Forty-four of the young men 
have earned by manual labor and by school 
teaching $1,405 71, being an average of 
about $32 each. 

East and West Tennessee. 
The Rev. John W. Irwin, whose appoint- 
ment was announced in the report of the 
last year, entered upon his duties as Agent 



on this field soon after the anniversary. 
After laboring with the most encouraging 
success for about six months, he was com- 
pelled on account of ill health to relinquish 
his office. Since then, no Agent of this 
Society has been operating on that field. 
The growing literary and theological insti- 
tutions in that State, give promise of a large 
number of faithful and devoted servants of 
the Lord. Appropriations amounting to 
$2,166 have been made to 43 young men 
within the bounds of this agency. 

Loaning System. 

There are two aspects on which the 
system of loaning is to be viewed ; the one 
relates to pecuniary income, and the other 
to moral effects upon the young men assist- 
ed. The first of these, the Directors have 
ever considered of minor importance, as 
their confidence for the support of the So- 
ciety is laid in the benevolence of the 
churches. A number who have enjoyed 
the patronage of the Society, have preferred 
to return the whole amount of appropria- 
tions made to them, that another young man 
may thus be forwarded to the sacred office. 

The Board regard the chief excellence of 
the loaning system to lie in the moral influ- 
ence it exerts. It is a test of character at 
the very outset of a young man's desires 
for the ministry. He is practically led to 
determine how much his heart is set upon 
becoming a minister by ascertaining what 
responsibility he is willing to bear, and what 
sacrifices he is willing to make. Its influ- 
ence is happy in promoting economy, in- 
dustry, and energy of character on the part 
of the young man. It is also eminently 
advantageous for the Society, and secures 
it from a loss of funds upon unworthy can- 

There have been refunded during the last 
year, $4,332 53. 


The Directors are happy in being able to 
assure the Society that the young men are 
exerting themselves with commendable en- 
terprise towards their own support. This is 
made evident from the fact that their earn- 
ings by manual labor and school keeping 
have amounted, during the year, to $33,502. 

Means to be Used. 

There must be more prayer. — It is 
Christ's own instruction to his disciples, 
" Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, 
that he will send forth laborers into his har- 
vest." Ministers are the gift of Christ, and 
he bestows them in answer to prayer. 

Parents must consecrate their children 
to the work of the ministry. — Hannah of 
old consecrated her infant Samuel to the 
ministry. The mother of Christian Fred- 
erick Swartz, on her dying bed, "informed 
her husband and her pastor, that she had 
dedicated her son to the Lord, and obtained 
a promise from thern that her then infant 


son should be trained in the remembrance 
of this sacred destination, and that if he 
should in due time express a desire to be 
educated for the ministry, they would cher- 
ish and promote it to the uttermost of their 
power." Swartz became the missionary 
apostle to India, and died when about four- 
score years old, having been instrumental, 
as is supposed, of the conversion of thou- 
sands of souls. 

The devoted mother of Samuel J. Mills, 
solemnly dedicated this son to the ministry. 
While he was yet an infant, her heart was 
in prayer for this end. The hymns which 
she sung over his cradle, as she rocked him 
to sleep, were prayers for this object. He 
was trained for this work ; and what nation 
shall not rejoice that Samuel J. Mills was 
born and had such a mother. 

The times call for men — for men of great 
fortitude, ready to encounter a world, and 
armed for death. Let us without delay take 
hold on God, for the fullness of his Spirit is 
not exhausted ; and he shall yet sanctify to 
himself a noble army of Christian Ministers. 

The following results of the American 
Education Society, are taken from a histor- 
ical note contained in the Appendix to this 

The receipts of the Society from year to 
year, as appears by the Annual Reports, are 
as follows, viz. 1816, $5,714; 1817, $6,436; 
1818, $5,971; 1819, $19,330; 1820, $15,- 
148; 1821, $13,108; 1822, $15,940 ; 1823, 
$11,545; 1824, $9,454; 1826, $16,596; 
1827, $33,094; 1828, $31,591 ; 1829, $30,- 
084; 1830, $30,710; 1831, $40,450; 1832, 
$42,030; 1833, $47,836; 1834, $57,818; 
1835, $83,062; 1836, $63,227; making 
$579,144. It appears by the above state- 
ment, that a greater sum of money has been 
received during the last five years, than 
during the fifteen preceding years. 

The results of the Society have been as 
follows. It has assisted, since its formation, 
2,495 young men of different evangelical 
denominations, from every State in the 
Union. The number aided in each suc- 
ceeding year, from 1816 to 1S36, is as fol- 
lows : 7, 138, 140, 161, 172, 205, 195, 216, 
198, 225, 156, 300, 404, 524, 604, 673, 807, 
912, 1,040, and 1,040. Of those who re- 
ceived aid from the funds of the Society 
during the last year, 223 were connected 
with 17 theological seminaries, 507 with 35 
colleges, 310 with 107 academical and pub- 
lic schools; making in all, 1,040 young 
men connected with 159 institutions. About 
800 individuals who have received its pa- 
tronage, have already entered the Christian 
ministry, about 50 of whom have gone forth 
as missionaries to heathen lands. 

The whole amount which has been re- 
funded by former beneficiaries, is as follows : 
during the eleven years preceding April 30, 
1826,^ $339 60; in 1S27, $90 00; 182S, 
$864 22 ; 1829, $830 91 ; 1S30, $1,007 84 ; 



ISS1, $2,647 63; 1832, $1,312 77; 1833, 
$2,113 27; 1S34. $1,947 7S ; 1S35, $2,957 
14; 1836, $4,332 53; making $1S,443 69. 
The sum of earnings by the beneficiaries 
for labor and school keeping, reported from 
year to year, for the last ten years, is as fol- 
lows, viz.: 1827, $4,000; 1828, $5,149; 
1829, $8,728; 1830, $11,010; 1831, $11,- 
460 ; 1832, $15,568 ; 1S33, $20,611 ; 1S34, 
$26,268; 1835, $29,829; 1836, $33,502. 
The whole amount is $168,125. 



Hon. Samuel Hubbard, LL. D. 

Vice President. 

William Bartlett. Esq. 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 

Hon. "William Reed, Marblehead, Mass. 

Hon. John Cotton Smith, LL. I)., Sharon, Conn. 

Robert Ralston, Esq., Philadelphia. 
. John Bolton, Esq. New York. 
Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D., LL. D., Philadelphia. 
Rev. Jeremiah Day. D. D , LL. D., Pres. Yale Coll. 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D. D . LL D.. Pres. Union Coli. 
Rt Rev. Alexander V. Griswold, D. D.. Boston, Ms. 
Rev. Joshua Bates, D. D., Pres. Middlebury Coll. 
Rev. Henry Davis, D. D., Clinton. N. Y. 

William Seabrook, Esq., Edisto Island, S. C. 
Rev. Daniel Dana, D. L) , Newburyport. Mass. 
Rev. William Allen, D. D., Pres. Bowdoin College. 
Rev. Nathanael Emmons, D. D , Franklin, Mass. 
Rev. Edward D. Griffin, D. D., Pres. Williams Coll. 
Rev. James Richaids, D. D., Prof. Auburn The. Sem. 
Rev. Lyman Beecher, D. D., Pres. Lane Sem. 
Rev. Heman Humphrey, D. D., Pres. Amherst Coll. 
Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D., Pres. Dartmouth College. 
Rev. Francis Wayland, D. D., Pies. Brown Univ. 
Rev. Leonard Woods, D. l).,Prof. Andover Th Sem. 
Rev. James M. Matthews, D. D., Chan. N. Y. Univ. 
Rev. Sereno E. Dwight, D. D., New York. 
Rev. Joseph Penny, 1). D , Pres. Hamilton College. 
Rev. John Wheeler. 1). D., Pres. Univ. of Vermont. 
Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, LL. D., Newark, N.J. 
Rev. Robert H. Bishop, D D., Pres. Miami Univ; 
Rev. George E. Pierce, Pres. Western Reserve Coll. 
Rev. Bennet Tyler, D. D , Pies. Conn. Theol Inst. 
Rev. Wilbur Fiske, D. D., Pres Wesley an Univ. 
Rev. Enoch Pond, D. D ., Prof Bangor Theol. Sem. 
Rev. Edward Beecher, Pres. Illinois College. 

Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D., LL. D. 
Rev. Brown Emerson, D. D. 
Rev. Warren Fay, D. D. 
John Tappan, Esq. 
Arthur Tappan, Esq. 
Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong. 
Rev. John Codman, D. D. 
Rev. William Cogswell, D. D. 
Rev. Samuel Gile. 
Rev. Ralph Emerson, D. D. 
Rev. William Pat ton. 
Rev. William Cogswell, D. D., Secretary. 
Hardy Ropes, Esq., Treasurer. 
Hon. Pliny Cutler, Auditor. 
Executive Committee. 
Rev. Warren Fay, D. D. 
Rev. John Codman, l>. I). 
Rev. Joy II Fairchild, 
Mr. B. B Edwards, and the 

Financial Comrn ittce. 
John Tappan, Esq. 
Hon. Samuel T Armstrong, 
William J. Hubbard, Esq. and the 


Philadelphia Education Society. 

Extract from the Annual Report of the Directors. 
The Board of Directors of the Phil- 
adelphia Education Society, Auxiliary to 
the Presbyterian Education Society, having 
closed the labors of their second year, avail 
themselves of the opportunity which this 
annual meeting affords, to express to the 
Society some of the sentiments with which 
their own minds have been impressed. 
They have had occasion in the progress of 
their work to speak of judgment as well 
as of mercy. It is their painful duty to 
announce that Joseph Darah, one of the 
beneficiaries of this Society, has been re- 
moved by death. He was a member of 
Newark College, Delaware ; was a young 
man of much promise and of great moral 
worth, and in the circle in which he was 
known, had excited high hopes of his 
future usefulness. In other respects, the 
events of the year have afforded encourage- 
ment and promise. They feel that in many 
respects they have occasion for gratitude 
to God for the favor with which this en- 
deared cause has been regarded. It has 
not indeed been without embarrassment. 
The unhappy contentions by which the 
peace of the churches has been interrupted 
and the equanimity of the public mind dis- 
turbed, has been felt in a greater or less 
degree by all our benevolent associations, 
especially in this portion of the church. 
Serious inconvenience has also been ex- 
perienced for the want of an agent, whose 
whole attention could be devoted to the 
field embraced by this Society. For more 
than half of the last year the Society was 
without any agent at ail. Other causes of 
embarrassment have also existed. All these, 
notwithstanding, we have abundant evi- 
dence that the cause of the Education So- 
ciety lias a deep hold on the hearts of 
Christians extensively in this portion of the 
church, and has enjoyed, in no small degree, 
the favor and blessing of God. Of this we 
have evidence in the fact, that individuals 
and some whole congregations who had 
formerly assumed an attitude of indifference 
if not of hostility to our methods of ope- 
ration have, the past year, been cordial, 
and in several instances, liberal contributors 
to our funds. The receipts to our Treasury 
during the year have been more than double 
what they were during any previous year. 
The character of our beneficiaries for 
correct deportment, diligence, application 
to study, morals and piety, has been thus 
far highly satisfactory. The testimonials 
furnished quarterly by their instructors 
have in ■ all these respects, been credit- 
able to the young men, and satisfactory 
lo the Board. A considerable number 
more are known to be pursuing a prepara- 
tory course with the expectation of apply- 
ing (or the aid of the Society at the end 
of three months. Some, also, who have 
been aided by this Society during the 




last year are now, on account of the cx- 
pensiveness of the schools in this vicinity, 
removed to other States. In view of all 
the results of the last year the Board are 
free to say, that in their opinion, the pros- 
pects of the Society have at no time been 
so promising as at the present. 

But while we make grateful mention of 
these facts — facts which must certainly be 
regarded as circumstancesof encouragement 
to continued and increased effort — there is 
another view of the subject to which the 
attention of the Board has been directed, 
and to which they desire most earnestly to 
call the attention of the Society and of the 
church at large, viz. : The utter inad- 
equacy of the present amount of effort to 
meet the wants of the church, and the 
claims of a dying world. " The field is 
the world." It is emphatically " white 
already to the harvest." " The harvest is 
perishing for the want of laborers," and no 
efforts which have yet been made afford 
any reasonable prospect that the evil is soon 
to be remedied. 

From data, the correctness of which will 
not be questioned, the Board are fully sat- 
isfied that with all that is now doing in this 
age of which we so often boast as an age of 
action, and by all the evangelical denomi- 
nations in our land, the movement of the 
church is retrograde, rather than otherwise, 
even at the present day. That is, the ad- 
ditions to the church from year to year are 
not equal in proportion to the actual increase 
of our population, so that the relative pro- 
portion of the church to the world is every 
year diminishing, and it is believed that 
there have been but two years since the 
commencement of. the present century in 
which the case has been otherwise. These 
were the years 1831, and 1832. Even 
during these years, which certainly were 
blessed with revivals of religion more 
abundant and precious and powerful than 
the church had for a long time before en- 
joyed, the- increase of the church was but 
just about in proportion to the increase of 
the population of our country. The Board 
have also been appalled by the fact that the 
increase of the ministry falls far short of 
the increase of the church, so that to furnish 
for our own country alone a supply equal 
to that enjoyed by the older settlements, 
would require nearly twice the present 
number of ministers, and an annual supply 
more than twice as great as the present 
amount of effort will afford. 

If we look abroad over heathen countries, 
the prospect is still more appalling. The 
field is whitening to the reaper's hand ; but 
the laborers are few. Every nation almost 
under heaven, is now accessible to the 
Christian missionary. The " cities" which 
were said to have been " walled up to 
heaven " are now accessible in all direc- 
tions. The " giants, the sons of Anak " 
before' the terror of whose countenances the 

church has for ages turned hack in conster- 
nation, are no longer there. The church 
may at once martial her hosts and march 
directly over and take possession of the 
work for Christ. But the men are not at 
her disposal — the recruits are yet to be ob- 
tained and trained for the field ; and even 
the preliminaries of the enterprise are yet 
to be arranged ; and is it not seriously to be 
apprehended, that while the church is ma- 
turing her plans and collecting her forces, 
and " preparing to begin " the work, infi- 
delity and false religion will "steal a march 
upon the church," and by throwing their 
own pernicious influence in between the 
gospel and the heathen mind, and thus 
create new and more formidable obstacles 
to the truth than any which the tottering 
powers of heathenism can now oppose. If 
ever there was a time when the voice of 
God, the condition of the church, and the 
wants of the world called for action — vig- 
orous, decided action — that time is now. 
But where are the men ? We hear it said 
and reiterated from all quarters, that " the 
great want with all our benevolent opera- 
tions, is men," and that the " world is suf- 
fering to an extent which God alone can 
conceive for the want of men." With facts 
like these before their eyes, the Board dis- 
tinctly declare that they do not, and cannot 
feel satisfied with the feeble efforts which 
have hitherto been made to meet the claims 
of Christ and the church for an additional 
supply of men. And they have been led 
to ask if any thing can be done, and if any 
thing, what, to meet the emergency to 
which the providence of God has brought us; 
and they are fully persuaded that something 
can be done, and must be done, and done 
soon. They are fully persuaded that the 
church possesses within herself resources 
abundantly adequate to the complete ac- 
complishment, and within a reasonable time, 
of all that is implied in her commission to 
go into all the world and preach the gospel 
to every creature. She has men enough 
and wealth enough and influence enough to 
supply the means of grace to the entire 
world in a single generation. This position 
is assumed not as a matter of conjecture, 
but from estimates founded on accurate and 
extended calculation. Were the Presbyte- 
rian church alone to employ all her re- 
sources for the conversion of the world, and 
take hold of the work with a zeal and a self- 
denial, a firmness and a perseverance like 
that in which the apostles labored, or that 
which has enstamped immortality on the 
memory of Brainerd, and Martyn, and Mills, 
she might, by her own unaided strength, by 
the blessing of God, furnish the means of 
grace to the entire world in a single gener- 
ation. This generation would not pass away 
until a voice should be heard in heaven say- 
ing, It is doive. " The kingdoms of this 
world have become the kingdom of our Lord 
and of his Christ." 



The Annual meeting of the Society wa9 
held in Philadelphia, March 21, 1830. 

The Rev. Eliakim Phelps is Secretary of 
the Society, and George W. McClelland, 
Esq. Treasurer. 

Boston Auxiliary. 
Extract from the Annual Report. 
We think of a minister, chiefly, as a pub- 
lic preacher, and are apt to estimate him 
according to the public effect of his influ- 
ence and labors. If we confine ourselves 
to this view of the ministry, however, we 
overlook one great object which Christ de- 
signed in it, and one method of ministerial 
usefulness which is of importance, but which, 
because of its hidden operation, is not always 
recognized, nor fully appreciated. 

The private influence of the ministry may 
be illustrated by the character and method 
of the good performed by the physician. 

Has anyone written the chronicles of the 
healing art in this city ? How many pains 
have been relieved, how many burning 
brows have been cooled and their throbbings 
hushed : how much sickness has been cured 
that seemed to be unto death : how many 
wearisome days and nights have been saved 
to the people, and tossings to and fro upon 
beds of agony ! How many families have, 
almost, received their dead raised to life 
again ! Who has written the joy of their 
circles at the appearance of a beloved parent 
or child from a chamber of dangerous illness, 
at the table and fireside ? Who has kept 
the number and recorded the bliss of the 
sufferers, when first they have walked forth 
under the fresh heavens, and the conscious- 
ness of coming back to life again, and pulsa- 
tions of health leaping through the veins at 
the first perception of the pure air, and the 
newness which all nature seemed to put on 
to welcome their going forth from death, 
have created that feeling of pleasure re- 
specting which the poet has so beautifully 

" See the wretch who long has tost 

On the thorny bed of pain, 

At length repair his vigor lost 

And live and breathe again. 

The meanest flowret of the vale, 

The simplest notes that swell the gale, 

The common sun, the air, the skies, 

To him are opening Paradise." 

Such pleasures How continually from the 
healing art; yet none but the God to whom 
belongeth the issues from death and the 
happy subjects of those pleasures bear wit- 
ness to them. They come and go, like 
breezes of spring, but are followed by the 
fruits of health and life. When you think 
of the noiseless, unpretending course of a 
physician, and follow him in imagination 
into sick chambers, arid think how often, by 
his assiduous skill, those places are made 
the gates of heaven which at first seemed 


the gates of death, and think how many 
thousand hearts have been made glad of 
whom the world have known nothing, there 
appears to be a beauty and even a sublimity, 
to say nothing of the inestimable benefits, in 
the healing art, which is fitted to awaken 
our admiration and love. 

Now the influence of a spiritual, faithful 
pastor amongst the families of his charge, is 
of the same nature. He does for the souls 
of his people what the physician does for the 
bodies of his patients. He goes to them, or 
receives them, in the hour when conscience 
wakes up from her sleep of years and cries 
to God, Thou hast set mine iniquities before 
thee, my secret sins in the light of thy 
countenance ! He is with them when that 
sickness of heart, compared with which all 
pains are light, oppresses them, and every 
hope of comfort is excluded by the begin- 
ning of despair. He is the instrument of 
revealing to the soul that heavenly mercy 
which forgives all sin, that blood which 
takes out its stains, that hope which is life 
in death, and that peace of God which pas- 
seth all understanding. The first sensations 
of a sick man, at his recovery, are not to be 
compared with the feelings of one, who, for 
the first time, perceives the way of salvation 
by Jesus Christ, and stays himself upon the 
divine mercy while sinking into despair. 
It is chiefly in private that the minister is 
the instrument of such blessings ; though, 
by his public work, he prepares the minds 
of his people for his private efforts and suc- 
cess. He takes the mourners by the hand, 
and they who shrunk from the exposure of 
their private and sacred sorrows, pour out 
their souls before him, because he is to them 
in the place of Jesus Christ, who loved Mary 
and Martha, and wept at the grave of their 
Lazarus. He sits down by the dying bed ; 
he stands on the verge of eternity with a 
passing spirit, assures the sinner of pardon 
upon repentance and faith, or soothes the 
fear and sustains the hope of the saint, as 
the scenes of eternity break in upon him. 
None but a minister knows the strange 
variety of occasions upon which he is called 
to impart joy or relieve sorrow. The kind- 
ness and love of God towards man appear, 
as well in the beautiful adaptation of the 
methods by which he comforts and saves 
him, as in the way of salvation. 

Every faithful minister raised up and sent 
forth by this Society, is made the instrument 
of such blessings to a community of human 
beings. Who then can estimate the private 
influence of a pious, faithful ministry ? Like 
the unseen ministry of angels, it is noiseless, 
unappreciated by the world, and sometimes 
repaid by injury ; but of such value in the 
estimation of the Saviour, that when he as- 
cended on high, he honored his ascension, 
and blessed his people, with the gift of pas- 
tors, to succeed prophets and apostles, and 
the first evangelists of the church. If 
churches and private Christians would be 




sanctified in the way which Christ has 
chosen for them, let them honor the pastoral 
office and its influences, and evermore prefer 
the light of the quiet stars and planets, to 
the shooting and startling light of those fires 
which are not in the number of the ordi- 
nances of heaven. Let the friends of an 
educated, pious, and able ministry be en- 
couraged in the support of this cause, by the 
thought that every faithful minister raised 
up by their influence, is one of the first of 
Heaven's blessings ; and may the members 
of this Society themselves enjoy this bles- 
sing, in its full measure, till " the Lamb 
himself shall feed them, and lead them to 
living fountains of waters, and God shall 
wipe away all tears from their eyes." 

The annual meeting of the Society was 
held, May 23, 1836. 

On the occasion addresses were delivered 
by the Rev. Professor Stowe of Lane Semi- 
nary, Rev. President Linsley of Marietta 
College, Rev. Mr. Smith, of the Lutheran 
Church, Boston, Rev. Mr. Clark, Secretary 
of the Western Reserve Branch, Hudson, 
Ohio, and the Rev. Mr. Brown, of St. Pe- 
tersburg, Russia. 

The officers of the Society are, William 
J. Hubbard, Esq. President ; Rev. Nehe- 
miah Adams, Secretary ; and Hardy Ropes, 
Esq. Treasurer. 

Connecticut Branch. 

Extracts'from the Report. 

In surveying the past year, the Directors 
of this Branch of the American Education 
Society find cause of encouragement and 
gratitude. The resources of the Branch 
have been considerably increased, and its 
operations extended beyond those of any 
preceding year. From our records it ap- 
pears, that the average number of benefici- 
aries, to whom appropriations have been 
made at the quarterly meetings of the Di- 
rectors during the year, is 69, and that at 
the last of these meetings appropriations 
were made to 74. We are happy in being 
able to state, that the augmented demands 
on our treasury, arising from this source, 
and also from the support of an agent within 
our limits about three fourths of the year, 
have been met by our own resources — no 
application for aid having been made to the 
Parent Institution. This increase of liberal- 
ity in the present instance, is a special token 
for good, as it denotes a change in public 
sentiment in favor of the Education Society. 
Hence it is obvious, that the Christian com- 
munity in this State have an increased im- 
pression of the great and increasing want of 
educated ministers which now exists, as well 

as increased confidence in the institution as 
an efficient instrument in furnishing them. 
In several instances, respectable dona- 
tions have been received from sources, 
whence, in times past, little or nothing has 
been derived in support of this cause. It i3 
beginning to be more and more felt, that an 
enlightened, devoted Christian ministry is 
indispensable to the support of religion and 
morality ; to the maintenance of the fear 
and love of God in every form in this apos- 
tate world. This feeling is abundantly sup- 
ported by the word of God. Wherever it 
exists in enlightened pious minds, it would 
seem that it must produce attachment to an 
institution which, on the plan pursued by 
the American Education Society, is bringing 
forward one hundred young men every year 
to preach the gospel of salvation. Wher- 
ever objections against this institution now 
exist, they evidently, for the most part, 
spring from ignorance or misapprehension 
of facts, or from love of sin and the world. 
Among many of the most intelligent and pious 
it is deeply realized that its interests have 
a strong claim on the vigorous persevering 
support of the Christian public ; that among 
kindred associations it is one of the last that 
should be abandoned or suffered to languish. 
The recent tokens of divine favor which it 
has enjoyed plainly denote, that it is one of 
the instruments which the Head of the 
church has raised up to effect the subjuga- 
tion of this apostate world to himself. Who 
that loves the Lord Jesus Christ and the 
souls of men ; who that has just views of 
the means which God has ordained for the 
salvation of them who are in the road to 
death ; that knows it is by the foolishness of 
preaching he saves them who believe, can 
view with indifference or as having a sec- 
ondary claim on his prayers and efforts, the 
rearing up of competent men to publish to 
the world the gospel of the grace of God ? 

Every advance in this great work seems 
only to show more and more affectingly 
what remains to be done. How cheering 
soever the success which has attended the 
efforts of the Education Society — especially 
within the last few years — it is but a small 
beginning which has yet been made in sup- 
plying our own country with spiritual 
teachers. The community ought to know 
the truth in this case ; — ought fully to un- 
derstand, that the field is every year spread- 
ing out more and more widely on every 
side, and the demand for laborers increasing 
much more rapidly than the supply. The 
most that we dare state — and even in stating 
this we much fear that we are beyond the 
truth — is that our country is at present half 
furnished with competent Christian minis- 
ters of all evangelical- denominations. We 
are sometimes told of 12,000 preachers in 
the United States, and on the supposition 
that there are so many it is conceived there 
are only 2,000,000 of our population desti- 
tute of the means of evangelical instruction. 




Beyond all reasonable doubt there are four 
times 2,000,000 of souls in the land that 
have no adequate means of being taught the 
way of salvation by a Redeemer. Of the 
12,000 preachers in the country — if indeed 
there is that number — not a few are of such 
a description that the more numerous they 
are the greater is the cause of alarm and 
grief to the people of God. Of some we 
know, that they cannot even read the Scrip- 
tures in the English language. Of others, 
that their doctiine and their lives are in de- 
cided opposition to the word of God, and a 
reproach to the Christian name. The late 
Dr. Rice of Virginia, states in a letter to a 
friend, that after calculation on the subject, 
he had come to the conclusion, that from the 
Potomac to the Mississippi not more than 
one fifth of the population acknowledges a 
connection with the church of Christ in any 
form ; and of this fifth more than three 
fourths are under the guidance of extremely 
ignorant preachers, many of them decided 
antinomians. In the valley of the Missis- 
sippi, the population of which in fifty years 
is said to have increased from about 10,000 
to more than 5,000,000, the venerable Dr. 
Blackburn informs us there is only one Pres- 
byterian minister to 25,000 souls. It is also 
stated, on good authority, that in this region 
a thousand ministers might in one year be 
advantageously located could they be ob- 
tained. It is a fact with which we are all 
familiar, that every breeze from that region 
wafts to these eastern shores the most urgent 
entreaties of our brethren at the west for 
men to break to them the bread of life. 
Truly the harvest is great, and the laborers 
are few. But this is not all : they are, 
every year, becoming comparatively fewer. 
In this view the prospect before us as a 
nation is indeed appalling. Judging of the 
future from the past we have cause for the 
deepest solicitude, the utmost exertion, the 
most fervent prayer. Within the last fifty 
years the population of our country has in- 
creased from about 3,000,000 to 15,000,000. 
At the same rate of increase we shall, in 
fifty years more, number 75,000,000. To 
supply this immense number of souls with 
Christian pastors and teachers in the propor- 
tion usually deemed requisite, we shall 
need 75,000 ministers. But let ministers 
increase for half a century to come in the 
same proportion as for half a century past, 
and at the end of that period, we may expect 
to have about 15,000. This would leave 
four fifths of our population destitute of com- 
petent religious instruction. The conse- 
quence of leaving them thus must be that 
they would abolish the Sabbath ; cast off all 
the restraints of God's laws, and give full 
indulgence to their own evil propensities. 
What friend to God or to his country can con- 
template such a result with the least com- 
posure ? And what is it in the power of 
this generation to do to prevent such a result, 
unless they fill the land with enlightened 

men after God's own heart to preach the 
gospel of his grace ? 

In every point of view that moral and re- 
ligious influence, which can be maintained 
only by the preaching of the gospel, is in- 
dispensable to the welfare of this nation. 
Without such an influence even those po- 
litical institutions, which have come down 
to us from our ancestors, and have rendered 
our country the admiration and envy of the 
world, cannot be maintained. No other 
than an intelligent and a virtuous com- 
munity is at all capable of governing itself. 
But the thought of rendering any com- 
munity intelligent and virtuous while desti- 
tute of the fear of God and ignorant of his 
law, deserves to be ranked with the wildest 
reveries that ever entered the brain of a 
maniac. As well might we think to bind 
Leviathan with a thread, as hope to restrain 
the evil passions of men without an impres- 
sion that the eye of the omniscient Judge is 
upon them, and, that they must give to him 
an account of their conduct. But such an 
impression cannot be sustained in any com- 
munity, without competent teachers of mo- 
rality and religion. With teachers of this 
description then must our country be sup- 
plied, if we would retain those political in- 
stitutions which we value so much, and 
which are essential to our prosperity. 

Nor is it merely on account of the spir- 
itual wants of our own countrymen, that 
this deficiency of ministers is to be lament- 
ed. For the sake of a dying world, as well 
as for the sake of millions in the United 
States in the road to death, the utmost efforts 
need to be put forth that it may be supplied. 
The churches in America seem raised up in 
the providence of God that they may have 
a large share in the instrumentality of con- 
verting the world. The situation and the 
character of these churches do eminently 
fit them for this thing. Within a few years 
they have begun to awaken to some sense 
of their responsibility in this respect. But 
the principal hindrance to their going forth, 
in obedience to the last command of the 
Saviour to disciple all nations, is the want 
of men to preach his salvation to the perish- 
ing heathen. In the nations sitting in the 
region and shadow of death is now a demand 
for a thousand missionaries of the cross from 
our country. Could this number be pro- 
cured they might at once enter, with fair 
prospects of success, on labors for the sal- 
vation of men who have never heard of a 
Saviour nor a Holy Ghost. The pagan 
world is every year becoming more and 
more extensively open for Christian enter- 
prise. The call on the spiritual community 
from lands covered with the shadow of 
death, is becoming louder and more exten- 
sive, far beyond the ability of that com- 
munity to meet it. The great reason why 
this call cannot immediately be met, to a far 
greater extent, is that men cannot be ob- 
tained to devote themselves to the missionary 




work. Hence does this work languish, 
and, for aught which appears, it must con- 
tinue to languish. It is believed, that the 
means of supporting four times the mission- 
aries now supported by our churches, might 
be obtained, had we the individuals suitable 
to be employed in this service. But because 
we have them not we are denied the privi- 
lege of diffusing a knowledge of the remedy 
which infinite love has provided for the sins 
and woes of our fallen world. Hence our 
fellow-creatures, for whom the same blood 
of atonement has been shed as for our- 
selves ; who are capable of the same hopes 
and fears, the same joys and miseries with 
us, must continue subject to every species 
of calamity and suffering, and must hold on 
in the way to endless misery and despair. 
And is it a trifle that they are subject to the 
wrath and curse of God now ; that they 
must endure the same forever, if the way 
of life through a Redeemer, be not made 
known to them ? And must the Christian 
world continue to withhold from them this 
treasure for the want of men by whom it 
may be communicated ? 

The Annual Meeting of this Society was 
held at Norfolk, June 21, 1836. 

Addresses were made on the occasion by 
the Rev. Mr. Bacon of New Haven, Rev. 
Mr. Kirk, of Albany, N. Y., Rev. Dr. 
Beecher, President of Lane Theological 

The Hon. Thomas Day is President of 
the Society ; Rev. Samuel H. Riddel, Sec- 
retary ; Mr. Luzerne Ray, Assistant Secre- 
tary ; and Eliphalet Terry, Esq. Treasurer. 
The Rev. Ansel Nash, who was Secretary 
and Agent of the Society the last year, is 
appointed to another field of labor. He is 
to be in future General Agent of the Amer- 
ican Education Society for Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island. His acceptable and suc- 
cessful services in Connecticut, will favora- 
bly introduce him to his new field of labor, 
which he has already begun to occupy. 

Maine Branch. 
Extract from the Report of the Directors of the 
Maine Branch of the American Education Society. 

In making expiation for a world's iniqui- 
ties, the Saviour did not want our co-opera- 
tion. He trod the wine-press alone. He 
purged our sins by himself. But he left it 
for his servants to hold up before their fellow 
men the bleeding Lamb, and to beseech 
them in his name to be reconciled to God. 
He is indeed the head of all spiritual influ- 
ences. All those means and appliances 
which are made use of in redeeming men 

from sin, and in leading them to God and 
heaven, he appoints and provides, and ren- 
ders effectual. Every movement originates 
with him. The whole machine he sets in 
motion, and keeps in motion, and guides to 
the desired issues. It might require less 
care and effort to teach, convert, sanctify 
by himself. But the work now upon his 
hands he does not choose to perform alone. 
It is the duty, the privilege of his followers, 
more especially of' all his ministers, to be 
united in this work with him. In the act 
of renewing the heart, the Holy Spirit 
operates alone. Not by human might or 
power is the soul dead in sin raised to spir- 
itual life. And yet the prophet must say, 
O ye dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. 
And those truths, in view of which every 
holy affection and purpose are called forth, 
must be uttered by the human voice, or it 
may not be expected they will be made the 
power of God unto salvation. 

If there be not a competent supply of 
laborers, the wilderness will not become a 
fruitful field, but the fruitful field itself will 
become a wilderness. How then shall the 
needed supply be procured ? Pray ye the 
Lord of the harvest, and act in conformity 
to your prayers. 

Some who would gladly consecrate them- 
selves to this work are unable to obtain the 
education that is needed. The most prom- 
ising sons of Zion are often found among 
the poor ; and shall the difficulties that lie 
in their way be regarded as proof that they 
are not called to the work of the ministry? 
Rather let them be regarded as proving the 
duty of the churches to help them. By a 
beautiful arrangement of Divine Providence, 
the gifts of God are not all accumulated 
in the possession of a single individual. To 
one are given those mental endowments 
which, if duly cultivated, will prepare him, 
under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, for 
usefulness in the Christian ministry. But 
the ability to defray the expenses of his 
education is lodged in other hands with the 
direction, Take this youth and bring him 
up for me. Thus provision is made for mu- 
tual dependence and mutual aid. The gifts 
bestowed on the one are a supply for the 
wants of the other ; and those bestowed on 
the latter may eventually be made condu- 
cive to the benefit of the former. The 
Christian church consists of many members 
— each having its different functions, but 
all constituting one body in which the eye 
cannot say to the hand, I have no need of 
thee ; nor the head to the feet, 1 have no 
need of you. 

In former times, wealthy individuals pos- 
sessing the spirit of Christian love have as- 
sisted young men of promise in obtaining an 
education. In this way many excellent 
ministers have been brought forward. But 
in our day, in which the advantages of as- 
sociated charity and united effort have been 
more than ever ascertained and realized, 



societies are formed for the purpose of aid- 
ing indigent young men of hopeful piety 
and promising talents in their preparation 
for the sacred office. God has smiled upon 
the enterprise, and a vast amount of good 
has been effected by it. Had it not been 
for the assistance afforded by education 
societies during the last 20 years, the 
services of several hundreds of faithful min- 
isters in our own land and in foreign lands 
might have been lost to the church and to 
the world. Already the American Educa- 
tion Society has aided in bringing forward 
about 800 ministers; and there are now 
under its patronage in the different stages of 
their education more than 1 ,000 young men, 
all looking forward to the sacred ministry, and 
giving to their instructors and patrons satis- 
factory promise of usefulness in it. Under 
the patronage of the General Assembly's 
Board of Education, and of Societies belong- 
ing to other denominations, are many hun- 
dreds more. 

The Society which now holds its anni- 
versary, was organized in its present form 
in November, 1818. For many years, 
though all were assisted of suitable qualifi- 
cations that sought its assistance, its bene- 
ficiaries were very few. Within five years 
past, the number has been much increased. 
The whole number assisted, since its organi- 
zation, has been 180. Nearly 50 of these 
are now engaged in the blessed work of 
preaching the gospel — 17 of them are pastors 
of churches in this State, others in other 
parts of New England, in New York, in 
Ohio; two are employed in the instruction 
of youth ; one is supposed to be a missionary 
among the heathen, and several are licen- 
tiates ready to labor where God in his provi- 
dence may call them. 

Our beneficiaries are of four different de- 
nominations ; and though the number has 
been very considerably larger than in any 
preceding year, your Directors have not 
been subjected to the painful necessity of 
discontinuing their appropriations to any of 
them, either on account of misconduct, or 
for want of a respectable rank in point of 

By several years' experience, the Direc- 
tors of the Parent Society have been con- 
vinced that funds sufficient cannot be pro- 
cured without agents ; and they have 
thought it highly important that a perma- 
nent agent should be established in this 
State. Concurring in these views, and re- 
lying upon the recommendation of their re- 
spected Secretary, the Directors of the 
Maine Branch have appointed the Rev. 
"William L. Mather to this important station, 
with the understanding, that if the affairs 
of this Branch should not occupy his whole 
time, he will be called for that portion of it 
which may be left unoccupied in Maine, to 
the service of the American Society in some 
other portion of the land. Mr. Mather has 
been laboring in this State for about six 


months, and will give in the course of this 
meeting some account of his services and 
of the results of them during that period. 
It will be seen from the Report of your 
Treasurer, that the amount of moneys re- 
ceived during the year, has not equalled 
that of expenditures. Had it been the sole 
object of our Agent to collect funds for the 
current year, this deficiency might have 
been prevented. But it was thought more 
important that a system of measures should, 
as soon as possible, be matured and set in 
operation, upon which we might rely for 
the future. With this object in view, it 
was not thought most judicious that the Agent 
should rapidly traverse the whole State, 
seeking contributions only from those places 
where the largest sums might be expected ; 
but that he should labor only in certain 
counties, presenting the cause in them to 
every church, and endeavoring to awaken 
in all a deep and permanent interest. In 
this way, it is hoped that the amount con- 
tributed will ultimately exceed what could 
have been obtained in any other way, and 
that our whole Christian community will 
better appreciate the object of this Society 
and will more heartily unite, not only by 
their contributions, but by their prayers 
also, in seeking its full accomplishment. 

Its great object, that of providing, in con- 
nection with what may be effected in other 
ways, a competent supply of ministers for 
Maine, for the United States, for the whole 
world, is not yet attained. The church has 
only begun to look towards it, and to desire 
its fulfilment. Let us bless God that a be- 
ginning has been made. Let us bless God 
that already a little one has become a thou- 
sand ; that to myriads of immortal beings 
the glorious gospel of the blessed God is 
even now proclaimed with its heavenly light 
and saving influence by those whom Educa- 
tion Societies have aided in preparing for 
their work ; and that many, very many of 
our fellow men under their instruction are 
preparing to sing the new song, who, but 
for them, might have lifted up their voices 
in the waitings of the pit. Let us bless God 
that the churches in Maine have not been 
unmindful of the precept, to pray for the 
sending forth of laborers, and that by cor- 
responding action they have shown, to some 
extent, the sincerity of their prayer. Some 
of the sons of our beloved Zion, to whose 
labors the Spirit of God has set his seal, 
have been sent forth, and others are pre- 
paring to follow. But a much greater num- 
ber is needed, were the destitutions of Maine 
only to be supplied. Where shall they be 
found ? It is delightful to learn that in those 
places upon which the dews of divine grace 
have recently been distilling, a goodly num- 
ber of young men have given themselves 
to Christ, and that some of them are already 
expressing a desire for the good work of the 
ministry. Let the question of duty in re- 
lation to this matter come fairly before all 



those among U9, who, in early life have be- 
come the disciples of the Lord Jesus. Let 
every pious youth cast himself at the feet 
of his Redeemer with the inquiry, Lord 
what wilt thou have me to do ? and with 
the disposition to do whatever the Lord may 
require of him. If he cannot assign good 
reasons for a different conclusion, he may 
be assured that the Lord hath need of him 
in the work of the ministry ; and that if he 
decline this service, Christ will be dis- 
pleased and his own soul will suffer. 

Let every young man to whom God has 
given powers, which, under suitable cul- 
ture, and under the influence of piety, 
would render him useful in the sacred 
office, seriously consider whether he can 
assign a sufficient reason for preferring any 
other employment. Is this his plea, that he 
does not possess true religion himself, and 
therefore would not be a suitable person to 
impart religious instruction to others ? But 
why does he not possess true religion him- 
self? Why does he not give himself to be 
a servant of Christ ? Has the Saviour no 
claims upon him ? Does he not need an 
interest in the blessings of his kingdom ? 
Have his country and the world no claims 
upon him ? Ought he not so to occupy 
with the talents committed to his steward- 
ship, as to effect the greatest amount of 
good in his power to effect ? And will the 
Lord hold any one excusable, especially of 
those who have obtained, are obtaining, or 
may easily obtain a liberal education, simply 
because they have no heart to labor for the 
salvation of their fellow men ? Alas, how 
much of physical and intellectual power is 
wasted in occupations already overstocked, 
that might be turned to the best account in 
the occupation of the Christian ministry. 

Let pious parents think of this, and let 
them give up their sons to be laborers for 
Jesus Christ — laborers, if it may so please 
him, in the ministry of reconciliation. From 
their birth let them be consecrated to this 
honorable, blessed employment, and trained 
up for its duties and trials. Let ministers 
and Sabbath school teachers, and Christians 
universally, with this object in view, pray 
and labor for the conversion of the young. 
Let care be taken to search out those of 
promising talents, to whom in the morning 
of life renewing grace has been imparted, 
to present before their minds the spiritual 
wants of their country and of the world, 
with the claims of Him who died for their 
redemption, and to urge upon them the in- 
quiry, whether they are not called of God 
to go work in his vineyard. 

The American Education Society stands 
pledged before the world to receive among 
its beneficiaries every suitable applicant. 
Upon this principle, the Directors of this 
Branch of the Society have hitherto acted 
and will, we doubt not, continue to act. 
Let this fact be known throughout the State, 
and may the Lord himself so give the word, 

that great shall be the company of the 
preachers. May he pour his Spirit upon 
our seed, his blessing upon our offspring. 
May he incline multitudes of the precious 
youth in our Stale early to consecrate them- 
selves to the glorious Redeemer, so that 
they shall not count their lives dear to them, 
if they may but do his work, advance the 
interests of his kingdom, and receive in the 
great rewarding day his gracious approba- 

This Society held its Annual Meeting at 
Augusta, June 22, 1836. 

Addresses were delivered on the occasion 
by Rev. Dr. Pond, Professor of the Theo- 
logical Seminary, Bangor ; Rev. Mr. Ma- 
ther, General Agent of the Society; Rev. 
Mr. Brown, of St. Petersburg ; Rev. Mr. 
Armstrong, one of the Secretaries of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Fo- 
reign Missions ; the Rev. Mr. Murray, of 
Elizabethtown, N. J., and the Secretary of 
the Parent Society. 

The officers elected for the present year, 
are Rev. William Allen, D. D., President ; 
Rev. William L. Mather, Secretary ; and 
Prof. Newman, of Bowdoin College, Treas- 
urer. The Rev. Mr. Tappan, who had 
been Secretary for many years, and one of 
the most cordial friends and efficient sup- 
porters of the American Education Society, 
resigned his office as Secretary, to give 
place for Mr. Mather, who is to be in 
future the principal executive officer of 
the Branch. 

New York Young Men's Education- 
Extract from the First Report. 

Though the raising of funds is by no 
means an unimportant part of our work, 
still, in the view of the Board, it should be 
the chief object of this Society to multiply 
the number of those who seek the sacred 
office'. Our Education Societies need funds, 
it is true ; but they are in greater need of 
men. Were the wealth of the whole world 
at their disposal, they could do little, com- 
paratively, to meet the demands of the 
whitening harvest, unless the number of 
those who are willing to become laborers 
were greatly increased. It was under this 
impression that our classical school was es- 
tablished. A special committee has been 
appointed to present the claims of the gos- 
pel ministry before young men in this city, 
by preaching in the various churches, and 
in other ways. And it has been made the 




duty of the principal of the classical school, 
to spend as much time in this way as he 
can spare from his other labors. The young 
men connected with the school, also, have, 
of their own accord, resolved to labor, in a 
private way, to promote the same object. 
That these efforts have not been in vain, 
will appear from the fact, that at least 24 of 
those who have joined the school, were in- 
duced by such means to commence a course 
of study. 

In conclusion, the Board may be allowed 
to remind the members of this Society, that 
they have something more to do, than 
merely to cast their silver and gold into its 
treasury, or even to induce others to seek 
the sacred office. It is the duty, doubtless, 
of not a few of them to give themselves to 
the work of the ministry. The time is not 
far distant, when no pious young man will 
be able to sleep quietly on his pillow, till 
he has honestly asked and answered the 
question, " Ought not I to become a 
preacher of the gospel ? " There are, it is 
believed, hundreds of pious youth in this 
city, whose duty it is to begin, without de- 
lay, a course of preparation for the sacred 
office. On their hearts and consciences 
must the claims of the ministry be urged, 
with unwonted pungency and directness of 
appeal. If they can but be induced sol- 
emnly and thoroughly to examine these 
claims, we need have little fear as to the 
result. Let each one of them but pause 
amid the hurry and the din of business, and 
listen with attentive ear and docile spirit to 
the voice which speaketh from heaven, and 
he will doubtless hear the Saviour saying, 
as of old, "Let the dead bury their dead, 
but go thou and preach the kingdom of 

The Annual meeting was held Dec. 13, 
1835, at which time addresses were de- 
livered by Rev. Drs. Skinner and McAuley, 
and Rev. Messrs. Patton and Barnes. 

Mr. William A. Booth is President ; Rev. 
Asa D. Smith, Secretary; and Mr. Richard 
Evans, Treasurer. 

Plymouth County Auxiliary. 
Extracts from the Report. 

The Society whose anniversary we now 
celebrate, is one of the oldest of the kind in 
the United States. It was formed in this 
town on the 12th of June, 1811 ; twenty- 
five years ago, and several years before the 
formation of the American Education So- 
ciety, to which it is now auxiliary. It was 
then called the Benevolent Society in the 
southeastern part of Massachusetts, in- 
cluding as its field of operations most, or all 
of the southeastern portion of the State. 
Its object from its first organization was 

substantially the same as at present ; viz., 
to aid pious, indigent young men in their 
preparation for the gospel ministry. After 
having pursued its object with a com- 
mendable zeal for eighteen years, it became 
in 1829, auxiliary to the American Edu- 
cation Society, under the distinctive appel- 
lation of " The South Massachusetts Ed- 
ucation Society,'" embracing within its 
limits, the three counties of Plymouth, 
Bristol, and Barnstable. Thus it continued 
till June, 1833, when its territorial limits 
were greatly curtailed, and its name changed 
to that of " The Plymouth County Edu- 
cation Society."* 

The object which this and other kindred 
Societies have in view is a noble one ; and 
such as entitles them to our hearty co- 
operation and liberal patronage. Their 
great object is, to search out young men of 
piety and promise who are in the vale of 
poverty, and whose hearts pant for doing 
good, take them by the hand, and encourage 
and assist them in preparing to proclaim to 
their dying fellow men the everlasting 
gospel. In times past, for want of such 
societies, a vast amount of talent has been 
lost to the church. Many a rich diamond 
has been permitted to remain imbedded in 
the mine ; and many a beautiful flower 

" To bloom unseen, 
And waste its fragrance on the desert air." 

Education Societies are collecting these 
flowers, and searching out these diamonds, 
and imparting to them a brilliant polish. 
An immense amount of exalted piety and 
consecrated talent, which would otherwise 
be nearly lost to the church, is thus brought 
into the inclosures of the sacred ministry, 
and made to operate with great efficiency 
in advancing the cause of Immanuel. 

Education Societies are worthy of our 
liberal patronage, because they design to 
increase the ministry with able, efficient, 
educated men. This is their object, and all 
their rules and regulations for the training 
of their beneficiaries, tend to its accom- 
plishment. I know there are some, who 
undervalue education in those who are 
called to sustain the sacred office. But 
such persons entirely overlook the past op- 
erations of Providence in reference to this 
matter. What have been the character of 
the men whom Jehovah has most highly 
honored in the ministerial work ? Who 
were the men selected by our Saviour to 
carry on the great enterprise which he 
commenced ; and to proclaim to a lost world 
the glad tidings of great joy ? They were 
illiterate fishermen, it is sometimes said. 
True ; such they were once. But they 
were called away from this employment, 
put into the school of Christ, and enjoyed 

* New Societies were at the same time formed 
in the other counties originally embraced in this 




the instruction of Him who spake a3 never 
man spake, for three years. Besides, they 
were not commissioned to prosecute their 
great work, till they had been inspired, had 
received the gift of tongues, and the power 
of working miracles. What other men 
ever enjoyed such instruction, and possessed 
such gifts and qualifications for the min- 
isterial work, as the apostles of the Lord 
Jesus Christ ? Then observe who was se- 
lected as the great apostle to the Gentiles. 
It was not an ignorant, illiterate man that 
was chosen for this purpose ; but it was 
Paul, who had been brought up at the feet 
of the eminent Gamaliel, who was learned 
in all the wisdom of the east, and who pos- 
sessed powers of intellect of the highest 

And let me ask, who were the eminent 
men that held up the blazing lamp of truth 
amidst the darkness of the third and fourth 
centuries ? Who composed that illustrious 
band, which, in the sixteenth century tore 
the veil from the " mystery of iniquity," 
exposed the abominations of the " man of 
sin," and introduced the blight morning of 
the Reformation ? And who have been the 
Baxters, the Whitfields, and the Edwardses 
of later times ? On this point, there can be 
no doubt. The records of sacred history 
show conclusively, that the mightiest cham- 
pions of the cross have ever been pre-em- 
inent for learning and intellectual supe- 

And surely if any age has called for an 
educated and efficient ministry, it is the 
present. A new impulse has been given to 
society in all its departments. By means 
of Sabbath schools and other causes, reli- 
gious knowledge is fast rising and spreading. 
In this respect, our children are becoming 
youth, and our youth strong men. Secular 
learning is receiving increased attention, 
and general education is assuming greater 
importance in the public mind, and attaining 
to a higher standard. At such a time the 
community will not be satisfied with an 
illiterate ministry. Besides, iniquity is bold 
and daring ; error is strongly entrenched, 
and has associated with it a no small amount 
of learning. In carrying on the contest, 
the church must array learning against 
learning. Her leaders need to be men of 
no ordinary stamp. To meet the wants of 
the age, to cope successfully with iniquity, 
to batter down the strong fortresses of error, 
to cut down and bring under proper culti- 
vation the moral forests of the west, and to 
scale the ramparts of idolatry, and unfurl 
the banner of the cross in pagan lands, re- 
quire that the ministry of the present day 
should be distinguished, not only for eminent 
piety, but also for bold hearts and strong 
hands, for intellectual might and mental 
prowess. We need a host of such men, 
troop after troop, and phalanx after pha- 
lanx, going forth to fight the battles of the 
Lord under the great Captain of salvation. 


We would say once more that Education 
Societies are entitled to our liberal pa- 
tronage, in consequence of the important 
relation which they sustain to all the other 
great plans of Christian benevolence. The 
great benevolent societies of the day, are all 
more or less intimately connected with each 
other. They are " wheels within a wheel." 
They constitute one vast and complicated 
machinery, all moving in perfect harmony 
to the accomplishment of the same great 
objects ; but if in this machinery there is 
any one wheel which gives movement and 
impetus to the whole, it is the Education 

The Bible Society, the Tract Society, and 
the Sabbath school cause cannot flourish, 
cannot be maintained with efficiency, cannot 
accomplish all their desirable results, with- 
out the help of the living ministry. So the 
treasuries of the Home and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Societies may be filled to over- 
flowing ; but the great moral harvest will 
not be gathered in, unless laborers can be 
obtained and sent into the field. 

The Annual Meeting was held at Ply- 
mouth, June 9, 1S36. A discourse was 
delivered on the occasion by the Secretary 
of the Parent Society. The officers chosen 
for the year, are Hon. Josiah Robbins, 
President ; Rev. Thomas Boutelle, Secre- 
tary ; and Dea. Morton Eddy, Treasurer. 

Worcester South Auxiliary. 

Extract from the Sixth Annual Report. 

Iw their last Report, the Board of Di- 
rection stated the principle by which we 
should be actuated in the appropriation of 
the goods intrusted to our care, and the 
proportion which God requires. The lan- 
guage of that Report is, " It (the gospel,) 
does not indeed levy a tax of per centage on 
time or property. Your Board of Direction 
have no laws of this sort to propose. They 
go further. The gospel goes further. It 
asks not for tithes. It asks for all ; literally 
all. It demands this as the test of piety 
and fidelity. 

" With the Christian, every thing is to 
stand appropriated to the purposes of the 
gospel. The actual application of what is 
thus appropriated, the Christian is to make 
from day to day, according to his best judg- 
ment. The greater part he will be obliged 
of course to apply indirectly. But whether 
his applications are direct or indirect, the 
object in view is the same, the furtherance 
of the designs of the gospel. If, for ex- 
ample, we apply any part of our substance 
to feed ourselves, or to feed our families, it 
must be for this single purpose, that we 
may have life and health to serve the pur- 
poses of religion. If we apply any part of 





our influence or substance to Foreign Mis- 
sions, or Home Missions, or to the support 
of the gospel among ourselves, it must be 
with the same view, that that Society may 
serve the purposes of religion. This must 
be the object as really in one case as in 
another, and so in every case. This is the 
sense in which the Board would be under- 
stood to speak, and in this sense they repeat 
it, the gospel standard of duty, the gospel 
demand, is all." These principles and mode 
of application were recognized as those of 
this Society when they accepted that Re- 
port, and they still remain the professed 
principles of this Society ; and they are 
sound principles, Bible principles. Ac- 
tuated by these, this Society gave several 
hundred dollars more than usual, the first 
year after adopting them. 

These principles, your Board of Direction 
wish to have fixed in the minds of all 
connected with this Society, and to have 
them act upon them in all their appropri- 
ations, whether they he made for the supply 
of their own personal wants, or the wants 
of their families, for a capital to trade upon, 
for continued possession, or for benevolent 
purposes. Let all we have be consecrated 
to God, and labelled, Holiness to the Lord. 

We have now to do with the application 
of the principles adopted by this Society 
in their last Report, to a single branch of 
Christian benevolence. The occasion and 
design of this meeting, direct us to a single, 
definite object. This object is to aid in 
increasing the number of pious, active, 
well-educated ministers of the Lord Jesus 

Permit us, dear brethren, to recommend 
the application of your principles to the 
promotion of this object. The number of 
efficient ministers of the gospel must be 
increased. A suitable education for the 
ministry is expensive; a part only of the 
sons of the church who desire this sacred 
calling, are able to educate themselves ; 
another part, equally promising in piety, 
talent and application, have not the means 
for educating themselves. They are poor 
in this world's goods, but pious and rich in 
faith, possessing sanctified talent, which 
education must bring out, and make to bear 
upon the salvation of the world. 

There has not been so much attention 
paid to this department of Christian benevo- 
lence, as its unspeakable importance really 
demands. The loud and oft repeated call is 
for men, educated, pious, working men ; 
men full of zeal and of the Holy Ghost. 
Sanctified talent and consecrated learning 
are needed. Active laborers in the vine- 
yard of the Lord are now called for by 
thousands, both in our own and foreign 

The gospel must be preached to every 
creature. The grand enterprise for preach- 
ing it to every creature is commenced, and 
it will not cease till every creature hears it. 

Adventurers for the Son of God must be 
raised up and sent out as pioneers among 
the powers of darkness, to preach Christ, 
put to silence the infidel,, and make con- 
quests to his kingdom, and direct the in- 
quiring sinner to the Lamb of God that 
taketh away the sin of the world. Let 
young men be sought out and ample means 
provided for educating them, for the harvest 
truly is plenteous, but the laborers are few. 

The Annual meeting was held at Wor- 
cester, April 26, 1S36. In the afternoon, a 
sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. 
Cogswell, and in the evening the Annual 
Report was read by the Secretary of the 
Society, and addresses were delivered by 
Rev. Messrs. Nelson, Packard, and Clark. 

The officers for the present year are Hon. 
Salem Towne, President; Rev. James D. 
Farnsworth, Secretary ; and Hon. Abijah 
Bigelow, Treasurer. 

Worcester North. 

The Worcester North Education Society 
held its anniversary at Barre, April 28, 1836. 
On the occasion, a sermon was delivered 
by the Secretary of the Parent Society. 

The officers of the Society for the year 
ensuing are Rev. Samuel Gay , President ; 
Rev. Alexander Lovell, Secretary ; and Dea. 
Justus Ellingwood, Treasurer. 

Essex North. 

The Essex North Education Society held 
its annual meeting at Haverhill, May 4, 
1836. The Report on the occasion was 
read by the Secretary, Rev. David T. 
Kimball; an extract from it may be ex- 
pected in the next Journal. 

The officers of the Society for the year 
ensuing are Rev. Gardner B. Perry, Pres- 
ident ; Rev. Mr. Kimball, Secretary ; and 
Col. Ebenezer Hale, Treasurer. 

Norfolk County. 
The Norfolk County Education Society 
held its annual meeting in the East Parish 
in Randolph, in the Rev. Mr. Brigham's 
church, on Wednesday, June 8, 1836. A 
sermon was delivered on the occasion by 
the Rev. Mr. Pierce of Foxborough. An 
extract from it may be expected in the next 


Journal. The Rev. Mr. Smallcy of Frank- 
lin was chosen preacher for the next year, 
and the Rev. Mr. Brigham, substitute. 

The officers of the Society are Nathaniel 
Miller, M. D., President; Rev. Samuel 
Gile, Secretary ; and Rev. John Cod- 
man, D. D., Treasurer. 


Extracts from Dr. Beecher's Plea for Colleges. 

To the developement and discipline of 
mind in a collegiate course, the following 
things are deserving of a special regard. 

1. The habit of concentrating at will a 
powerful attention upon any subject. 

2. Another point in mental culture to be 
secured, is the acquisition of elementary 

3. To mental discipline is requisite also 
precision of thought, as well as elementary 

4. To accuracy of conception in mental 
training, must be added accuracy of verbal 
description and definition. 

5. Another object of mental training, is to 
secure the balance of the mind, and just 
proportions of knowledge. 

6. To the balance of the faculties, should 
be carefully added the proportion and balance 
of knowledge. 

7. The condensation of thought, is another 
point in mental training. 

8. The art of investigation, is one of fun- 
damental importance in mental training. 

The above are merely heads of discussion, 
which are ably handled by the writer. 

And what, says the Doctor, if the injured 
Greek and Roman classics should say, as 
the injured female said to her tyrant lord, 
Give me back what I brought, my youth 
and my beauty, and I will go — give us back 
the copious dowry of words we brought 
you, and which you have incorporated in 
your own vaunted English tongue — restore 
whatever of variety, and copiousness, and 
taste, and beauty, and strength, you have 
taken from us ; what a ruin would they 
leave our language — what a Babel of dia- 
lects and fragments of uncouth tongues — 
like the ruins of Babylon or Palmyra. Why 
should such injustice be done to our aux- 
iliaries, or to ourselves, or the world ? Why 
should the ladder of our ascent to classic 
excellence be vilely cast away, and our 
borrowed wealth of words be dashed rudely 
in the face of our benefactors ? A restora- 
tion which does not enrich them, and makes 
us poor indeed. Is it forgotten, that in one 
of these dead languages, revelation is em- 
balmed, which soon, by the power of trans- 
lations, is to rise from the dead, and pro- 
claim glad tidings to every creature in every 
tongue ? And is this the time, when com- 



mcrce and revelation are seeking commun- 
ion with all nations, to despise ancient 
philology, and put out the lamp of linguistic 
science? How are the Scriptures to be 
translated, but by men well versed in the 
languages of the Oh! and New Testaments, 
and their kindred dialects, and multiplied 
manuscripts arid versions — and how is the 
faith to be defended, and biblical exposition, 
without the sacred criticism, which is not to 
be secured but by communion with the 
tongues of inspiration ? In the long reach 
of providential foresight, these Greeks and 
Romans were raised up to subserve the 
great designs of God's mercy in redeeming 
men ; the one, to provide the most perfect 
of all languages, as the medium of his 
revelation ; the other, to unite nations in the 
embrace of a civilized empire; to facilitate 
the propagation and ultimate protection of 

The interests of Christianity are indisso- 
lubly connected with the languages of 
Greece and Rome, and the day that their 
study is exiled from colleges, the darkness 
of a second night will begin to settle down 
upon the church of God. There was a time 
when the study of the languages seemed, 
but for purposes of discipline, almost useless. 
But that era has passed away, and another 
has arrived, demanding the study of lan- 
guage more and more to the perfect day. 
The gift of tongues will not return; but 
the age of philology, and translations, and 
preaching the gospel in every tongue, has 
come ; and it is quite too late for those to 
scout the languages who regard at all the 
signs of the coming day. As well might 
the artist dash in pieces the models of 
Grecian architecture, or the painter blot out 
the illustrious productions of the pencil, or 
the statuary turn his back on the breathing 
marble, as we, when most in need of their 
aid, turn away from the illustrious monu- 
ments of the Greek and Roman tongues. 

To the question then so oft reiterated, as 
if unanswerable — Of what use are the Greek 
and Roman classics ? I answer : as models 
of the most copious and finished expressions 
of thought in two of the most civilized and 
polished nations of antiquity — as the deposi- 
tories of inspiration — as the storehouse of 
etymology, and definition, and professional 
technics— as the expositors of our own 
tongue, and indispensable to sacred criticism 
in the translation and exposition of the 
Bible, they are invaluable; their study 
affords, also, the earliest and best means of 
fixing the attention of children, and forming 
habits of discrimination and precision of 
language, at a time, too, when almost every 
other knowledge committed to their memory, 
with little comprehension, becomes, like 
water spilt on: the ground, or writing upon 
the sand, to be obliterated by the returning 
wave. They impart also to the mind, thus 
early initiated in their mysteries, that pre- 
cision of thought, and richness of varied; 




conception, and copiousness of diction, and 
delicacy of touch, and versatility of expres- 
sion, which a vigorous intellect and a burn- 
ing heart demand for the utterance of its 
overpowering inspirations in those coming 
days when the gospel shall be preached to 
every creature with the Holy Ghost sent 
down from on high. 

There is yet to be such a bursting out of 
argument and eloquence upon the earth in 
the cause of Christ, as Greece and Rome 
never witnessed, or angels heard— and though 
it will not be by the gift of tongues as of 
fire, it will not be without their consecrated 

It is said that a classical course is not 
necessary for all, and that though some may 
pursue it, all need not ; and that there 
should, therefore, in all our colleges, be a 
double course. We answer, that such a 
course cannot succeed ; because no man 
and no community can have two chief 
ends, or serve two masters. In every in- 
stitution, either the English or the classical 
studies will be the popular and honorable 
course ; and whichever takes the lead, so 
imperious will be the motive to pursue the 
more popular course, that the other will 
soon languish and die. Hence it is, that 
all attempts to carry on a double course 
have proved abortive ; and all expedients 
to perfect men for different callings by a 
different and specific course of training. 
And obviously, because all minds for pur- 
poses of vigor, and precision, and power in 
any course, demand substantially the same 
training up, to the time of professional 
study ; and because the right of selection 
will prevent that unity of action, and that 
precision of discipline, and power of respon- 
sibility, and momentum of social movement, 
which is indispensable to the success of 
social training. That multitudes should 
have an English education without a col- 
legiate course, we admit; but it should be 
conducted in institutions devoted to that end, 
andjiot be thrust in upon the time-honored 
system of our colleges, to destroy their 
symmetry and break their power, and bring 
them into disrepute. All who are destined 
to act on mind, by the press, or in halls of 
legislation, or the learned professions, should 
enjoy the training of a liberal education. 

Shall nothing then of the existing system 
be stricken out in this day of mental won- 
ders ? Nothing, till mental wonders can 
plant the foot on the ladder's (op without a 
gradual ascent, commencing at the bottom. 
Nothing, till the day comes when the top 
stone of the temple may be laid with shout- 
ing, before its foundation and rising super- 

It is manifest that the study of the Bible 
should constitute a part of a collegiate 

As a classic it stands unrivalled, and should 

be studied for the richness of its imagery, 
the beauty of its poetry, and the power of 
its eloquence, as well as to mingle its guar- 
dian, purifying influence, with the classic 
beauties of other tongues. 

It should be studied as an inspired book, 
developing the character of God, the laws 
of the universe, and the remedial system 
for their support, and the recovery and for- 
giveness of a depraved world. 

For the purity of its precepts, the sublim- 
ity of its doctrines, and the power of its mo- 
tives it should be studied; to invigorate the 
intellect, to form the conscience, to purify 
the heart, and to prepare society for the lite 
that is and is to come. 

Before we close, several questions of grave 
import demand our attention. 

The first respects the term of collegiate 
and professional study. Is it not too long, 
considering the augmented capacity of mind 
and the facilities of education — may not equal 
quantities of knowledge be condensed into 
our young men in half the time ? 

We shall rejoice in such developments 
of mind and abbreviations of study, when 
they happen well attested. But at present, 
physical nature seems obstinate in her old 
dilatory course of approximation to maturity, 
and the mind to be alike wilful in cleaving 
to the track of precedent, refusing by any 
stimulus to be driven up to a premature 
manhood, or by crossroads to steal a march 
upon the treasures of mental knowledge. 
If some minds can do this, they are so few 
and far between, that we should as soon 
think of founding habitations for the comets, 
as colleges for them. 

Once we did indulge a hankering for an 
institution in which select minds of special 
pow r er and advanced maturity of age might 
be accommodated with a shorter course of 
mental training. But experience has cured 
us of the folly of supposing that the discipline 
of the mind can be precipitated, and least of 
all with those whose vigor of mind and 
formed habits disqualify for easy subor- 
dination and facile discipline, about in 
•proportion to their increased need of 
it. Why, then, should the time for a 
collegiate and professional education be 
shortened? The work to be accomplished 
by cultivated mind for the perpetuity of our 
republican institutions is every year be- 
coming greater and more difficult, and the 
relative extension of popular education is 
rendering it more and more indispensable. 

To meet the demand now pressing on the 
colleges of the nation for a higher standard 
of attainment, they are compelled to throw 
back upon the academies studies which once 
belonged to the collegiate course, to give 
place to those which can no longer be ex- 
cluded from a liberal education. 

And why, especially, should the west 
rush on the illfated experiment of abbrevia- 
tion, when amid her rising millions she is 




laying the foundations of institutions which 
are to control the destiny of ages to come ? 

God governs the natural and moral world 
by the agency of general laws — few, simple, 
but permanent and mighty; and after the 
same analogy, should the literary and pro- 
fessional institutions of the west be establish- 
ed and ordered. We do not need ephemeral 
efforts and evanescent impulses here — we 
have had enough of them — nor will such 
aids avail. Whatever of permanent neces- 
sity is made dependent on special effort, is 
sure to disappoint expectation. Let us lay, 
then, the foundations of our intellectual and 
literary character as a people, broad and 
deep, and take the requisite time to raise the 
superstructure, and distant ages and nations 
will rise up and call us blessed. 


Extract from Rev. Dr. Codman's Narrative. 

Except in cities and large towns, the 
meeting-houses or chapels of the Inde- 
pendents are mean in their appearance, and 
circumscribed in their dimensions. Many 
of them are without stated pastors, and are 
supplied by pious laymen, who are employed 
during the week in their respective avoca- 
tions, and who go out into the villages on 
the Sabbath, to exhort and to pray with 
these destitute congregations. 

This imperfect ministry certainly ought 
not to be despised, as without it many 
precious souls might perish for want of the 
bread of life ; but some such institution as 
our Education Society, is greatly needed 
among our brethren in England, to increase 
the number of well trained and faithful 
ministers of the independent denomination. 
It is a matter of astonishment that no society 
of this character has hitherto been formed. 
Can a better course be adopted to promote 
the cause .of Christ, and the interests of 
Dissenters, than by establishing a society 
for the thorough edueation of indigent pious 
young men for the gospel ministry, like the 
American Education Society in the United 
States ? It is to be sincerely hoped that 
this subject will soon be taken into serious 
consideration by our dissenting brethren. 

It is deeply to be regretted, that this part 
of benevolent efforts has been so much 
overlooked by our English brethren. There 
can be but little advancement in other re- 
ligious enterprises, so long as this is neg- 
lected. It is by the foolishness of preach- 
ing God is pleased to save them that believe. 
The American Education Society of which 
Dr. Codman here speaks, has now under its 
patronage about 1,100 young men preparing 
for the ministry, and it is constantly enlarg- 

ing its operations. What an immense 
amount of good might be accomplished 
were the Dissenters in England to make 
similar efforts ! 


The following resolution, presented 
by the Secretary of the American Ed- 
ucation Society to the General Con- 
ference of the churches in Maine, was 
by them unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the ministers connected 
with this General Conference be requested 
to mention in their statistical returns annu- 
ally made to this body, the number of 
young men in their churches under twenty- 
five years of age. 

One object of this resolution is to 
ascertain how many young men there 
are in our churches of suitable age to 
prepare for the ministry, and in this 
way to make some approximate calcu- 
lation how many ought to prepare for 
this sacred work. It is important to 
approach as nearly as possible to defi- 
niteness on this subject ; for, by doing 
it, the impression on the churches, the 
young men, and the community gen- 
erally in respect to it, will be much 
stronger and abiding. The very act of 
making the return of the number of 
young men of the above description in 
the churches, will call the attention of 
the ministers and churches to this sub- 
ject, and lead to much conversation 
and discussion, and thus keep the sub- 
ject before the minds of the commu- 
nity, which is very desirable. The 
labor of doing it is very little, and 
great good may result. It is hoped 
that all similar bodies will adopt the 
same resolution. 






The term of study in this Seminary, is 
three years. 

The Professorship of Biblical Criticism. 
is filled by Rev. Heman Rood. 

The Professorship of Sacred Rhetoric, is 
filled by Rev. Aaron Warner. 

The Professorship of Systematic The- 
ology, is yet vacant; during its vacancy, 
the other professors will take charge of the 
department. It is designed, however, to 
fill this professorship so soon as may be. 
The Institution will then afford all the ad- 
vantages enjoyed in similar seminaries in 
our country. The Library now contains 
eleven hundred volumes. 

This Seminary has been in operation only 
about six months, and has in its first class, 
ten students. They are prosecuting some 
of the higher branches of English study, 
the Languages, Biblical Criticism, and Sys- 
tematic Theology. Besides these, eight or 
ten have already applied for admission into 
the next class. 

The Seminary is designed to give to 
young men an enlarged and thorough the- 
ological education, yet it is not the intention 
of the Trustees to exclude young men of 
piety and talents, who may be advanced to 
considerable extent in English studies, and 
who, for obvious reasons, may not be able 
to take a regular collegiate course. They 
wish to raise up a class of men to meet 
the many pressing wants of the country 
immediately around tbem, as well as to 
furnish those who may be prepared to eta 
on a wider field, and in a sphere demanding 
a more thorough discipline. They will be 
unwilling, however, to put any man into 
the Christian ministry, who is not in a good 
degree furnished to every good work. 

For funds both to sustain and enlarge 
their operations, and to furnish additional 
buildings, the Trustees express their re- 
liance on God, and the charity of the 
Christian public. They have resolved for 
the above purposes, to raise $30,000 by 

In accomplishing their designs, they so- 
licit the sympathy and co-operation of all 
who pray for the peace of Zion. They wish 
to present this object of their many anxieties 
and prayers, to the Christian churches in 
their own State, and elsewhere, and to ask 
such aid as they in their wisdom and be- 
nevolence, may see fit to impart. 


Quarterly Meeting of the Directors. 
The usual Quarterly Meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the American Edu- 
cation Society, was held on Wednesday, 
July 13, 1836. Appropriations for the 

quarter were made to beneficiaries in va- 
rious institutions, as follows : 

Former Ben. New Ben. Total. Am'l Ap. 

16 Theol. Sem. 162 1 163 $2,938 
29 Colleges, 373 13 386 7,149 

60 Acad, and Sch. 203 41 244 3,633 

105 Institutions, 738 55 793 $13,720 
Of the above, the Presbyterian and the 
Western Education Societies made appro- 
priations, as follows : 

Former Ben. New Ben. Total. AmH Ap. 

10 Theol. Sem. 60 1 61 #1,023 

18 Colleges, 126 7 133 2,477 

31 Acad, and Sch. 106 17 123 2,157 

59 Institutions. 292 25 317 $5,657 
The following vote was passed. 

Voted, That assistance ought not to be 
rendered, except in extraordinary cases, to 
beneficiaries, who leave an Academy or 
preparatory Institution, and, without having 
acquired a regular collegiate education, 
enter a Theological Seminary. 

Receipts of the American Education Society, from 
April 13th, to the Quarterly Meeting, July 
13, 1836. 



Suffolk County. 

[Hardy Ropes, Esq. Boston, Tr.] 
Boston, Franklin Street Society 90 00 

Park Street Society 250 61 

Bowdoin Street Society 500 00 

Old South Society 5 00 

Free Church Society 26 75—872 36 

Barnstable County. 

[Dea. Joseph White, Yarmouth, Tr.] 
Falmouth, Fem. Aux. Ed. Soc. in Rev. Mr. 

Bent's Soc. 39 50 

Gentlemen of do. 38 00 

North Falmouth, mem. of Soc. of Rev. D. D. 

Tappan, in part to const, him a L. M. of 

Am. Ed. Soc. 20 00 

Sandwich, Wm. Fessenden, Esq. 6 00 

Truro, Dea. Benj. Hinckley 1 00 

[The following bv Hev. Charles S. Adams.] 
Brewster, Rev. S. Williams 50 

Chatham, Rev. Isaac Briggs 3 00 

Harwich, Individuals 3 97 

North Falmouth, Rev. D. D. Tappan 2 00 

South Yarmouth, Rev. Plummer Chase and 

Mrs. Chase 2 00 

Yarmouth, Rev. N. Cogswell 2 00—117 97 

Berkshire Country. 

[John Hotchkin, Esq. Lenox, Tr.] 

Dalton, Individuals, in part 23 82 
Great Barrington, Individuals, through Dr. J. 

W. Couch 40 06 

Hinsdale, Mr. Emmons 2 00 

Lanesboro' , Individuals 15 68 
Lenox, Individuals, of which $40 is to const. 
Rev. Sam'l Shepard, D. D. a L. M. of 

Am. Ed. Soc. 54 23 

Lee, Individuals 111 31 

North Adams, Individuals 13 00 

New Marlboro', do. 34 44 

Peru, do. 32 00 
PiUefield, do. 125 00 
Ladies' Temp. Schol. 75 00-200 00 

Richmond, Individuals 27 II 

Sandisficld, do. 32 95 




Siockbridge, Individuals 
Sheffield, Individuals, in part 
Tyrmgham, do. do. 


79 69 

41 61—121 30 
8 46 

15 26 

13 16-744 73 

[The above by Rev. Ansel Nash, Agt.] 

Essex County South. 

[David Choate, Esq. Essex, Tr.] 
Hamilton, Individuals, in part, $10 of which, 

bal. of sum to const. Rev. Geo. W. Kelley 

a L. M. of Am. Ed. Soc. by Rev. Ansel 

Nash, Agt. 12 64 

Lynn, Society of Rev. Parsons Cook, col. at 

Mon. Con. 10 10 

Manchester, Ladies' Benev. Soc. by Rev. S. 

M. Emerson . IS 50 

Salem, St. Soc. by D. Choate, E*q. 30 00 
Wenham, Individuals, by Rev. A. Nash, Agt. 42 02—114 26 

Essex County North. 

[Col. EbenezerHale, Newbury, Tr.] 

Andover, South Cong. Society, by Dea. Amos 

Biar.chard 34 25 

Newbury, Cont. in Rev. Mr. Durant's Soc. by 

Capt. D. Noyes 13 68 

Newburyport, Citcle of Industry, 13th 
6emiann. paym't on the Newbury- 
port Ladies' Temp. Schol. by Miss 
Mary C. Greenleaf, Sec. and Tr. 37 50 

Col. in Rev. Mr. Milton's Soc. by Sol. 

H. Currier, Esq. 27 95—65 45 

Rowley, Col. in the Soc. of Rev. Mr. Holbrook 29 00 

142 38 
5 54-136 84 

Deduct expenses paid 

Hampshire County. 

[Hon. Lewis Strong, Northampton, Tr.] 

Amherst, 1st Par. Col. at Mon, Con. by John 

Leland, Esq. 40 00 

Cummington, Fern. Soc. of Ch. Ben. by Miss 

Clarissa Briggs 4 00 

East Hampton, Col. by Samuel Williston, Esq. 42 57 

Enfield, Gent, and La. As. $52, M. Con. $48 100 00 

Hatfield, Con. by Mr. George Partridge 21 81 

Northampton, Balance of Col. in Ed- 
wards Ch. and Soc. 1835 12 00 

Fern. Ed. Soc. Bal. of Spencer Schol. 

for 1836 38 68 

Do. towards do. for 1837 22 57 73 25 

Southampton, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Miss Princess 

Clapp 15 20 

West Hampton, Cont. 1st Society by Rev. Mr. 

Chapin 9 50 

From the disp. funds of Hamp. Co. Ed. Soc. 100 00—406 33 

Middlesex County. 

Brighton, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Miss Sarah Wor- 
cester 39 75 

Charlestown, Winthrop Church and Cong, by 

Dea. Tufts 119 71 

Medford, Evang. Soc. by Dea. Galen 
James, viz. 

Congregation 83 77 

Sabbath School - 45 72 

Infant School 10 71—140 20 

Sloneham, A Friend 50 

Fem. Ed. Soc. in the Cong, of Rev. J. 

Colburn 10 35 — 10 85 

South Reading, from a few Ladies, by Mrs. 

S. S. Yale 4 00 

Woburn, Sew. Circle in Ward No. 5, by Mrs. 

H. Parker, Tr. 5 00 

From a Friend, $1 ; Do. $20 21 00 

Religious Char. Soc. of Middlesex 
North and Vicinity. 

[Dea. Jonathan S. Adams, Groton, Tr.] 
Ashby, Sisters' Soc. 2d Par. by Rev. O. 

Tinker 2 50 

FUchburg, Yo. Men's Ed. Soc. 71 60 
Ladies' do. 33 00—104 60—107 10—447 

Norfolk County. 

[Rev. John Codman, D. D. Dorchester, Tr.] 
Braintree, So. Par. Fem. Ed. Soc. in Cong, of 

Rev. L. Matthews 3 16 

Canton, Consr. Soc. 5 00 

East Randolph, Soc. of Rev. D. Brigham 28 DO 

Franklin, Subscriptions, by Rev. E. Smalley 103 50 
Medfield, An Estate in that town, given to the 
Soc. by Rev. Walter H. Bidwell, valued 
at $4,000. of which $500 was app. by Mr. 
B. to the paym't of the notes of two bene- 
ficiaries, and is included in the amount of 
money refunded 3,500 00 

South Weymouth, Fern. Pray in t Soc. by Miss 

Lydia Pratt, Tr. 9 00 

Walpoie, s.,c. of Rev. Asahel Bigelew 16 08 

Weymouth Sf Braintree, Hoc, of liev. 

Jonas Perkins, by Dea. Newcomb 25 89 

From Dea. Joint. Newcomb 50 00 — 75 89 

Weymouth, Miss Nancy Blanchard, by Rev. 

J. Perkins 1 00 

N. Par. Gent. Asso. by Mr. Ebon. Humphrey 53 20 

Received from the Treasurer 371 70— 

4,166 53 

Plymouth County. 

[Dea. Morton Eddy, Bridgewater, Tr.J 
Halifax, Ladies, by Rev. Mr. Howe 
Kingston, Mr. George Russell 
Marahjield, Mr. Azel Ames 
North Briil geuater, Miss A. Kingman, to con. 

Mr. Matthew Kingman, of Woburn, a L. 

M. of Plymouth Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 
Plymouth, Rev. Mr. Boutelle's Soc. 

Gent. Asso. Hon. J. Robbins, Tr. 39 00 

Ladies' do. Miss Sarah M. Holmes, Tr. 27 25 66 25 

Plympton, Rev. Mr. Dexter's Society 7 00—100 

1 60 
1 00 
10 00 

15 00 

Taunton and Vicinity. 

[Mr. Charles Godfrey, Taunton, Tr.] 
Fall River, Rev. Mr. Fowler's Soc. by Mr. E. Pratt 36 50 

Worcester County South. 

[Hon. Abijah Bigelow, Worcester, Tr.] 
Brookfield, Rev. Micah Stone 10 00 
Soc. of Rev. Messrs. Stone and Wood- 
ruff 15 00 25 00 

Grafton, Soc. of Rev. John Wild, a cont. 28 50 

Millbury, 1st Ch. and Soc. by Rev. Osgood 

Herrick 50 00 

North Brookfield, Rev. Dr. Snell's Soc. 75 00 

Northbridge, A Mem. of the Ch. of 

Rev. Chas. Forbush, to const, him 

a L. M. of the Am. Ed. Soc. 40 00 

Soc. of Rev. Mr. Forbush 10 60 50 60 

Oxford, La. Asso. in Cong. Soc. $30; Gent. 

do. $25, by Mr. Samuel Dowe 55 00 

Paxton, Mem. of the Soc. of Rev. James D. 

Farnsworth, to const, him a L. M. of the 

Co. Soc. 15 00 

Spencer, Soc. of Rev. Mr. Packard, $15 of 

which, by Mr. Caleb M. Morse, to const. 

Rev. Mr. P. a L. M. of the Co. Soc. 36 00 

Sturbridge, Soc. of Rev. Mr. Clark, $75 of 

which, bv Mr. Cyrus Merrick, on acc't of 

a Temp." Schol 157 71 

Sutton, Rev. Mr. Tracy's Ch. and Soc. 65 00 

Shrewsbury, Mr. Samuel Witt 1 00 

Worcester, Gent. Asso. 1st Par. for 

Miller Temp. Sc. by Dea. Lewis 

Chapin 37 50 

Fem. Ed. Soc. 1st Par. for do. by Miss 

Thankful S. Hersey, Tr. 37 50 

Do. do. Donations, by do. 11 05 

Rev. Mr. Peabody's Soc. by Mr. S. A. 

Howland 162 75 

Donations from Members of Rev. Mr. 

Miller's Soc. by Capt. Sam'l Perry 4 25—253 05 
Ward, Rev. Mr. Pratt's Ch. and Soc. 40 80 

West Brookfield, Cong, of Rev. Mr. Horton 100 00 
Weslborough, La. Ed. Soc. by Miss Lucy H. 

Pond, Tr. 18 00 

Contribution at Annual Meeting 25 53—996 19 

Worcester County North. 

[Dea. Justus Ellingwood, Hubbardstown, Tr.] 

Boylston, Ind. in Soc. of Rev. W. H. Sanford 25 00 

Gardner, Soc. of Rev. Sumner Lincoln 26 00 

Holden, Additional Col. by Rev. Mr. Paine 10 75 

Hubbardstown, Individuals 39 34 

New Braintree, 31 00 

Phillipston, Individuals 81 11 

Rutland, Soc. of Rev. Mr. Clark 18 00 

Royalston, Yo. Ladies, $6 ; A Friend, $3 9 00 

Templelon, Individuals 8 25 

Received from the Treasurer 40 00—288 45 

! 11,028 92 

[Prof. Samuel P. Newman, Brunswick, Tr.] 
Albany, Dea. Asa Cummings2, Mr. Francis Cummings 2 4 00 
Bath, So. Cong. Ch. and Soc. of which $40 is to const. 

Rev. Ray Palmer a L. M. of A. E. S. 50 18 

Boothbay, Individuals 28 41 

Bethel, Do. 8 62 

Cumberland, Do. 30 00 

Falmouth, 1st Par. Individuals 10 00 

Cong, of Rev. J. B. Stevens, by Mr. W. Hyde 2 00 12 00 

Gardiner, Robert H. Gardiner 5 00 




Hebron and West Minot, Individuals 10 00 

Minot, Centre Par. SO 00 

North Yarmouth, 2d Par. 16 62 

Newcastle, Individuals 14 57 

North Edeecomb, Cong. Church 8 38 

Con?. Society 33 62 — 42 00 

Portland, La. of 3d Par. towards const. Rev. 
Mr. Camithers a L. M. of A. E. S. by 
Mrs. Lucy J. Libbey 30 00 

J. G. Merrill and E. Kellogg 4 00 — 34 00 

Pownal, Individuals 30 00 

South Bridgelon, Individuals 12 63 

Strong, William S. Poller ' 
Turner, Individuals 
Waldoborough, Dea. Sam'l Morse, towards L. M. of 

A. E. S. 
Lincoln Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 
Somerset Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. A Collection 
Collection at the Annual Meeting in Bath 

1 00 

2 00 

20 00 
60 00 
20 32 
80 33 

all 63 

[Hon. Samuel Morril, Concord, Tr.] 
Concord, West Cong. Ch. and Soc. A Contribution, by 

Rev. A. P. Teuney 
Chester, Pres. Soc. 7 00 

Hon. John Folsom, towards L. M. of N. H. 

Br. by Mr. Amos Chase 5 00- 

Hancock, Fem. Ed. Soc. by A. F. Sawyer, Esq. Tr. 

Hillsboro'Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 
Meredith Bridge, Fem. Ed. Soc. 4, and from Soc. of 

Rev. John K. Youn<r, 5 of which towards his L. 

M. of N.H.Br. 6 66 
Pelham, Fem. Ch. Soc. by A. F. Sawyer, Esq. 
Temple, La. Con. of Prayer, by do. 11 00 

Fem. Ed. Soc. by do. 4 25- 

Mrs. Maria Wood, to const, herself a L. M. of N. H. 

Br. bv A. F. Sawyer, Esq. 
From Wm. Woodman, Esq. Tr. Strafford Co. Aux. 

Ed. Soc. 

-12 00 

7 28 

10 66 
16 00 

-15 25 

30 00 

131 26 

$237 45 

[Elnathau B. Goddard. Esq. Middlebury, Tr.] 
New Haven, Fem. Benev. Soc. by Miss O. Squires 3 12 

Strafford, Cong. Soc. by Rev. H. F. Leavitt 16 50 

Refunded bv a former Beneficiary of this Brunch 9 75 

[The following by C. W. Storrs, Esq. Tr. Washington 

Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. viz.] 
Donation from widow Mary Dodge 5 00 

Do. Mrs. Rebecca Trow 3 00 

Do. Rev. Daniel Warren 2 00 

Do. Two Individuals 50 

Do. Mrs. E. Allen 1 00 

Barre, Cong. Soc. 9 28 — 20 78 

$50 15 

[Eliphalet Terry, Esq. Hartford, Tr.] 

Canterbury, A Col. bv W. Hutchins, Esq. Tr. Wind- 
ham Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 9 85 

Canton, A Collection $14, Contribution 19 80, by Uriah 

Chaplin, A Collection, bv W. Hutchinson, Esq. 

Guilford, A Collection, 30 of which is to const. Wm. 
Hart a L. M. ot Ct. Br. by Rev. A. Dutton 

Greenwich, A Friend, bv Rev. Joel Mann 

Litchfield, by Tr. of Litchfield Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. (par- 
ticulars will be riven in next Journal) 

Middletown, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Miss Eliza B. Pratt 

New Milford, 1st Cong. Ch. 5th paym't for T. Schol. 
bv Abel Hone, Tr. 

North Mansfield, A Collection, by J. R. Flynt, Esq. 
Tr. of Tolland Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 

South Woodstock, A Col. in part to const. Rev. Otis 
Rockwood a L. M. of A. E. S. by Wm. Hulchins, 
Esq. 31 00 

South Coventry, A Col. 30 of which is to const. John 

Boynton a L. M. of Ct. Br. by J. R. Flynt, Esq. 63 86 

Willington, A Collection, by do. 14 92 

[The following by Rev. Ansel Nash, Agt.] 

East Hartford, A Collection, in part 26 60 

Hartford, Sundry Individuals 18 00 

Thomas Smith 75 00 

Alfred Smith, bal. 5th payment Evarts 

Temp. Schol. 25 00-118 00 

Manchester, A Collection, in part 79 35 

North Haoen, Two Individuals, to const. Rev. 

Leverett Grig<rs a L. M. of Ct. Br. 30 00 

Soulhinglon, Individ. 100 of which from Tim. 
Higglns, to const, himself a L. M. of Am. 
Ed. Soc. 143 00 

Wethersfield, A Collection, in part 78 66- 

33 80 
22 66 

37 37 
1 00 

402 54 
48 00 

75 00 

21 50 

■475 61 
1,237 11 

[John P. Wilkinson, Esq. Jacksonville, Tr.] 
Alton, Rec'd by Rev. John Spaulding, Sec. W. E. S. 

[Oliver Willcox, Esq. New York, Tr.] 

Georgia, a donation 

Mattewan, by Rev. Mr. Wickham 

Third Free Church, E. A. Lambert 

Central Pres. Ch. T. S. Dayton 

J. W. Halsted 

B. H. Roch 

Mary B. Smith 

Mon. Coll. April 

John C. Baldwin 

Rev. Wm. Adams 

James B. Thompson 

Oliver Willcox 

Mon. Con. Col. May 

John A. Dayton 

Wm. C. Willcox 

George Bacon 

Mon. Con. June 

Brooklyn, 1st Ch. A. Tappan 

James Ruthven 

Duane St. Ch. a Friend 

Dennis Davenport 

20 00 
5 00 
5 00 
2 00 
36 53 
50 00 
20 00 
30 00 
400 00 
23 10 
10 00 
10 00 
5 00 
18 62- 

5 00 
30 00 
12 00 

635 25 
500 00 

25 00—525 00 
8 75 
37 50 

25 00 71 25 

5 00 
75 00 

50 00—125 00 
117 50 
15 00 
20 00 
10 00 

20 00 50 00 

296 74 
75 00 
10 00 
100 00—481 74 
5 00 
200 00 

20 00 
150 00 

10 00 
50 00 

21 00—251 00 
71 00 

404 66 
37 50 
225 00 

37 50-262 50 
75 00 
10 00 

5 00 
3 00 

33 07 — 51 07 
3 00 

6 00 
100 00 

—5 00- 

Thomas Darl 

St. Louis, Mr. Lovejoy, by J. Nitchie, Esq. 

Laight St. Ch. John Rankin 

A. R. Wetmore 

Morristown, N. J. by Mr. Mills 

Donation from a Friend 

Bowery Ch. P. Jones 

Dr. Weed 

E. Lord 

Vtica Agency, by J. W. Doolittle, Esq. Tr. 
Ladies, 1st Ch. 
M. Bagg, Esq. 

Kingsborough, by Rev. E. Yale 
Troy, E. Wickes, Esq. 
Bleecker St. Ch. Isaac M. Woolley 
Knowles Taylor 
A. Kimball 
C. N. Talbott 

Bloomfield, a Friend 

Philadelphia Ed. Soc. by G. W. McClelland 
Brick Ch. Micah Baldwin 
Seventh Pres. Ch. Sundries, by S. Haff 
James Duff" 

Brick Ch. John C. Halsey, Esq. 
Catskill, by Dr. Porter, S. S. Day 

F. Day 
Ed gar' B. Day 
By Rev. Mr. Patton 
Donation from Lexington, by Dr. Porter 

Do. fr. Marlboro', by M. Johnson 

Do. fr. a friend in Canada 

Do. fr. Montrau, by William Jessnp 2 00 

Do. fr. Walter Foster 3 00 5 00-114 00 

Newark, Fem. Praving Soc. by Miss Ward 10 00 

Western Ed. Soc. by J. S. Seymour, Tr. 500 00 

Manlius, by Mr. Rhoades 43 00 

Geneva, Rev. H. D wight 500 00—1,043 00 

Pearl St. Ch. by L. Atterbury, L. Corning 75 00 

Hugh Ackmon 10 85 

Sundries 81 41 

Fem. Assoc, by Mr. L. Corning 21 50—188 76 

Donation fr. a Friend, by Rev. E. King 2 50 

Philadelphia Ed. Soc. by G. W. McClelland 75 00 

Western Education Society, Cincinnati 648 20 

$5,511 93 

[Jesse W. Doolittle, Esq. Utica, Tr.] 
Binghampton, C. Murdock 28 50, R. Mather 28 50, 

E. A. Hawley 10, Friend 10, sundry others 47 45 124 45 

Columbus, 10 20 

Courtland, 16 24 

Delaware Presbytery, 5 50 

Fayetteville, 31 83 

Homer, in part 46 12 

Manlius, 25 21 

Orville, 10 71 

Owego, 36 09 

Preble, 10 50 

Sherburne, 31 03 

Smyrna, 10 62 
Utica, an unknown donor, the 14th and last payment 
toward the education of a pious young man (or the 

ministry 37 00 

Avails of clothing sold 7 76 

$403 9 
Wliole amount received $19,332 30. 

Clothing rec'd at the Rooms of the Parent Society 
during the quarter ending July 13, 1836. 

Athol, Ladies' Char. Juvenile Soc. by Miss A. F. Ellingwood, 

Sec. 1 box, valued at $28. 
Bath, N. II. Mrs. William Hutchins, a bundle. 
New Ipswich, N. H. Ladies' Reading and Char. Soc. by Mies 

Hannah Johnson, Sec. a box, valued at $23 77. 
Temple, Ladies' Reading Assoc, by Miss Sally Heald, Sec. a 

box of buudries. 

fllMlteMtt ffii'B, 

'/& ■ ■ / 

(lum '■ '/< Ki m r/i / 



Vol. IX. NOVEMBER, 1836. No. 2. 


Dr. Witherspoon was descended from a respectable parentage, which 
had long possessed a considerable landed property in the east of Scotland. 
His father was minister of the parish of Yester, a few miles from Edin- 
burgh. He was lineally descended from John Knox. He was born on 
the 5th of February, 1722. His father was eminent for his piety, his love 
of literature, and for a habit of extreme accuracy in all his writings and 
discourses. This example contributed not a little to form in his son those 
habits of taste, accuracy and simplicity, for which he was distinguished 
through life. He was sent at an early age to the public school at Had- 
dington, his father sparing no pains nor expense in his education. There 
he acquired reputation for assiduity in his studies, sound judgment, and 
quick and clear conceptions. At the age of fourteen, he joined the 
university of Edinburgh. Here he continued, attending the lectures of 
the different professors in the various branches of learning, with much 
credit and advantage to himself, until the age of twenty-one, when he was 
licensed to preach the gospel. He acquired a high character for taste in 
sacred criticism, and for precision of ideas, and perspicuity of expression. 

Immediately on his leaving the university, he was invited to be assistant 
minister to his father, with the right of succession to the charge. But he 
chose rather to accept an invitation from the parish of Beith in the west of 
Scotland. Here he was ordained to the work of the ministry, with the 
universal acquiescence, and even fervent attachment of his people. His 
character as a preacher, and his assiduous labors as a pastor, rendered him 
very acceptable and popular. From Beith, he was transferred, after a few 
years, to Paisley, a large and flourishing manufacturing town. During his 
residence in Paisley, he was invited to assume the charge of a numerous 
congregation in Dublin. He was also called to Dundee in Scotland, and 
Rotterdam in Holland. No considerations, however, could induce him 
to leave the sphere of his usefulness at Paisley. 

On the 19th of November, 1788, Dr. Witherspoon was unanimously 
chosen president of the college of New Jersey. This appointment was 
not at first accepted. Such representations of the state of the college had 
been made in Scotland, as were calculated to induce Dr. Witherspoon to 
decline the presidency, until his misapprehensions were removed by an 
agent of the board. He was, however, induced in the final decision, to 
decline his first appointment not in consequence of the misrepresentations 
in question, but from the reluctance of Mrs. Witherspoon to leave .her 
native country. She was afterwards perfectly reconciled to the idea of his 
VOL. IX. 14 


removal, and with the affection and piety for which she was eminently 
distinguished, cheerfully accompanied her husband to a foreign country, 
with no expectation of ever returning to " the land of her fathers' 

The second application to Dr. Witherspoon by the trustees -of the college 
was successful. Warmly urged by friends whose judgment he most re- 
spected, and whose friendship he most esteemed, and hoping that he might 
repay his sacrifices by greater usefulness to the cause of the Redeemer, 
and to the interests of learning in this new world, and knowing that the 
college had been consecrated from its foundation to those great objects to 
which he had devoted his life, he finally consented to cross the ocean, and 
assume his new and important trusts.* 

Dr. Witherspoon arrived in this country in August, 1768, and on the 
17th of that month, he was inaugurated. He was the sixth president of 
the college from its foundation in 1746. His predecessors, Dickinson^ 
Burr, Edwards, Davies, and Finley, were deservedly celebrated for their 
genius, learning, and piety. The fame of his literary character, which 
had preceded him to this country, brought a great accession of students to 
the institution. This influence was increased by the circumstance of his 
being a foreigner ; but his reputation was widely extended, and he enjoyed 
an additional advantage by introducing the more recent improvements in 
the system of education. At the period of Dr. Witherspoon's accession, 
the college had never enjoyed any resources from the State, but was 
entirely dependent on private liberality and zeal. The reputation of Dr. 
Witherspoon excited fresh generosity in the public, and his personal ex- 
ertions which extended from Massachusetts to Virginia, rapidly augmented 
its finances, and placed them in a flourishing condition. The principal 
advantages, however, which it derived, were from his extensive knowledge, 
his mode of government, his example as a model of good writing, and the 
tone which he gave to the literary exercises of the college. He endeavored 
to establish the system of education upon the most extensive basis that the 
finances of the college would permit. The course of instruction pre- 
viously, had been rather limited ; and its metaphysics and philosophy 
somewhat tinctured with the dry and uninstructive forms of the schools. 
This, however, was not to be imputed as a defect, to the excellent men 
who had previously presided over the institution ; it arose rather from the 
recent origin of the country, the imperfection of its social condition, and 
from the taste of the age ; — some of the British universities not being 
emancipated for a long time after from the bondage to forms. Since his 
presidency, mathematical science received an extension that was not 
known before in the American colleges. He was the first individual who 
made known in this country the principles of the philosophy which Dr. 
Reid afterwards taught. He laid the foundation of a course of history in 
the college, while the principles of taste and of good writing were happily 
explained by him and exemplified in his practice. " The style of 
learning," says the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, " has been changed by him. Lit- 
erary inquiries and improvements have become more liberal, extensive, 
and profound. An admirable faculty for governing, and exciting the 
emulation of the young gentlemen under his care, contributed to give 
success to all his designs for perfecting the course of instruction. The 
number of men of distinguished talents, in the different liberal professions 

* Not long before Dr. Witherspoon left Scotland, and while in suspense respecting his duty, a relative 
of the Family, and possessed of considerable property, promised to make Dr. Witlierspoon liis heir, if he 
would not go to America. 


in this country, who have received the elements of their education under 
him, testify his services to the college. Under his auspices have been 
formed a large proportion of the clergy of the Presbyterian church ; and 
to his instructions, America owes many of her most distinguished patriots 
and legislators."* He introduced a system of public voluntary exercises 
among the students, in the various branches of study pursued by them. 
One of these consisted in translating any given phrase of English into 
Latin, on the spot, and without previous preparation ; and in an extempo- 
raneous exercise in writing Latin, for the completion of which a short 
specific time of a few minutes only was allowed. The exercise in Greek 
consisted in reading, translating, and analyzing the language. 

" Perhaps his principal merit," says Dr. Rodgers, " appeared in the 
pulpit. He was, in many respects, one of the best models on which a 
young preacher could form himself. It was a singular felicity to the whole 
college, but especially to those who had the profession of the ministry in 
view, to have such an example constantly before them. Religion, by the 
manner in which it was treated by him, always commanded the respect of 
those who heard him, even when it was not able to engage their hearts. 
An admirable textuary, a profound theologian, perspicuous and simple in 
his manner, an universal scholar, acquainted deeply with human nature ; a 
grave, dignified, and solemn speaker, he brought all the advantages derived 
from these sources to the illustration and enforcement of divine truth. 
Though not a fervent and animated orator, he was always a solemn, 
affecting, and instructive preacher. It was impossible to hear him without 
attention, or to attend to him without improvement. He had a happy 
talent at unfolding the strict and proper meaning of the sacred writer, in 
any text from which he chose to discourse ; at concentrating and giving 
perfect unity to every subject which he treated, and presenting to the 
hearer the most clear and comprehensive views of it. His sermons were 
distinguished for their judicious and perspicuous divisions— for mingling 
profound remarks on human life, along with the illustration of divine truth 
— and for the lucid order that reigned through the whole. In his dis- 
courses, he loved to dwell chiefly on the great doctrines of divine grace, 
and on the distinguishing truths of the gospel. These he brought, as far 
as possible, to the level of every understanding, and the feeling of every 
heart. He seldom chose to lead his hearers into speculative discussions, 
and never to entertain them by a mere display of talents. All ostentation 
in the pulpit, he viewed with the utmost aversion. During the whole of 
his presidency, he was extremely solicitous to train those studious youths, 
who had the ministry of the gospel in view, in such a manner, as to secure 
the greatest respectability, as well as usefulness, in that holy profession. 
It was his constant advice to young preachers, never to enter the pulpit 
without the most careful preparation.! It was his aim, and his hope, to 
render the sacred ministry the most learned as well as the most pious body 
of men in the republic. One remarkable quality and highly deserving 
imitation in him, was his attention to young persons. He never suffered 
an opportunity to escape him of imparting the most useful advice to them, 

* " More than thirty members of the congress of the United States have been sons of the college of New 
Jersey ; and among these, some of their first characters for reputation and usefulness." Among the 
persons educated by Dr. Witherspoon, were Dr. Smith, (his successor in the college,) James Madison, 
Samuel Spring, Aaron Burr, William S. Livingston, Henry Lee, Brockholst Livingston, Isaac Tichenor, 
Jonathan Dayton, Richard Stockton, William 13. Giles, Edward Livingston, Robert G. Harper, Smith 
Thompson, Mahlon Dickerson, David Hosack, and John H. Hobart. 

t Dr. Witherspoon never read his sermons, nor used so much as short notes, in the pulpit. He wrote 
his sermons at full length, and committed them to memory ; but did not confine himself to the ptecise 
words ho had penned. 


according to their circumstances, when they happened to be in his com- 
pany. And this was always done in so agreeable a way, that they could 
neither be inattentive to it, nor was it possible to forget it." 

Faithfully and perseveringly he continued to guide the course of 
education in the institution over which he presided, until the Revolu- 
tionary War suspended his functions, and dispersed the students. He 
then found himself introduced to a new field of labor. On coming to 
this country he threw aside his foreign prejudices, and embraced with 
facility the ideas and habits of the people of a new country. In 1776, he 
was elected a delegate to the State Convention which formed the Consti- 
tution of New Jersey. After having taken an active part in the revolu- 
tionary committees and conventions, he was elected on the 21st of June, 
1776, a delegate to Congress, with instructions to unite with the delegates 
from other colonies, in declaring them to be independent of the mother 
country, should such a measure be considered necessary. Dr. Wither- 
spoon took his seat in Congress, a few days previous to the fourth of July, 
and assisted in those important debates which resulted in the declaration 
of independence.* During the sessions of 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, 1781, 
and 1782, he continued to represent the State of New Jersey in the 
general Congress, with unyielding zeal and perseverance. It is recorded 
as an evidence of his devotion to public affairs, that he sometimes attended 
in his seat, without the least intermission, during the whole period of his 
annual appointments. In November, 1782, he finally retired from Con- 
gress, after a long series of important services. The energy, promptitude, 
and talents, which he displayed in every branch of public business which 
required his attention, and the political wisdom and experience with which 
he enriched the national council, attracted the confidence and admiration 
of his colleagues, and quickly elevated him to a high rank among the 
sages of that illustrious body. Me was always firm in the most gloomy 
aspects of public affairs, and always discovered great power and presence 
of mind in the most embarrassing situations. He seldom entered fully into 
any debate at first, but reserved himself for a concentrated effort. Having 
made himself master of his subject, he methodically composed a speech, 
committed it to memory, and delivered it in Congress. Being a ready 
speaker, and possessing a remarkable talent for extemporaneous discourse, 
lie prefaced his written orations, by replying to some previous speaker, and 
dextrously proceeding with his prepared speeches, surprised the whole 
house by the regular arrangement of his ideas, his command of language, 
and his precision on subjects of importance. His powers of memory were 
of great importance to him in Congress. He often remarked that he could 
accurately repeat a speech or sermon written by himself, by reading it 
over throe times only. His talents as a statesman had been thoroughly 
tested, while leader of the orthodox party in the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland. On many of the most important 
committees of Congress, Dr. Witherspoon was called to serve ; in some of 
them as chairman. It is known that the admirable publications of Con- 
gress calling the people to seasons of fasting and prayer, came from his 

While serving his country in the character of a civilian, he did not lay 
aside his ministry. He eagerly embraced every opportunity of preaching, 

What amount of agency Dr. \V. porformed in rotation to this groat event, wc do not know. Possibly 
the expected work of .Mr. Madison will throw light on the subject. When a distinguished member of 
Congress said that "we were not yet ripe for a declaration of independence," Dr. W. replied: " In my 
judgment, sir, we are not only ripe, but rotting." 


and of discharging the various duties of his station as a Christian minister, 
which he considered as his highest honor. Nor would lie ever consent, as 
some other clerical members of* Congress did, to change, in any particular, 
the dress which distinguished his order. 

In December, 1779, he resigned his house on the college-grounds to 
Vice President Smith, and retired to his country seat, situated about one 
mile from, and in full sight of, Princeton ; but his name continued to add 
celebrity to the institution, and it rapidly regained its former reputation. 
He, however, served his country again in the years 1781 and 1782, as a 
delegate to Congress. In 1783, he was induced, contrary to his own 
judgment, to cross the Atlantic, to endeavor to benefit the college. The 
expectation of obtaining funds from a nation with which we had just been 
at war, was altogether visionary. The result of his mission accorded with 
his expectations. On his return he withdrew, in a great measure, except 
on important occasions, from the exercise of those public functions that 
were not immediately connected with the duties of his office, as president 
of the college, or as minister of the gospel. 

Bodily infirmities began, at length, to fall heavily upon him. For more 
than two years previous to his death, he was afflicted with the loss of sight, 
which contributed to hasten the progress of his other disorders. He bore 
his sufferings with exemplary patience, and even cheerfulness ; nor would 
his active mind, and his unabated desire of usefulness, permit him, even in 
this situation, to desist from his ministry and his duties in the college, so 
far as his health would permit. During his blindness, he was frequently 
led into the pulpit, both at home and abroad ; and always acquitted himself 
with his usual accuracy, and not unfrequently with more than his usual 
solemnity and animation. 

On the 15th of Nov. 1794, in the 73d year of his age, he retired to his 
eternal rest, full of honors and full of days, there to receive, through the 
mediation of the great Redeemer, the plaudit of his Lord, " Well done, 
thou good and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over a few things, 
be thou ruler over many things ; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." 
His remains were interred at Princeton. A neat Latin epitaph is en- 
graved on his tomb. 

Dr. Witherspoon was twice married. He was united to his first wife, 
named Montgomery, in Scotland, at an early age. She was eminent for 
her piety and general excellence of character. His children, at the time 
of his removal to this country, consisted of three sons and two daughters. 
James, the eldest son, held the rank of major in the revolutionary army, 
and was killed at the battle of Germantown. John, was a physician of 
good talents and attainments ; David, applied himself to the study of the 
law, and settled in North Carolina, where he became a respectable practi- 
tioner ; in 1780, he acted as private secretary to the president of Congress. 
President Smith, the successor of Dr. Witherspoon, married Ann, the 
eldest daughter; and Dr. David Ramsay, the historian of the revolution, 
married Frances, the youngest daughter. Dr. Witherspoon's second wife 
was an American lady. In all the relations of husband, father, master, 
and friend, Dr. W. was faithful and affectionate. 

Dr. Witherspoon's works have been published in four volumes octavo, 
(second edition in 1802,) with the sermon preached at his funeral by the 
Rev. Dr. Rodgers, of New York. Among the most important of his 
publications are, " Serious Inquiry into the Nature and Effects of the 
Stage ; " " Dominion of Providence over the Passions of Men ; " " Justifi- 
cation by Free Grace, through Jesus Christ;" "The Nature and Necessity 


of Regeneration;" "The Importance of Truth in Religion;" "The 
Connection which subsists between Sound Principles and a Holy Practice;" 
"Essay on the Nature, Value, and Uses of Money;" ''The Druid," a 
series of periodical essays ; " Lectures on Divinity ; " " Lectures on Moral 
Philosophy;" and " Lectures on Eloquence." His works are still in high 
repute on both sides of the Atlantic. It is understood that a new collection 
of them, with a Memoir, is in preparation, by the Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green, 
of Philadelphia, the successor of Dr. Smith in the presidency of the college 
of New Jersey. 



By John Farmer, 

Cor. Scc'ry of the Neio Hampshire Historical Society, 

[Continued from Vol. viii. p. 344.] 
Note. — The year they were graduated is prefixed to each person at the beginning of the several Memoirs. 


1651. Seaborn Cotton was son of Rev. John Cotton, of Boston, one of the 
ecclesiastical fathers of New England. He was born on the Atlantic Ocean in 1633, 
while his parents were on their voyage to this country, and was baptized in the First 
Church in Boston, on the 6th of September, of the same year. I rom the circumstance 
of his birth, he was named Seaborn, which is latinized in the college catalogue, 
Marigena. Enjoying the advantages of his father's instructions until he was nineteen 
years of age, he was well prepared to enter on a course of theological studies at the time 
of his leaving college ; but the death of his father the next year deprived him of those 
stores of learning and experience for which the former was so eminently distinguished. 
With whom he completed his studies we know not. After preaching several years, he 
was invited to settle at Hampton, then in Massachusetts, but now in New Hampshire. 
He was ordained in 1660, as successor to Rev. Timothy Dalton, who died the next year 
at an advanced age. Here he remained in the peaceable enjoyment of his ministry, with 
but one interruption, which will be noticed at the close of this article, until his death, 
which occurred 19th April, 1686, in the 53d year of his age. 

Of the ministerial life and character of Mr. Cotton, we have but little information. 
Indeed, there is scarcely any thing found in contemporary historians respecting him. 
His nephew, Dr. Cotton Mather, in the biography of Mr. Cotton's father, speaks of the 
son as being " a thorough scholar, and an able preacher," and as ' condemning the errors 
of his namesake Pelagius,' a celebrated heresiarch of the fifth century, whose real name 
was Morgan. The Artillery Election Sermon for 1673, was preached by Mr. Cotton, but 
it appears not to have been printed, nor is it probable that any thing by him issued from 
the press. There is a petition to the Council of New Hampshire from him in 1685, of 
which the original is in the office of the Secretary of State. It is as follows: 

To the Honorable his Majesty's Council for the Province of New- Hampshire. 
The Petition of Seaborne Cotton, of Hampton in the Province abovesaid, 
Humbly Sheweth, 

That whereas by an act of his Majesty's Council in this Province, bearing date as I 
conceive, Dec. 10, 1683, the people in the several towns, were left at their liberty 


whether they would pay their ministers, or no, after the first of January ensuing that act, 
unless their ministers would administer baptism and the Lord's supper to such as desired 
it, according to his Majesty's letter to the Massachusetts', which was never denied by me 
to any that orderly asked it ; yet too many people have taken occasion thereby, both to 
withhold what was my due before that act, for the year 1683, as also for the year 1684, 
and are likely to do so for the year 1685, except this Honorable Council see cause to 
pass an act, and order the trustees of Hampton, that 1 may have my dues according to 
the town's compact upon record, and their agreement with myself many years since; — 
the time also drawing nigh, when for this present year, I should have my rate made, 
doth hasten me to present this address, and to request your Honors' favor therein : if 
your Honors send an order to our trustees, your Honors may possibly see cause to omit 
the naming myself as requesting it, all which I leave to your Honors' generous accept- 
ance, and am your Honors' 

Humbly devoted, 


Hampton, Sept. 5, 1685. 

In answer to this petition, the Council ordered that " the petitioner be left to the law 
to have his remedy against the persons he contracted with for his dues." 

The year before this petition was presented, and during the persecution of Rev. Joshua 
Moody of Portsmouth, of which an account will be given in the memoir of that gentle- 
man, Lieut. Governor Cranfield, the chief magistrate of New Hampshire, in a profane 
bravado, sent word to Mr. Cotton, that " when he had prepared his soul, he would come 
and demand the sacrament of him as he had done at Portsmouth." Upon receiving this 
notice, and resolving not to comply with Cranfield's request, Mr. Cotton withdrew to 
Boston, where he remained several weeks. While there, he preached a sermon in 
reference to the imprisonment of Mr. Moody, by Cranfield, from the words, " Peter was 
therefore kept in prison ; but prayer was made without ceasing of the church to God for 
him." — Acts xii. 5, which gave great offence to Cranfield and his friends in New 
Hampshire. Mr. Cotton however, suffered no molestation on this account. He returned 
to his charge at Hampton, and there closed his days in peace. 

Mr. Cotton was twice married. His first wife was Dorothy Bradstreet, daughter of 
Gov. Simon Bradstreet. Her mother was a daughter of Gov. Thomas Dudley, and was 
the lady so highly esteemed for her poetical powers. By her, who died 26(h February 
1672, Mr. Cotton had the following children : Dorothy, who married Col. Smith of 
Hampton, and died leaving no issue ; John, born 8th May, 1658, graduated at Harvard 
College 1678, and succeeded his father; Ann, born 23d April, 1661; Sarah, born 2d 
July, 1663 ; Eliza, born 13th September 1665, married Rev. William Williams of Hatfield, 
and left sons, William, H. C. 1705, and Elisha, H. C. 1711, who was rector of Yale 
College ; Mercy, born 3d November, 1666, married Capt. Peter Tufts, of Medford, 
Massachusetts, and was mother of Thomas Tufts, H. C. 1701, and Rev. John Tufts, H. C. 
1708 ; Maria, born 22d April, 1670, married Mr. Atwater, and afterwards Mr. Samuel 
Patridge, and had sons, Cotton and William, who graduated at Yale College 1729, and 
probably some others. The second wife of Mr. Cotton was the widow of Dr. Anthony 
Crosby, of Rowley. By her, he had one son, Roland, who was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1696, who was a physician. Ann and Sarah were both married, one to Mr. 
Richard Pierce ; the other to a Mr. Carr. — Johnson, Hist. JYew England, 36. Belknap, 
Hist. J\T. H. 107, 479, 481. Mather, Magnolia, i. 259. Coll. JV. H. Hist. Soc. ii. 204. 


1651. Isaac Chauncy was son of Rev. Charles Chauncy, who became the second 
president of Harvard College. President Chauncy was son of George Chauncy, Esq. of 
Hertfordshire, England, a descendant from Chauncy de Chauncy, who went to England 
with William the Conqueror, in 1066. He was baptized according- to the family gene- 
alogy, in the church at Yardley, 5th November, 1592 ; was educated at Trinity College, 
in the University of Cambridge ; was settled in several places in England, but suffering 
much persecution, came to this country in 1638 ; preached at Plymouth and Scituate 
until 1654, when he succeeded President Dunster, at Cambridge, where he died 19th of 
February, 16,72, aged 82. 

Six of President Chauncy's sons were educated at Harvard College, of whom Isaac, 
the subject of this article, was the eldest. He was born in England, on the 23d of 
August, 1632, and was in his 6th year when his father arrived at Plymouth. He and his 
brother Ichabod, entered the same class, and both were graduated the same year. It is 
probable that they both returned to their native land at the same time, having both of 
them received a theological education. Isaac was settled in the parish of Woodborougln 


in Wiltshire, from whence he was ejected by the Bartholomew act in the reign of 
Charles II. After the year 1662, he was pastor to a Congregational church at Andover, 
in the same county. His society worshipped in the same place with the people under 
the pastoral care of Rev. Samuel Sprint, and it was proposed to unite the two congrega- 
tions, but it being opposed by some of Mr. Chauncy's people, the union was not effected. 
Soon after this Mr. Chauncy applied himself to the study of physic, and' having removed 
from Andover to London, resolved to establish himself in that profession. But after the 
death of Rev. John Owen, D. D. in 1633, he was chosen to succeed this eminent divine, 
and continued to officiate to the church in Berry Street, in London, for many years. 

" At length," says Dr. Calamy, " finding the society decrease and decay, he took up a 
resolution wholly to quit ministerial service, and no entreaties could prevail with him to 
the contrary. Though he was no popular preacher, yet Mr. Sprint, who was a good 
judge of learning, and knew him well, always gave him the character of a learned man ; 
which will scarce be denied him by any unprejudiced persons, that were well acquainted 
with him." He died in London, 12th February, 1712, in the 80th year of his age. 

His publications mentioned by Dr. Calamy, are, The Divine Institution of Congrega- 
tional Churches, Ministers and Ordinances, as has been professed by those of that persua- 
sion, asserted and proved from Scripture, 8vo. ; An Essay to the Interpretation of the 
Angel Gabriel's prophecy, delivered by the Prophet Daniel, Chap. ix. 24 ; Christ's 
Ascension to fill all things, in a Sermon at Horsely-down, Svo. 

Mr. Chauncy married in England, and left a number of descendants. The name of his 
wife was Jane. His children were Isaac, Uzziel, who died 31st August, 1696 ; Charles, 
who came to New England, and was a merchant in Boston, and died in 1711 ; and 
Elizabeth, who married 10th December, 16S9, John Nisbet, of London, and died in 1727. 
Charles was father to the celebrated Rev. Charles Chauncy, D. D. who graduated at 
Harvard College in 1721, and was minister of the First Church in Boston from 25th 
October, 1727, to his death, 10th February, 1787, in the 83d year of his age. — Calamy, 
Account of Ejected Ministers, ii. 761. Continuation of the same, ii. 877, 878. 
Deane, Hist.' Scituate, 177, 178. 1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Society, x. 171. MS. Gene- 
alogy of the Chaujvcvs. 


1651. Ichabod Chauncy, brother of the preceding, was born in England, in 1635, 
and was three years old when brought to America. He studied divinity, probably with 
his father, and it is supposed he accompanied bis brother to England, where he was 
appointed chaplain in Sir Edward Harley's regiment, and was at Dunkirk in France in 
1662. He afterwards was a physician " of good note" in the city of Bristol. Dr. Calamy 
says, " He was prosecuted on (he 35lh Elizabeth, and upon that act suffered banishment. 
In 1684, he was compelled to abjure the realm; and removed himself and his family into 
Holland. But upon King James' liberty he returned to Bristol in 1686; and died there 
25th July, 1691." He was 56 years of age. There had been published in 1684, a work 
entitled, "Innocence Vindicated, by an Impartial Narrative of the Proceedings of the 
Court of Sessions in Bristol, against Ichabod Chauncy, Physician in that city." 

The wife of Dr. Chauncy was Mary King, who, after marrying a second husband, of 
the name of Guillim, died in 1736, at the age of 90. His children were Staunton, who 
died unmarried in Nevis, in 1707 ; Charles, who died in infancy, in London; Charles, 2d 
of the name, born 14th March, 1674, married 1708, and died 3d January, 1763, aged 89 ; 
leaving a son Charles, born 30th Sept. 1709, who was M. D., F. R. S., and F. A.S., and 
died 25th December, 1777, aged 68; Elizabeth; Mary; Nathaniel, born 14th February, 
1679, who was minister of Devizes nearly fifty years, and who died in May, 1750, aged 
71; Henry and two others, who died in infancy. — Calamy, Account of Ejected Minis- 
ters, ii. 610. Ibid. Continuation, ii. 756. MS. Genealogy of the Chauncy s. 


1652. Joseph Rowlandson, son of Thomas Rowlandson, one of the early freemen 
of Massachusetts, who settled at Ipswich, but died at Lancaster, 17th November, 1657, 
was born before his father came to New England. 

While a member of College, and during his last year, he committed a youthful misde- 
meanor, for which he was sentenced 30lh November, 1651, by the Court of Essex 
County, to be " whipt, unless he paye 5 lb. by Wednesday come 3 weekes, or be whipt 
the next Thursdaye, and 5 lb. more, when the Court shall call for it, and to paye all 
charges 30s. for the Marshall's gocing with atachment for him to Cambridge and Boston, 
and fees of Court." The judges who gave this sentence were Gov. John Endecott, 
Simon Bradst'reet, Samuel Symonds, Daniel Denison, and William Ilathornc. The crime 
for which he received it is called a " scandelous ly bell," which was pasted up on the 



meeting-house in Ipswich? The libel consisted of several articles, of which the most 
prominent is the following, copied from the Appendix of the Sixth Edition of Mrs. Row- 
landson's Narrative of her Captivity. 

" Gentlemen I beseech you looke hecre and tell me truly have I not discharged my 
duty very well. I pray bee pleased to be informed further in a long tale of enuie pull 
me not doune I pray til all ye people have sene and then turne me. 

O God from heaven looke thou doune 

Do not thy servants wonder 
To see thy honour so abased 

Thy truth so troden under. 

The feete of proud malignant ones 

That love to give despight 
And of those that are innocent 

To turne aside the right. 

What could not enuie stopped bee 

Before it had thus gained 
Over the truth and what may bee 

By right of lawe mayntayned 1 

What were not rulers able to 

It totally expell 
Or had not they some might at least 

Its strength somewhat to quell ? 

O blessed God wh}' didest thou 

Thy rulers all restraine 
From seeing enuie fully bent 

Its will for to mayntayne 1 

O enuie hast thou thus prevayld 

And is thy hand so high 
That now God's ordinance must bee 

Proclaim'd a nullity ? 

Did ever enuie thus prevayle 

In any generation 
Was ever such an act as this 

Heard of in any nation 1 

Were ever those that God made one 

Devided thus in sunder 
Did ever enuie thus proceede 

Good hearers stand and wonder ? 

What men doe joyne it graunted is 

Men may againe dissever 
But what the Lord conioynes in one 

Disioyned may bee never. 

Whence comes it Enuie then that thou 

Doest Ihis day triumph make 
And in the publick eares of all 

This fundamentall stake ? 

Tartarian sulphur had expell'd 

Or totally obscured 
The light that long time half was quelld 

In her conscience so impured. 

And hence I enuie got the day 

Her conscience so to seare 
Till I at length had found a way 

To put her out of fear. 

And so did I cause her to say 

Even what it was 1 lyst. 
Nor care beeing had unto the truth 

Whether it hit or mist. 

tol. ix. 15 


If enuie hath thus deceived thee O woman, and the allurements of thy pretended 
friends conspiring therewith, so brought thee to belye thy conscience as it is credibly 
reported here in this towne wr I live that am so indifferent to the thing as indeed cannot 
bee otherwise being so remote from wr you live : then I do profess that ye Court did 
well to free the poore man of his burthen, and if 1 knew him 1 would certainly tell him 
so. More over me thinks I would tell him he hath indeed done very ill to keepe her So 
long from performing her promise to that same young-man so long agOe ; which if I had j 
knowledge of I could inform him punctually concerning. I pray you therefore that 
reade this writing inform him of my name and direct him to the towne where I live and ; 
I hope I may give, him a little something for his further ease since I heare the Court hath j 
proceeded so farre in that way already. In the mean-time I have made bold to send this j 
writing, which least it should miscarry his hands I did desire the bearer to set it up in I 
publicke, that so he might not bee altogether un-informed of our iudgment heere in this 

By mee, Justice Pleader in the Toune 

of Conscience, 3000 miles distant from any place well 
neere in Newe-England." 

Mr. Rowlandson afterwards sent a letter of submission to the Court, in which he says, 
" As concerning the writing which I so rashly affixed unto the Meeting-house I do 
desire to abhorre myselfe for my extreme folly in so doing, and I hope the Lord hath 
opened my eyes to see that in myselfe thereby that otherwise 1 might too late have 
lamented, but not timously repented of." At a Court holden at Ipswich, 25th March, 
•1656, " Joseph Rowlandson upon his petition the Court remitted the remainder of his 

Before this time, (1656) Mr. Rowlandson had engaged in the ministry, and was 
employed as a preacher at Lancaster, fie went to that place in the summer or fall of 
1654. In February following, he subscribed the town covenant and received his allot- 
ment of land. In 1656, his salary as minister was fixed at " fifty pounds by the year," 
taking "wheat at sixpence per bushel," under the usual price, "and as God shall 
enlarge their estates, so shall they enlarge therein answerably," &c. In September, 
1657, the Commissioners ordered the Selectmen " to take care for the due encouragement 
of Master Rowlandson, and also for the erecting a meeting-house." In compliance with 
these orders, a house for worship was erected soon after. Mr. R. continued to preach 
there several years without being ordained, but at length, being probably discouraged as 
to the prospect of receiving an invitation to settle there permanently, gave out his inten- 
tion of removing from town. The report of his determination caused a meeting to be 
holden (14th March, 1658) by the inhabitants, who invited him "to settle among them 
in the work of the ministry," by a unanimous vote. He complied with the wishes of 
the town; a church was organized in September, 1660, and he was ordained at that 
time or soon afterwards. No particulars in relation to his ordination or ministry were 
known to Mr. Willard, the historian of Lancaster. The early records of the town are 
lost, and those of the church were probably consumed when the town was destroyed by 
the Indians. " There is reason to believe," says Mr. Willard, that Mr. R. was " a man 
of good talents and a faithful minister." Cotton Mather and all traditions are in his favor. 
He is mentioned by this writer as an " author of lesser composures." What these com- 
posures were, it was not the good fortune of Mr. Willard to ascertain, and it may be 
doubted whether they can ever be recalled from their oblivion, and if they were in style 
like the " scandelous lybell," or his retractation, they had better remain with " the lost 
things of the earth." 

In the peaceful valley of the Nashaway, among an industrious and sober people, and 
in the enjoyment of freedom, Mr. Rowlandson remained more than twenty years, when 
on a sudden, and while absent on a journey, all his fond expectations in regard to the 
growth of the settlement and the prosperity of his flock, were forever blasted. On the 
10th of February, 1676, the Indians to the number, as was computed, of fifteen hundred, 
invested the town " in five distinct bodies and places." There were at that time more 
than fifty families in Lancaster. After killing a number of persons in different parts of 
the town, they directed their course to the house of Mr. Rowlandson. The house was 
pleasantly situated on the brow of a small hill, commanding a fine view of the valley of 
the north branch of the river, and the amphitheatre of hills to the west, north and east. 
It was filled with soldiers and inhabitants to the number of forty-two, and was guarded 
only in front, not like the other garrisons, with flankers at the opposite angles. 
"Quickly," says Mrs. Rowlandson in her Narrative, "it was the dolefullest day that 
ever mine eyes saw." The house was defended with determined bravery for upwards 
of two hours. The enemy after several unsuccessful attempts to set fire to the building, 
tilled a cart with combustible matter, and approached in the rear, where there was no 
fortification. In this way the house was soon enveloped in flames. The inhabitants 
finding further resistance useless, were compelled at length to surrender, to avoid 


perishing in the ruins of the building. No other garrison was destroyed but that of Mr, 
Rowlandson's. One man only escaped. The rest, twelve in number, were either put to 
death, or killed on the spot. No less than seventeen of Mr. Rowlandson's family arid 
connection, of whom was his brother Thomas, and Mrs. Keiley, a sister of his wife, were 
put to death or taken prisoners. Mrs. R. was taken by a Narraganset Indian, and sold to 
Quannopin, a Sagamore, and connected with Philip by marriage ; their squaws being 

Mr. Rowlandson, at the time of this dreadful calamity, was at Boston, with Capt. 
Keiley and Mr. Drew, two of his parishioners, soliciting military aid from Gov. Leverett 
and the Council. The anguish they felt on their return is not to be described. They 
knew not the calamity which had befallen them "till their eyes beheld it." Their 
dwellings had been destroyed : the wife of one was buried in (he ruins ; the wives of the 
two others and several of their children, were in the power of the savages, treading their 
way through the trackless forest in the severity of winter ; with no comforts to supply 
their necessities, no friends to cheer them, and nothing but the unmingled dread of a 
hopeless captivity in prospect. 

Deep distress and incessant anxiety were the attendants of Mr. R. for a season. His 
wife however, did not undergo a long captivity. She was redeemed, and returned to her 
husband after traversing the wilderness with the Indians eleven weeks and five days. 
Twenty pounds were paid for her redemption, which sum was raised by the ladies in 
Boston and Mr. Usher, whose bounty she acknowledges in her Narrative. Her children, 
excepting the youngest, who was wounded at the capture, and died in a few weeks after 
she was taken, were also redeemed. After living on the chanty of his friends, and 
preaching in several places in Massachusetts, Mr. R., with his family, removed from 
Boston to Wethersfield, in Connecticut as early as May, 1677. He was installed there 
the same year, and it is believed, as a colleague with Rev. Gershom Bulkley, who about 
that time retired from the ministry. But his continuance here was but short, as he died 
24th November, 167S, leaving a wife, who was daughter of Mr. John White, of Lan- 
caster. His children were, Mary, born 1658, died 1661 ; Joseph, born 7th March, 1661, 
was captured by the Indians, and was returned to Major Waldron, at Dover, 1676, 
married and settled at Wethersfield, where he died 2 2d January, 1712, aged 51, leaving 
a son Wilson, born 8th January, 1703, died 3d July, 1735, aged 32; Mary, born 12th 
August, 1665; Sarah, born 15th September, 1669, and died among the Indians, within 
nineteen days after Lancaster was destroyed. The name of Rowlandson continued at 
Wethersfield about one hundred years. — Willard, Hist, of Lancaster, 37 — 39, 59 — 62. 
Ibid, MS Communication to me from Wethersfield. Ibid, in Preface to the 5th and 
6th Editions of the Narrative of Mrs. Roivlandson' s Captivity, vii., viii. Hubbard, 
Indian Wars, 60. Increase Mather, do. 22. Mather, Magnolia, ii. 20, 23. Holmes, 
Annals of America, i., 378. Harrington, Century Sermon, 1753, p. 14. Whitney, 
Hist. Co. Worcester, Art. Lancaster. Trumbull, Hist. Connecticut, i. 494. 


1653. Thomas Shepard was son of Rev. Thomas Shepard, minister of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, who arrived in New England 3d October, 1635, and died 25th August, 
1649, aged 49. He was born in London, 5th April, 1635, consequently was not five 
months old when he crossed the Atlantic. His mother, who was Margaret Fowteville, 
of Buttercranbe, in Yorkshire, died at Cambridge the next winter after her arrival. His 
father died when Thomas was fourteen years of age, leaving him a manuscript containing 
his " birth and life," with a particular account of his dangers and sufferings in his first 
attempts to come to New England in 1634, which he wrote in 1647, being apprehensive 
that his earthly career would be terminated before his son should arrive at mature 
age. Thomas completed his college course at the age of eighteen, and in pursuance 
of the wishes expressed in his father's instructions, devoted himself to the study of 
theology. He began to preach before he was twenty-one, and after officiating a short 
time, he was invited to settle as a colleague with Rev. Zechariah Symmes, who had 
been the minister at Charlestown twenty-four years. He accepted the invitation, and was 
ordained 13th April, 1659. He fulfilled the high expectations which were raised 
respecting his piety and talents, and continued until his death, which was occasioned by 
the small- pox, a faithful and highly acceptable minister. He died 22d December, 1677, 
in the 43d year of his age. That infectious and alarming disease prevailed among his 
people at that time, and numbers of them died. The Middlesex county records state, 
that ninety-one persons died at Charlestown, of the small-pox in the years 1677-8. 
Inoculation was then unknown. Mr. Shepard received the infection from visiting a 
person who much desired to see him. " But he went," says Dr. C. Mather, " with his 
life in his hand, and which he courageously and undauntedly expected the contagious 
distemper arresting of him, did put an end to his life, and therein surely after some sort, 
entitled him unto the crown of martyrdom." Such temerity in these days would hardly 


be thought sufficient to entitle one to the rank of a martyr. The Magnalia contains the 
following copy of his epitaph : 

D. O. M. S. 

Repositae sunt hie Reliquiae 


viri Sanctissimi, 

Eruditione, Virtute Omnigena, Moribusq ; Suavissimis Ornatissimi 

Theologi Consultissimi 

Coneionatoris Eximii: 

Qui filius fuit Thorn ae Shepardi Clarissimus, 

Memoratissimi Pastoris olim Ecclesiae Cantabrigiensis ; 

Et in Ecclesia Caroliensi Presbyter docens ; 

Fide ac Vita verus Episcopus : 

Optime de Re Literaria meritus : 

Qua Curator Collegii Harvardini vigilantissimus ; 

Qua Municipii Academici Soeius Primarius ; 

ia rov Ir t oov Xoiotov ov ra suvtov trjrwv. 

In D. Jesu placidi obdormivit Anno 1677. Dec. 22, 

iEtalis Suae 43. 

Totius Novangeliaj Lachrymis Defietus; 

Usq ; et Usq ; Deflendus. 

- President Oakes in a Latin Oration delivered at the Commencement of 1678, represents 
Mr. Shepard as distinguished for his erudition, prudence, modesty and integrity; as a 
strenuous defender of the orthodox faith, and as holding the first rank among the ministers 
of the day. His Election Sermon preached in 1672, was printed in 4to pp. 56. His 
instructions to his son Thomas, while a student at college, contain good counsel, and are 
here introduced. They were written about 1674. 

Instructions of Rev. Thomas Shepard, Minister of Charlestown, Mass. 
to his son, while a member of College. 

I. To remember the great end of his life even the glorifying of God through Christ, 
and the end of this turn of life even the fitting him for the most glorious work of the holy 
ministry. For this end, your father hath set you apart with many tears, and hath given 
you up to your God that he might delight in you. And I had rather see you buried in 
your grave, than grow light, loose, wanton or profane : God's secrets in the holy 
Scriptures are never made known to common and profane spirits ; and therefore be sure 
to begin and end every day wherein you study, with earnest prayer to God ; reading 
some part of the Scripture daily, and setting apart some time in the day (though but one 
quarter of an hour) for meditations of the things of God. 

II. To remember that these are times of much knowledge, and therefore one almost as 
good be no scholar, as not to excel in knowledge ; wherefore abhor one hour of idleness, 
as you would be ashamed of one hour of drunkenness. Though I would not have you 
study late in the night usually, yet know that God will curse your soul, while the sin of 
idleness is nourished, which hath spoiled so many hopeful youths in their first blossoming 
in the college. Hence don't content yourself to do as much as your tutor sets you 
about, but know, that you will never excel in learning, unless you do somewhat else in 
private hours, wherein his care cannot reach you. 

III. To make your studies as pleasant and as fruitful as can be, first by singling out 
two or three scholars, the most godly, learned and studious, and such as you can love 
best, and such as will most love you, of any that you find among your equals, as also 
some that are superiors, and often manage discourses with them on all subjects which 
you have before you ; and mark diligently what occurred remarkable in every one's 
conferences, disputations and other exercises, but by no means letting too much leak 
away by visits. Next by having a variety of studies before you, that when you shall be 
weary of one book of theme, you may have recourse with another. Then, by prose- 
cuting of studies in some order and method; and therefore, every year at least, if not 
oftener, fixing the course thereof, so as you may not allow yourself to be ordinarily 
therein interrupted. Fourthly, by giving of difficult studies the flower of your thoughts, 
and not suffering any difficulty to pass you. till by industry or inquiry, you have mastered 
it. Fifthly, by keeping an appetite for studies, by intermixing meditation, and at fit 
seasons recreation, but by such as might moderately stir thee, and render the spirit more 
lively to its duties. Sixthly, by making of choice collections from what authors you 
peruse und having proper indices to your collections, and therewithal contriving still how 
to reduce all unto your own more particular service in your exercises or otherwise. 
•Seventhly, by taking pains in preparing for your recitations, declamations, disputations, 



and not upon any pretence whatever, hurry them off indigcstcdly. Reading without 
meditation is useless; meditation without leading will be barren. But here i would not 
have you forget a speech of your blessed grandfather to a scholar, that complained to hirn 
of a bad memory, which discouraged him from reading. Lege, lege, aliquid nacre bit. 
That sentence in Proverbs xiv. 23, deserves to be written in letters ol gold on your study- 
table, " In all labor there is profit." But, lastly, by praying much not only for heav- 
enly, but also human learning : for remember that prayer at Christ's feet, (or all the 
learning you want, shall fetch you in more in an hour, than possibly you may get by all 
the books, and helps you have otherwise, in many years. 

IV. To be grave in your carriage towards all the scholars; but be watchful against 
the two great sins of many scholars, of which the first is youthful lusts, speculative 
wantonness, and secret filthiness, for which God blinds and hardens young men's hearts, 
and his Holy Spirit departing from such unclean sties. The second is malignancy and 
secret distaste of holiness, and the power of godliness and the professors of it. Both of 
these sins you will fall into, unto your own perdition, if you be not careful of your 
company : for there are, and will be such in every scholastical society, as will teach you 
how to be filthy, and how to jest, and scoff, and to scorn at godliness, and at the 
professors thereof; whose company I charge you to fly as from the devil, and abhor: and 
that you may be kept from these read often that Scripture, Proverbs ii. 10 — 12, 16. 

V. Kemember to entreat God with tears before you come to hear any sermon, that 
thereby God would powerfully speak to your heart, and make his truth precious to you. 
Neglect not to write after the preacher always in handsome books, and be careful always 
to preserve and peruse the same. And upon Sabbath days make exceeding conscience 
of sanctification ; mix not your other studies, much less vain and carnal discourses, with 
the duties of that holy day, but remember that command, Leviticus xix. 30 — " Ye shall 
keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary : lam the Lord." 

VI. Kemember that whensoever you hear, read, or conceive any divine truth, you 
study to affect your heart with it. Take heed of receiving truth into your head, without 
the love of it in your heart, lest God give you to strong delusions. If God reveal any 
truth to you, be sure you be humbly and deeply thankful. 

Mr. Shepard left but one son, Thomas, to whom the foregoing instructions were given, 
and two daughters. The son was born 5th July, 1658, graduated at Harvard College 
1676, and succeeded his father at Charlestown in 1680, where he died after a short 
ministry of five years, on the 8th June, 1685, aged 27. One of the daughters, after 
marrying a Quincy, was the second wife of Rev. Moses Fiske, of Braintree, now Quincy. 
— MS. Birth and Life of Rev. Thomas Shepard, of Cambridge. This work has been 
within a few years published by Rev. Nehemiah Adams. Mather, Magnolia, ii. 100. 
Mien, Amer. Biog. Diet. Art. Shepard. 


[Prepared by Professor Caldwell, at the request of the Editor.] 

[The fortune of Dickinson College has been so various, and its vicissitudes so numerous and 
of such a character, that it not only becomes difficult but inexpedient to detail the minute cir- 
cumstances of every part of its history. In consequence of the frequent changes which have 
taken place in its administration, but few names have become identified with that of the college ; 
and to this, rather than any thing else, is probably to be referred the solution of the fact, that its 
history, except for a period of about nine years — from 1821 to 1830 — has never been given to the 
public. In making out the following statistical sketch, therefore, the writer has had little to 
depend on besides the Minutes of the trustees, and answers given to a few doubtful questions by 
some of the early friends of the institution.] 

Carlisle, the seat of Dickinson College, is situated in the great Cumber- 
land Valley, and is about one hundred and twenty miles, nearly west from Phil- 
adelphia, and eighteen from Harrisburg. This valley lies between two ranges, 
known in the State by the names of the North and South Mountains, and 
throughout its whole extent is distinguished for its healthfulness, the richness 
of its soil, and the picturesque beauty of its neighboring mountain-scenery. 
The great western route from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, formerly passed 
through the borough of Carlisle, but recently the travel has become somewhat 


It appears by a correspondence which the trustees held in 1784 with a gen- 
tleman in Europe, subsequently president of the college, "that the idea of the 
propriety and importance of a seminary of learning, to be located on the western 
side of the Susquehannah, had long been entertained by some gentlemen in the 
State." This subject was agitated before the revolutionary conflict; but the 
difficulty of obtaining a charter under the colonial government, with other cir- 
cumstances of embarrassment, delayed an organization for this purpose. Imme- 
diately after the close of the war, the plan of establishing such an institution 
was again revived, when the subject was prosecuted with vigor and success. 
The considerations that urged to the establishment of the college, and which 
had determined its location in Carlisle, may be gathered from the following 
extract from the correspondence before referred to. "The fitness of the situa- 
tion — appearing not only as central to the State, but to the other States of the 
Union — and the healthfulness, fertility, and pleasantness of the country around, 
recommended the place. The great embarrassments which learning lay under 
during the war, and was still laboring under from its effects, pointed it out as a 
virtue, peculiarly commendable and necessary at the time, to use our best 
endeavors to revive the drooping sciences. Gratitude to the Author of our 
deliverance, in the prosperous conclusion of the war, laid us under obligations 
to exert ourselves in support oftliat, which had been, under God, the means of 
our happy and unexpected success. Our new connection with, and relation to, 
the other nations ; the management of our own peculiarly complicated form of 
union and government, and especially the important interest of religion and 
virtue in this growing empire, — these were the motives which gave rise to this 

Stimulated by these high and generous considerations, the friends of the 
establishment immediately made application to the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, and obtained a charter, establishing a college in the borough of 
Carlisle, this being then " near one hundred miles more to the westward of the 
Atlantic ocean than any of the other American colleges." Its location has ever 
been considered a fortunate one. Removed from the attractions and dissi- 
pating influence of a large town, and at the same time enjoying the advantages 
arising from a connection with a beautiful village, which has grown up with the 
college, till it now contains about 4,000 inhabitants. No situation could have 
been more favorable to the prosperity and success of a literary institution. By 
the charter which established the college, it was among other things deter- 
mined, " That in memory of the great and important services rendered to his 
country by His Excellency John Dickinson, Esq. President of the Supreme 
Executive Council, and in commemoration of his very liberal donation to the 
institution, the said college shall be forever hereafter called and known by 
the name of Dickinson College." Here is presented the origin of the 
name of the college, at the same time that His Excellency John Dickinson, 
Esq., then residing in Philadelphia, is pointed out as one of the most distin- 
guished benefactors of the institution. It was also provided by the charter, 
"That the head or chief master of the college shall be called and styled The 
Principal of the college" which is the name the president bears in all legal 
instruments, up to the present time. 

The first meeting of the trustees was held in Philadelphia, September 15, 
1783, when there were present of those named in the charter, His Excellency 
John Dickinson, and the Hon. James Ewing, President and Vice President of 
the Supreme Executive Council of the State; Henry Hill, Robert McPherson, 
William M'Clay, Michael Harm, Alexander McClean, Stephen Duncan, Wil- 
liam McCleary, Esquires ; and Doctor Benjamin Rush. These gentlemen, after 
being qualified according to the provisions of the charter, proceeded to the elec- 
tion of a president of the board, to Avhich office Mr. Dickinson was called by a 
unanimous vote, and which lie continued to fill, by the repeated solicitations of 
the board, till the time of his death, in 1808. Thus we find the trustees organ- 
ized under the charter of the State, entering upon the duties of their high trust, 
with little to sustain them besides the consciousness of" pure intentions directed 
to the accomplishment of worthy purposes." Sustained and cheered by /this, 
the president of the board, in an address to his associate trustees, very appro- 


priately says, " We may without presumption believe that the oblation of our 
endeavors will not be unacceptable before the greatest and best of Beings;" 
and adds, "May His goodness deign to bless the exertions of us, and our suc- 
cessors, so that all our efforts may be agreeable to his will." 

Being without funds, the first efforts of the trustees were directed to secur- 
ing the means of carrying their designs into execution. For obtaining these, 
considerable reliance seems to have been placed on contributions from the 
friends of learning in Europe ; and William Bingham, Esq. was sent out as 
agent for this purpose. He however did not succeed so well as was anticipated, 
nor so well as such agents had usually done previously to the war. Indeed, he 
informed the trustees by letter, soon after his arrival in London, that " from the 
present circumstances and dispositions of the people, he had no hopes of obtain- 
ing subscriptions for the college then, but must wait some more favorable 
time." The trustees, however, did not depend entirely on aid from abroad, but 
made arrangements, at this their first meeting, to send agents into every part of 
Pennsylvania and the neighboring States. They also, at this meeting, appointed 
a committee, "to make inquiry for a proper lot, not less than twelve acres, in 
the borough of Carlisle, for erecting the college — having a particular reference 
to the health and pleasantness of the situation ; to prepare a drawing of the 
college, and to make an estimate of the expense of purchase and building." It 
will subsequently appear that this lot was not procured till more than fifteen 
years had elapsed, and that the college building was not erected till several 
years later. 

The next meeting of the board was held at the court-house in Carlisle on the 
6th of April, 1784. "Being met at 5 o'clock P. M.," say the minutes of the 
board, " his Excellency, the president, addressed the board on the importance 
of the business which came before them, informing them of the original motives 
of founding the institution." By a reference to these motives, he urged upon the 
board the importance of diligence and perseverance in the prosecution of their 
objects ; and confidently infers, that such a course will ensure to them the aid of 
their fellow citizens. " When," says he, " the inhabitants of this and the neigh- 
boring counties observe your faithful labor, for communicating to their youth the 
treasures of science, collected by the wise and good of all ages and nations, what 
father can be so cruel as not to strive, that his child may partake of the distribu- 
tion. Miserably will he deceive himself by supposing, that any inheritance he 
can bequeath, is to be compared to a well-cultivated mind. It is betraying 
posterity, to leaye them wealth, without teaching them how to use it ; and thus, 
too frequently, all the cares and toils of a parent's life prove to be utterly 
thrown away, by his neglecting the great article of instruction." Fortunate 
would it have been, not only for the interests of this college, but for the cause 
of learning in general, if the correctness of the views here so well expressed, 
had been, thus early in our national history, generally appreciated. 

At this meeting, a committee was appointed, " to whom was referred the 
consideration of the present state of the funds, or amount of subscriptions for 
Dickinson College, and to devise ways and means for increasing the same." 
They report the amount of subscriptions, in cash, certificates and land, to be 
£2,839 12s 6d ; and that so much of this sum was immediately productive, as 
would raise about £130 per annum. In view of this low state of the funds, it 
was deemed expedient to renew the exertions for obtaining private subscrip- 
tions ; and to present a petition to the legislature of the State, praying an 
endowment,— which petition was prepared and presented at their next session. 
The next business of the board was to organize a faculty. This was done by 
the unanimous election of the Rev. Charles Nisbet, S. T. D., of Montrose, in 
Scotland, as principal, and of Mr. James Ross — favorably known among clas- 
sical scholars as the author of a valuable Latin grammar — professor of the 
Greek and Latin languages. Mr. R. at once took charge of the grammar school, 
which was opened in " the school-house of the borough,". — a small two-story 
brick building, which still occupies its place in an alley a little southeast of 
what is now the public square. On the 30th of September, the number of stu- 
dents was eighteen, when a small appropriation was made by the trustees to fit 
up an apartment on the upper floor of the building, for the use of the mathe- 


matical classes ; and by the 15th of the next June, the number had increased 
to thirty-five. Mr. Ross was assisted in their instruction by Mr. Robert John- 
ston, who was subsequently elected professor of mathematics. 

It was at this time that the Rev. Dr. Nisbet, having accepted the appoint- 
ment of principal of Dickinson College, arrived in this country ; and the state 
of things when he took charge of this then infant institution has been in part at 
least described. The trustees were as yet without a college edifice — without 
apparatus, or books, or even funds in any degree adequate to the accomplish- 
ment of their designs. And the legislature had already passed silently over the 
petition they had presented for aid ; so that they yet seemed to have nothing on 
which confidently to rely for success, but their own persevering zeal. These 
circumstances must have seemed rather discouraging, as well to the trustees as 
to him who had so recently exchanged the pastoral care of a church, where he 
enjoyed an association with the scenes of his native country and with the most 
learned men of Great Britain, for the guardianship of an institution, which gave 
so little immediate promise of success — far away in the interior of a new 

Dr. Nisbet brought a great amount of talent and learning to the discharge of 
the duties of his station, to which they were devoted with the greatest fidelity. 
He was an admirer of liberty, to which he exhibited his attachment by espous- 
ing the cause of America during her struggle with Great Britain ; yet it has 
been said by some, (and perhaps it would be strange if it were otherwise,) that 
he did not enter into the spirit of our institutions with so much zeal as did many 
of those who had taken a part in our revolutionary conflict, or as his peculiar 
circumstances, as the president of an American college, seemed to them to 
require. An attachment to the newly-formed institutions and government of 
his adopted country seemed the more necessary for his popularity and success, 
as we find that his duties were not confined to the domestic arrangements of 
the college ; but at the next meeting of the board after his arrival at Carlisle, 
he was by a resolution of that body requested "to undertake a mission into such 
of the neighboring States as shall be thought proper, to solicit subscriptions for 
the college from the friends of literature ; and likewise to visit the city of Phil- 
adelphia and every part of Pennsylvania, where there is a prospect of success 
in his undertaking." To what extent, or with what success, this mission was 
prosecuted does not appear. At the same meeting at which Dr. Nisbet received 
this agency, the Rev. Robert Davidson, S. T. D., was elected to the "profes- 
sorship of history, geography, chronology, rhetoric, and belles-lettres." The 
board of instruction now consisted of the president, professors Ross and David- 
son, Mr. Johnston, teacher of mathematics, and a Mr. Jait, who had been 
appointed "to teach the students to read and write the English language with 
elegance and propriety." 

To sustain the operations of the college as now organized, the trustees, in 
addition to their other efforts, determined to renew their application to the 
legislature for aid, which resulted in a grant, at their next session, "of £500 in 
specie, and 10,000 acres of the unappropriated lands of the State." On the 18th 
of October, while this application was pending, Dr. Nisbet sent in to the trus- 
tees a resignation of his office, alleging the very bad state of his health and that 
of his family, with the confidence that the climate did not suit his constitution, 
as the considerations which had induced him to this measure. His resignation 
was accepted, and the Rev. Professor Davidson, who was at the same time 
settled over the Presbyterian church in Carlisle, was appointed principal of the 
college, pro tempore. This station he filled to the entire satisfaction of the 
trustees, till the May following, when Dr. Nisbet — his health having been 
restored — was re-elected to the office, and entered on the discharge of its 
duties. The state of the funds of the college was now improving; but as yet 
they consisted principally of lands which could not be made immediately availa- 
ble. The trustees, however, exhibited a commendable zeal in providing the 
means of instruction, by procuring, as they did this year, a set of philosophical 
apparatus, and by making arrangements for giving additional instruction in the 
English department. 

On the 27th of September, 1787, was held the first public commencement, 


when the honors of the college were conferred on nine young men, who were 
adjudged by the president qualified to receive them. There was not, up to this 
time, nor till the year 1790, any regular course of study established by the trus- 
tees, or any classification of the students ; and consequently there was no regu- 
lar time of holding the public exercises, or of conferring the degrees. The 
next year, on the 7th of May, was graduated a class of eleven ; on the 3d of 
June, 1789, another, consisting of the same number, and on the 28th of Sep- 
tember, 1790, another of twelve. The minutes of the board give no account of 
any graduates the next year ; but on the 2d of May, 1792, was graduated a 
class of thirty-three — the largest ever sent out from the college. The opera- 
tions of the college were, during all this time, circumscribed within the limits of 
the small school-house, of which mention has been made ; except that some 
classes had received instruction in rooms in the town, temporarily procured for 
their use. In April, 1787, provision had been made by the board to open nego- 
tiations with the Congress of the United States, through the Secretary of the 
Treasury, for the purchase of the public works in the immediate vicinity, erected 
before the revolution as winter quarters and a recruiting station for the troops 
then employed in defence of our frontier ; with a design of appropriating them 
to the use of learning, and converting them into abodes for the candidates of 
other honors than those purchased on the battle-field. In January, 1788, they 
even went so far as to give private instructions to their committee, to offer the 
sum of $20,000 in purchase of this property ; and in 1789, the subject was again 
called up before the board, and letters were addressed to the representatives 
and senators of the State in congress, soliciting their aid in bringing the busi- 
ness to a conclusion. Fortunately, however, this arrangement was never 
accomplished ; and thereby a much more beautiful, as well as more healthful 
location was secured. In 1791, an act passed the legislature, granting to this 
institution the sum of £1,500, which led to the appointment of a committee "to 
negotiate with the agents of the Messrs. Penn, for a lot of ground in the borough 
of Carlisle to build a college house upon ; to prepare a plan for the building, to 
make an estimate of the expense, and to adopt such other measures as they 
shall deem expedient, to give effect to this resolution." In consequence, as is 
presumed, of the embarrassed state of the funds of the college, this subject was 
permitted to slumber in the hands of the committee, and no efficient measures 
were adopted in regard to it. In 1798, another committee was appointed "to 
report to the board, at their next meeting, a proper site for the proposed col- 
lege building, with a plan thereof, and an estimate of the probable expense." 
Meantime, another grant of $3,000 had been received from the legislature. 
This committee selected the spot now occupied by the college, which was 
approved by the trustees ; and arrangements were immediately made for build- 
ing. The college edifice was not however ready for use till the spring of 1802. 
The college seems not to have enjoyed at this time a degree of prosperity, 
equal to what might have been expected from the efforts of the trustees. The 
fact is alluded to in the minutes of the board, while the causes are generally 
left to be inferred. In 1801, there was no graduating class ; and in the minutes 
of the board, we find allusion made to " the great decrease in the number of 
students," and at another time, "the determination of the board" expressed, 
"to persist in the support of the college." The course of study, which had 
been adopted, up to this time, and even till the year 1814, occupied only three 
years — the classes being called Freshman, Junior, and Senior. The requisi- 
tions for admission, in the Latin and Greek languages, were nearly as exten- 
sive as at present. Nothing else, however, was required ; and the prosecution 
of these, with the study of arithmetic, occupied also the first year of the college 
course. The instruction was principally given by lectures, in the departments 
which would admit of them, as we learn from repeated resolutions of the board, 
in which they recommend both to the principal and professors more frequent 
exercises in private recitation and examination of the classes. It might be 
interesting to inquire, how far this, with the labor of writing out the lectures of 
the principal, which was at this time practised, together with the almost exclu- 
sive attention given to the Latin and Greek languages, to the neglect of the 

VOL. IX. 16 


more practical branches of learning, contributed to reduce the institution to the 
state in which we now find it. 

Scarcely had the operations of the college commenced in the new building, 
which " had been erected by the trustees, at an expense of many thousand dol- 
lars, for the accommodation of the classes," and which, indeed, was not yet 
entirely finished, when it was destroyed by fire. This event, in the existing 
state of the college, would have discouraged any but a very energetic board of 
trustees; especially as the funds of the college were in a depressed state. But 
we find that a special meeting of the board was immediately called, to adopt 
measures for rebuilding. This they did, in the appointment of a committee, to 
procure materials for a new edifice; and in appointing agents to receive sub- 
scriptions for the purpose. Before its completion, however, the institution was 
called to experience another loss, in the death of Dr. Nisbet, who had presided 
with so much talent over its operations, from their commencement.' 34 ' The office 
of principal being thus vacated, the Rev. Dr. Davidson, who had been con- 
nected with the college in some of the departments the greater part of the time 
since its operations commenced, was a second time called to superintend its 
affairs, as president pro tempore. This office he filled for more than five years ; 
and on his resignation, the manner in which he had discharged its duties was 
honorably referred to in a resolution of the board. The new building was 
ready for use in September, 1805, though it was not at this time fitted up for 
the occupancy of students. It contained suitable rooms for the library and 
apparatus, as also for lecture rooms. Further than this, it was left unfinished, 
and the students lodged in the town as before. They were, however, few in 
number, and the graduating classes were but small. The only circumstance 
which occurred during Dr. Davidson's superintendency, particularly affecting 
the interests of the college, was a grant from the legislature, early in 180G, of 
$4,000, of which sum, $500 was, by the trustees, appropriated to the purchase 
of philosophical apparatus. 

On the 14th of February, 1808, died the Hon. John Dickinson, who has 
already been named as the founder of the college. He had generously bestowed 
both land and money for its support, and retained his place, as president of the 
board of trustees, till the time of his death, f This office the Rev. Dr. John 
King, who had also been a member of the board from its first organization, was 
now called to fill, by the unanimous vote of that body. 

On the 29th of September, 1808, pursuant to resolution, the board proceeded 
to the election of a principal ; and the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, of New York, 
was chosen, but did not accept the appointment. A second election, held on 
the 29th of the following June, resulted in the choice of the Rev. Jeremiah 
Atwater, D. D., president of Middlebury College, Vt. He arrived at Carlisle 
in season to be present at the public commencement, held on the 2Cth of Sep- 
tember, 1809, when he delivered his inaugural address, and entered on the 

* Dr. Charles Nisbet received his education at the University of Edinburgh, and subsequently was 
settled as a pastor over a large church in Montrose, from which place ho was called lo the charge of Dick- 
inson college, lie was a man of vast acquirements, and of that practical turn of mind, that enabled him 
to turn them all to account. The facility with which he acquired a knowledge of any language, or other 
branch of learning, was truly astonishing; and what he learned he never forgot. Thus, in addition to his 
other attainments, he was intimately conversant with all the languages necessary to a critical knowledge 
of the ancient authors, sacred and profane ; and had such an acquaintance with the French, Italian, Ger- 
man. Low Dutch, and Spanish, as to give him ready access to all the celebrated works it) these modern 
tongues. To the most profound learning and extensive reading, he added a lively imagination, keen wit, 
and fluent diction, which made him one of the most entertaining and agreeable companions, as well as 
one of the most interesting correspondents. After a short illness, arising from a violent pulmonary attack, 
he died in peace, at his residence in Carlisle, on the 14th of February, 1804, aged G3 years. 

f John Dickinson was born in Maryland on the 2d of November. O. S., in the year 1732. The late Chan- 
cellor Killen, of Delaware, then a young man, was one of his early tutors ; and he studied law under John 
Molanrl, Esq , of Philadelphia. He first entered upon public life in the year 1764, as a member of the 
Assembly of Pennsylvania; and in 1765, be was appointed a delegate to the general congress, which as- 
sembled at New York. After taking a very active part in the public measures, which followed the meet- 
ing of this body, ho took his seat in congress, as a deputy from Pennsylvania in 1774, where he remained, 
excepting about two years, till 1780. In 1782, he was elected president of the supreme executive council 
of Pennsylvania, which office he continued to fill till October, 1785. In 1787, he met the convention, as a 
delegate from Delaware, for forming a constitution for the United States; and in 1792, was a member of 
the convention which finned a constitution for that State. As the author of the " Farmer's Letters," 
of the Petition to the King, of the Declaration of Congress of July 6, 1775, and many other choice pro- 
ductions as well as by bis inflexible political integrity, and devotion to the cause of human happiness, 
he holds a conspicuous place even among the illustrious men of the age in which ho lived. 


duties of his office. James McCorrnick was at this time professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy, and Henry 11. Wilson, of the Greek and Latin 
languages. Liberal appropriations were now made to complete the philo- 
sophical apparatus, and valuable additions were made to the library of the col- 
lege. A department of chemistry and mineralogy, as also of modern languages, 
was established ; and the board of instruction was increased by a professor of 
chemistry and mineralogy, a professor of Greek and belles-lettres, and two 
tutors. The college edifice was also separated into apartments for the occu- 
pancy of the students, and they were now, for the first time, collected into a 
building by themselves. Measures were also taken to regulate the price of 
board in the town, and to reduce the expenditures of the students. By such 
measures the confidence of the public was secured, and the number of students 
increased, so that the graduating class of 3812 was the largest which had left 
the college for twenty years. The Bachelor's degree was this year conferred 
on twenty-six; the next year on fifteen, and in 1814, on twenty-three; on 
which year, likewise, the course of study was extended, so as to embrace a 
period of four years. 

Meantime, difficulties had arisen in the administration of the government ; 
and the practice, which in other institutions as well as in this has proved so 
detrimental to their best interests, had here crept in ; to wit, the constant inter- 
ference, on the part of the trustees, with the internal affairs of the college. 
This doubtless had its origin in a defect of the charter, which, however, was 
never supplied till the year 1834. By the original charter, the faculty had the 
power of enforcing the rules and regulations adopted by the trustees for the 
government of the students, only " by rewarding or censuring them, and finally 
by suspending such of them, as, after repeated admonitions, shall continue diso- 
bedient and refractory, until the determination of a quorum of trustees can be 
had ;" while at the same time they had no representation in the board of trus- 
tees. To such an extent had the internal government of the college fallen into 
the hands of the trustees, under the action of this provision, that on the 12th of 
June, 1815, we find the following entry on their records ; — " Resolved, that the 
principal and each of the professors be required to report on the Saturday of 
every week, in writing, to the Secretary of the board of trustees, for the inspec- 
tion of the board, (by causing the same to be personally delivered, or left at his 
house,) all delinquents or absentees, not satisfactorily accounted for to the prin- 
cipal or professor in whose class the delinquency takes place ; and in case the 
delinquent has been proceeded against before the faculty, to report the judg- 
ment of the faculty thereon, and how far the sentence has been enforced." 

This act of the board was followed, within about three months, by the resig- 
nation of Dr. Atwater, and of professors Shaw and Cooper, the only professors 
then in the college. Mr. Eugene Nulty, who had been the teacher of mathe- 
matics in the college for the past year, and who has since so greatly distin- 
guished himself in that department of science, was now raised to the rank of 
professor ; and the Rev. Dr. John McKnight was appointed to discharge the 
duties of principal, and Mr. Gerard E. Slack, of professor of languages, pro tem- 
pore. Under this organization, the operations of the college were continued 
one year after the resignation of Dr. Atwater, and closed with conferring 
degrees on six young men, comprising the Senior class, September 26, 1816. 

One or two reminiscences connected with the period, the history of which 
has just been given, it may be worth while to preserve. — Immediately after the 
examination of the Senior class of 1814, an alarm was given, that Philadelphia 
was in danger from an invasion of the English troops, when several of the can- 
didates for graduation, to the number of seven, offered themselves as volunteers 
for the public defence. Their term of service not having expired, when the 
degrees were conferred on the rest of the class, they were permitted to receive 
them out of the usual order. — Another incident of a more painful character is 
the fall of a member of the Junior class in a duel with one of his fellows, in 
December, 1815. tie is said to have been a worthy young man and the only 
son of highly respectable parents. Five other students were so deeply involved 
in the affair, that they immediately absconded, and never again returned to the 


The available funds of the institution were now expended ; and loans to meet 
some of the most pressing demands against the trustees were obtained on a 
mortgage of the real estate belonging to the college. Under these circum- 
stances, subscriptions in aid of the college were opened, and petitions were 
sent up to the legislature for assistance, and for a permanent endowment of the 
college. On the 14th of December, 1816, the following resolution passed the 
board ; — "Resolved, that a petition and memorial be presented to the legisla- 
ture, stating the causes of the suspension of the collegiate courses of this col- 
lege ; and praying them to propose such modification of the charter as they 
may think most effectual to promote its interests ; and to take the college imme- 
diately under the protection, patronage, and government of the State." This 
petition was not granted ; and thus the results of a modification of the charter, 
in conformity with the views of a State legislature, and of placing the college 
under the immediate guardianship of the State, were reserved to be exhibited 
ten years after. There was consequently a recess in the operations of the 
college, till near the close of the year 1821. Funds were then obtained for 
putting it again in action, by an arrangement entered into between the trustees 
and the legislature of the State ; in which the trustees proposed to convey to 
the State, in exchange for ready funds, such of the lands which had been 
granted to the institution in 1786, as had not been disposed of, and the secu- 
rities which had been received for the remainder. This proposition of the trus- 
tees was acceded to, and they received in exchange for these, by an act of 
February 20, 1821, $6,000 in hand, and $10,000 to be received in five annual 

After appropriating $4,000 to the payment of the debts of the institution, 
and $2,000 to repairing and finishing the college building, the trustees pro- 
ceeded to organize a faculty — relying for their support on the annuity of the 
State, and the proceeds of the recent subscriptions. A narrative of the pro- 
ceedings of the trustees, published by them in 1830, referring to this period in 
the history of the college, says; — "A faculty consisting of a principal and three 
professors was organized, and a preparatory school established. In organizing 
this faculty, the board proceeded on the following principles. They thought, 
that by employing gentlemen of acknowledged talents, reputation, and erudi- 
tion, and by securing their services exclusively to the college, its interests, and 
those of literature and science in general, would be most effectually advanced. 
This required liberal salaries, and it was agreed that such should be given ; the 
principal's being put at £2,000, one of the professor's at $1,250, and the other 
two at $1,000 each." The first two efforts to obtain a principal proved unsuc- 
cessful, — the Rev. Dr. J. P. Wilson, of Philadelphia, and the Rev. Dr. J. B. 
Romeyn, of New York, having successively declined the appointment. The 
successful choice fell on the Rev. John M. Mason, D. D., also of New York. 
He was an alumnus of Columbia college, in which institution he had also for a 
number of years filled the office of provost. The professorships were soon 
filled by accomplished men, the salaries being much more liberal than ever 
before, and even higher than they were at first fixed. One received $1,500, 
another $1,200, and the third $1,000. The president and professors were 
inducted into office on the 15th of January, 1822; the college classes having 
been formed a short time previous. The number of students almost immedi- 
ately became very respectable ; and the numbers in the graduating classes 
indicate a good degree of prosperity. The class of 1823 consisted of nineteen, 
and that of 1824, of twenty-four students ; from which time the two or three 
next classes were smaller. 

This temporary diminution in the number of students is accounted for by the 
trustees, in the narrative before referred to, in the following manner. Some 
whispers had got abroad, that the influence of the college was made to subserve 
political purposes. " From suspicions thus excited, that the college and its 
board of trustees might acquire an influence favorable to the advancement of 
their political schemes, if they had any, and thus deprive it of legislative 
bounty ; and from the severe afflictions which befell the very learned and justly 
admired principal, disqualifying him for the discharge of his duty towards the 
college, it was apprehended by some parents, that at the end of five years, 


when the State's installments on the sale of the public lands should cease, the 
institution would not be able to support itself, and must sink. Parents were 
deterred from sending their sons to Dickinson college, through the fear that 
they would have to send them elsewhere, before the expiration of their course. 
Not a few of the students themselves became uneasy, through such anticipa- 
tions. The consequence was, that the number of students began to diminish, 
and the institution was evidently on the wane, as the period arrived at which 
the State's installments were to cease." At the time, however, at which we 
have arrived in tracing the history of the college, May 1, 1824, Dr. Mason 
resigned the presidency of the college, which was immediately offered to the 
Rev. Alexander McClelland, then professor of belles-lettres and mental philoso- 
phy, afterwards of rhetoric and moral philosophy. This honor he declined ; and 
the trustees proceeded to the election of the Rev. William Neill, D. D., then of 
Philadelphia, who entered on his duties in the September following. Subscrip- 
tions were again opened and circulated, " with reference to the endowment of 
professorships, adding to the library and apparatus, and erecting additional 
buildings." Indeed, the erection of additional buildings now began to be con- 
sidered as necessary ; and the subject was almost constantly before the board, 
till the operations of the college closed in 1832. But at no time were the funds 
of the institution deemed in a state to authorize it. During the next year, a 
committee was appointed, to draft and present a memorial to the legislature, 
praying for aid to the college ; and this committee was "vested with general 
powers to pursue any course they might deem necessary, to advance the inter- 
ests of the institution." This application to the legislature resulted in a law, 
which was passed on the 13th of February, 1826, granting an annuity of $3,000 
for seven years, provided, as the condition of its going into effect, that the board 
of trustees should accede to certain changes in the charter of the college. 
The two most important provisions of the law making this appropriation, were, 
" That not more than one third of the trustees shall at any time be clergymen," 
and " That the trustees shall exhibit, annually, during the seven years, to the 
legislature, a statement of the financial situation of the college." The embar- 
rassments, therefore, which had arisen out of the decayed health of Dr. Mason, 
and of the presumed reluctance of the legislature, to aid the college, were now 

Difficulties about this time arose, as we learn from the published statement 
of the trustees, before referred to, in the administration of the government of 
the college. Disorder and insubordination were exhibited on an extended 
scale ; while the power necessary to restore order and compel obedience to the 
laws, was by the charter divided between the faculty and the board. Conflict- 
ing opinions brought these two bodies too frequently into collision with each 
other ; and the harmony of feeling and of action, called for by the existing state 
of things, was thus broken up. Meantime, an investigation of the doings of the 
trustees was entered into by the senate of the State, on the vague charge of 
sectarianism, and the undue influence of political feeling; which, though it 
resulted in acquitting them of the charge, yet did not entirely remove the 
unpleasant feelings which gave rise to it, and which it had in its turn tended in 
some respects to produce. This investigation took place in December, 1827. 

On the 1st of August, 1829, a committee was appointed "to inquire into 
the expediency of reducing the salaries of the members of the faculty." This 
committee reported in favor of the measure; and on the 18th of September, a 
reduction was commenced, which resulted in fixing the salary of the principal 
at $1,200, that of the professor of languages at $1,000, of the professor of math- 
ematics at $800, and of the professor of chemistry at $600, with an understand- 
ing, that when the number of students should increase to seventy-five, $200 
should be added to each of the last two. This graduation took place on the 
30th of March, 1830. Meantime, Dr. Neill and all his associates had resigned; 
the resignation of the principal having been handed in on the 13th of August, 
and subsequently that of the four professors. Efforts were immediately made 
to obtain a successor to Dr. Neill, and the choice of the board fell successively 
on the Rev. Alexander McClelland, who had filled the belles-lettres chair from 
the opening of the college in 1821, the Rev. Philip Lindsley, D. D., president 


of the University of Nashville, Tenn., and on the Rev. Dr. Beman, of Troy, 
N. Y., all of whom declined the appointment. On the 21st of January, 1830, 
the Rev. Samuel B. How, D. D., of New Jersey, was elected, and was formally 
inducted into office on the 30th of March. The chairs of mathematics, of the 
ancient languages, and of chemistry, were also filled, and the incumbents sever- 
ally took the oath of office on the 26th of May. Between the time of the resig- 
nation of the old faculty, and the organization of the new, the duties of princi- 
pal were discharged, so far as the duties of such an officer were called for, by 
the Rev. Joseph Spencer, who had been professor of languages from the year 
1822, and who had during the same time officiated as clergyman in the Episco- 
pal church in the town. 

Thus a faculty was again brought together, as the result of a determined 
effort on the part of the trustees to sustain the college ; and this effort for a 
time seemed to promise success. A new course of study was made out ; and a 
code of statutes adopted for the regulation and discipline of the college, more 
full and perfect than had ever before been published. It was during this year, 
that the trustees, by committee, prepared and published " a statement, setting 
forth the history of the college from the organization of the faculty in 1821, to 
the organization of the new faculty, in 1830." The narrative thus furnished 
has been before referred to ; and was expressly designed to exculpate the board 
from various charges which had been alleged against them, in connection with 
the circumstances which immediately preceded and accompanied the investiga- 
tion by the legislature. A quotation from the closing part of this pamphlet will 
exhibit the circumstances under which Dr. How took charge of the college, and 
the high hopes at that time entertained by the trustees, of the success of their 
exertions. "The disappointments attending the efforts of the board to obtain a 
principal," says this narrative, "produced the impression on the students and 
public, that the institution must sink. At the time of Dr. How's acceptance of 
the office, but a very small number of students remained." " The institution, 
however," it continues, "has survived the opposition of its enemies; a faculty of 
superior talents and attainments has been organized ; public confidence is again 
returning ; a new and more salutary and efficient system of instruction and dis- 
cipline has been devised and adopted ; the annual expenditures have been 
reduced nearly one half; two professors are resident in the building; the stu- 
dents will be insulated from the place ; and the college recommences its opera- 
tions, with fairer prospects of success, than it has ever had." The general 
feeling that at this time existed towards the college, may likewise be inferred 
from a circular prepared by a committee of the Alumni Association of the col- 
lege, September 22, 1830, and addressed to the Alumni of Dickinson College 
throughout the Union ; in which information is given, " That the college has 
again commenced operations under auspices and prospects altogether flattering. 
Dr. How, the president, and the rest of the faculty, in their learning and other 
qualifications, and in their zeal for the mental, as well as the moral advance- 
ment of their pupils, have afforded the most gratifying earnest of their future 
eminence and distinguished usefulness." This communication closes with the 
remark, "That upon the whole, we feel amply warranted in tendering to the 
alumni generally, the assurance, that their alma mater possesses, at the present 
juncture, new and additional claims upon their patronage and encouragement." 

Difficulties, however, almost immediately arose. The resignation of the 
professor of chemistry soon took place, and a lecturer was appointed in his 
stead. This case seems to have suggested to some of the trustees, perhaps for 
the first time, the defects in the organization of the two boards ; and we find at 
the meeting of the trustees held on the 7th of March, the following resolution: 
" Resolved, that a committee be appointed to confer with the faculty on the 
expediency of applying to the next Legislature, so to amend the charter of the 
institution, that the principal of the college shall be ex officio, a member of the 
board of trustees ; and that the faculty shall have power to inflict all punish- 
ments which may be prescribed by the statutes of the college, provided that in 
case of expulsion, there may be an appeal to the board of trustees, on the appli- 
cation of the parent or guardian of the student expelled." This suggestion met 
the full approbation of the faculty ; and the principal, as appears by the report 


of the committee of conference, stated, "that every session afforded additional 
evidence of the necessity of making the alterations contemplated ; and that he 
was satisfied the amendments proposed were essential to the permanent pros- 
perity of tiie institution." A resolution was therefore reported in favor of an 
application to the legislature to alter and amend the charter of the college in 
these respects; but "the report and resolution were laid on the table for the 
present," and were never again called up. 

In 1880, a class of six had been graduated, and in 1831, a class of five, — 
the number of students in the college being but twenty-one. When the gradu- 
ating class of this year left the college, there were none to be advanced to the 
rank of seniors, while the number that entered freshmen was very small. 
Added to this, there remained to be paid but one of the State's installments, by 
which almost alone the institution had been for several years supported. 
Under these circumstances, the board passed a resolution on the 18th of Feb. 
1832, " inviting the principal of the college to meet the board, to consult with 
them on the subject of suspending the operations of the college." The prin- 
cipal having " expressed to the board his decided conviction, that it is impos- 
sible, under existing circumstances, that the institution can prosper," and having 
recommended the measure suggested by the trustees, the course was deter- 
mined on, and the operations of the college ceased on the 26th of March, 1832. 

On the 12th of March, 1833, a special meeting of the board was called, "to 
consider a letter which had been received by the president, from the Rev. 
Edwin Dorsey, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, stating that the Baltimore 
Annual Conference had appointed a committee to take into consideration the 
propriety of establishing a college within its boundaries, and asking whether 
Dickinson College could be obtained for that purpose, and on what conditions." 
The idea, thus suggested, of resuscitating the college under the auspices of a 
new board was favorably received ; and a general meeting of the trustees was 
called, to be held on the 18th of April, to consider the subject further. A 
committee of the conference met the board at this time, and, by presenting the 
doings of the body which they represented, relating to this matter, showed that 
every thing had been done on their part, necessary to the full execution of the 
proposed arrangement. A committee of the board, after conferring further with 
this committee, made a report favorable to the measure. In this report is 
expressed " the decided conviction, that any effort, within the power of the 
existing board of trustees, to resuscitate the college, would prove utterly una- 
vailing. This inability," the report goes on to say, "effectually and directly to 
act for the promotion of the original design of the founders of the college, 
would naturally induce a desire on the part of every friend of literature and 
science, to adopt any proper expedient by which the same end may be attained." 
The objects proposed by the cuntemplated arrangement, were thought to be in 
perfect accordance with the design and spirit of the charter ; and the ability of 
the conference to carry the design into effect, was inferred from the conditional 
pledge given in one of their resolutions, "to the establishment and support of a 
college," and from " the exertions now making by the Methodist Episcopal 
church, in the cause of science, and the zeal which they have already evinced in 
the subject:" together with the general remark, "that those colleges in the 
United States, which have been conducted by, or under the patronage of, some 
prominent Christian sect, have been more flourishing in their operations, and 
useful in their influence, than others that have not had these advantages." 
From these and other considerations, it was determined that the college edifice, 
and all its appurtenances, should be placed under the control of the Baltimore 
Annual Conference ; and the mode selected for doing this, was that of substi- 
tuting other trustees, to be named by the Conference, in place of those who 
then filled the board, and who were recommended to resign their places, as the 
new members might be elected. 

This arrangement was entered into with the most perfect harmony of feeling ; 
and in a spirit which indicated that all concerned had in view the public good 
alone. This meeting of the board was adjourned to the 6th of June ; and in 
the interim, the Philadelphia Conference became associated with the Baltimore 
in this enterprise. This union of the conferences was recognized by the board ; 


and an election was made of such trustees as the conferences had named, to fill 
the places of such as had resigned. Eighteen were now elected ; and the late 
Rev. Bishop Emory was appointed to preside over the deliberations of the board, 
whose new organization may from this time be considered as complete, though 
the seats of all the old members were not vacated for about a year. 

In entering on the discharge of the duties of their trust, the newly organized 
board had of course to assume all the embarrassments arising from the past 
misfortunes of the college, as well as some trifling pecuniary responsibilities. 
For these, however, they considered that they received more than an equivalent, 
in the college edifice, libraries, apparatus, and mineralogical cabinet ; especially 
as these were accompanied with a little bank stock, and a claim on the State 
for the last installment arising from the act of Feb. 13, 1826, which were found 
sufficient for the payment of the debts of the institution, and to aid considerably 
in the repairs on the building and in the improvement of the grounds. The 
property of the institution therefore, at this time, consisted entirely in real 
estate, valuable only when considered as permanent fixtures. The obtaining of 
funds was consequently the first thing that occupied the special attention, both 
of the conferences and of the board. With reference to this object, an address 
was made by the trustees to the public ; and agents were appointed by the two 
conferences, to solicit subscriptions in aid of the college. By the recommenda- 
tion of the conferences, the trustees determined, that the college should not be 
opened till the sum of $45,000 should be secured for its support; yet at the 
same meeting at which the board was organized, they went into the election of 
a principal, to assure the public of their expectation soon to be able to open the 
college, and also to ensure the influence and services of their principal, in aid 
of the college, previously to its opening. The Rev. John P. Durbin, A. M. then 
of New York, was unanimously elected to this office, the acceptance of which 
he signified at the next meeting of the board, in September. At this meeting, 
a department of law was established, and placed under the care of the Hon. 
Judge Reed — the duties to be discharged for the fees obtained from the classes, 
without any salary from the funds of the college. The studies peculiarly 
belonging to the college course, were divided into six departments, two of 
which were filled prospectively — the others remaining to be 'filled, as the wants 
of the college might demand. The grammar school, the studies of which were 
principally designed as preparatory for admission to the college, was also at this 
time regularly organized. That this might be an efficient department, it was 
determined that the principal of this school should be a member of the faculty ; 
and that the school should be under the joint control of the principal, and the 
president of the college. It was commenced under the care of Mr. Alexander 
F. Dobb, in one of the lecture rooms of the college ; and though small at first, 
at the close of one year it numbered fifty. 

Through the agency of a committee appointed by the board in September, an 
act was passed by the next legislature, making certain changes in the provis- 
ions of the original charter, among which, those making the principal ex officio 
president of the board, and vesting the government of the college more exclu- 
sively in the faculty, were the most important. At the next meeting of the 
board, held on the 9th of May, 1834, it appeared that the sum of $48,000 had 
already been obtained, on subscription, for the college ; and it was therefore 
resolved, that the college should be open for the reception of students on the 
10th day of the next September; and the principal and professors elect were 
notified accordingly. Thus, under an amended charter, funds having been 
secured to the full amount previously determined on, the college grounds 
having been greatly improved, and the building itself repaired — the trustees 
and faculty met at Carlisle on the day appointed. On this day, the principal 
and two professors were regularly inducted into office ; and thus, after a recess 
of two and a half years, during which time the libraries, cabinet of curiosities, 
and apparatus, had suffered much for want of careful superintendence, the 
operations of the college were commenced, by the admission of twenty students 
to the college classes ; — the pupils of the grammar school at the same time 
increasing in number to seventy. 

The building which was erected in 1804, and which is now entirely occupied, 


is of stone, 150 feet long, by 45 broad. This contains a capacious hall and 
gallery, fitted up as a chapel ; the college and society libraries; the mineralog- 
ical cabinet; four large lecture rooms; two halls for the societies, and eighteen 
rooms occupied by the students and professors ; besides a fine laboratory in the 
basement, as well as a commodious dining rootn and other apartments for a 
steward. A building of brick, was the last year purchased, on the opposite side 
from the college-campus, in which the grammar school is kept, and which fur- 
nishes ample accommodations. Also, a new college edifice of stone is erecting 
on the college square, — 130 feet long, by 42 broad, four stories high ; to contain 
three lecture rooms, and rooms for the occupancy of 84 students; — one end of 
the same being designed as a house for the president, and the basement of the 
other part, for the use of another steward. A part of this building is now ready 
for the occupancy of students ; and it is to be completed early next spring. 

It will be perceived, that the college, as now organized, is only in its forming 
state, having but just entered upon the third year of its operations. The num- 
ber of students, however, in the college, is 102, and in the grammar school 
130; and it is expected that a few more will yet be added to the classes this 
year. During the last year, the institution was visited with a very interesting 
work of grace, in which about forty individuals made a public profession of 
religion ; and about one fourth of the whole number at present connected with 
the college are professedly pious. The apparatus is as yet incomplete ; and the 
library of the college, which contains about 3,000 volumes, though valuable, is 
very deficient in modern works. The collection of minerals is extensive and 
choice. The conferences under whose patronage the college now is, have 
obtained subscriptions for its support, to the amount of about $80,000, of which 
$25,000 have been collected, or secured on bond. This fund is designed 
exclusively for the support of the professorships. For the erection of the new 
building, $10,000 have been obtained on loan, confidently relying on the Legis- 
lature of the State, which has hitherto been so liberal in the support of the 
college, still to furnish the funds necessary for erecting the permanent buildings. 
This the trustees have twice asked, and it is all they have asked ; but owing pro- 
bably to the peculiarly embarrassed state of the public treasury, it has as yet 
been withheld. The course of study at present pursued is ample, having been 
made out with reference to those of the leading JNew England colleges. At a 
suitable period in the course, each student has the privilege of attending a 
course of lectures by the professor of law, embracing the general principles of 
the law as a science, with the various modifications which the laws receive from 
the peculiar construction of political institutions ; a knowledge of which is so 
eminently useful to every American citizen, and so indispensable to every 
finished scholar. The text-books of the college, are in general the same with 
those used at Yale. 

The board of instruction, at present, consists of: 

The Rev. John P. Durbin, A. M. President and Professor of Moral Science. 
Merritt Caldwell, A.M. Professor of Mental Philosophy, Political Economy, 

and the Exact Sciences.* 
Robert Emory, A. M. Professor of Ancient Languages. 

The Rev. John McClintock, A. M. Adjunct Professor of the Exact Sciences. 
Wm. H. Allen, A. M. Lecturer on the Nat. Sciences, and Instruc. in Mod. Lang. 
Stephen A. Roszel, A. M. Principal of the Grammar School. 

Not Members of the Faculty. 

Hon. John Reed, Professor of Law. 

John L. Gary, A. M. First Assistant in the Grammar School. 

The Rev. John F. Hey, Second Assistant. 

The Rev. James Bunting, Third Assistant. 

* The union of the department of mathematics with that of mental and political science, is but a tem- 
porary arrangement, in consequence of the failure of the gentleman elected to that department in July 

VOL. IX. 17 





Complete List of the Students educated at Highbury College, from 
its foundation in 1783, to the present time. 

["We here insert a list of the students who have been educated at this institution, with the residence 
of those now living. It will be a convenient document for reference. Some extracts from the report of 
the Committee of Highbury College may be found in vol. viii. of this work, p. 361.] 

Highbury College, first instituted at Mile-End, in the year 1783, removed 
to Hoxton in 1791, and from thence to Highbury in 1826, has for its object, to 
bestow a liberal education, for the Christian ministry, on young men whose 
views of Christian doctrine and church order agree with those of Congregational 
churches in general. 

The management of the Institution is by a Committee, chosen from the 
Contributors, which meets on the second Friday of every month, or oftener, if 
necessary, and of which the Treasurer and Tutors are members ex officio. 

• Candidates must be single men, eighteen years of age and upwards, with such 
preparatory education in Latin as will enable them to read Virgil, and with 
some knowledge of Fractional Arithmetic and the Elements of Geography ; 
whose piety and ministerial talents are attested by the pastor and church to 
which they belong, or by some evidence satisfactory to the Committee. From 
themselves is required an account, in writing, of their religious experience, their 
doctrinal views, and their motives for desiring to enter the ministry. If their 
statement and testimonials be approved, they are subjected to an interview with 
the Committee, on whose recommendation they are admitted on a probation of 
three months. 

Applications in reply to printed queries are received at any monthly meeting. 
The time for admission is at the close of the Midsummer vacation. 

The Academical Session commences at the beginning of September, and 
closes at the end of June in every year. 

The course of education comprises the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and 
Syriac Languages ; the Belles Lettres ; Intellectual and Moral Philosophy ; the 
Elements of Mathematics ; Church History ; Biblical Criticism ; Composition of 
Sermons ; Theology, &c. 

After the first year, the Students have frequent opportunities of preaching, as 
occasional supplies to various congregations in the metropolis and its vicinity. 

Rev. Ebenkzer Henderson, Ph. D. 
Rev. Robert Halley. 

Thomas Wilson, Esq. Highbury Place. 


Mr. Samuel Plumbe, Congregational Library, 

Bloomfteld street, Finsbury. 

Mr. John Uudhall. 

The Tutors, Treasurer, and 
Rev. H. F. Burder, v. d 
Rev. J. Clayton, 
Rev. T. Lewis, 
Rev. \Vm. S. Palmer, 
Rev. II l.-s n v Townley, 
Mr. Thomas Bickham, 
Mr. Joseph Blower, 
Mr. John Cheap, 

Mr. Thos M. Coombs, 
Mr. Thomas Fisher, 
Mr. R. J. Kitchener, 
Mr. John R. Mills, 
Mr. Edward Hwaine, 
Mr. Joshua Wilson, 
Mr. Joseph Wontner. 

Stations of Ministers 

Educated under the Tuition of the 

Rev. Stephen Addington, d. d. Mile End. 


J. T. Barker, 
George Bullock, 
Joseph Milvvard, 
VV. Sodcole, 

Samuel Douglas, 
Thomas Gibbons, 

John Smith, 

William Bishop, 

P. S. Charrinr, 
Arch. Douglas, 
Bonj. Davillis, 

Thomas Gritton, 
Benj. Pine, 
W. Priestly, 
John Sibree, 

Deptford, dec. 
Wilbarston, dec. ! 

Mansfield, dec. 
Swanage, dec. 


Chelmsford, dec. 
Iloniton, dec. 


Wirksworth, dec. 
Gloucester, dec. 


Liverpool, dec. 
Topsham, dec. 


Keswick, dec. 
Duiford, dec. 
Fordingbridge, dec. 
Frame, dec. 






John Ball, 

London, dec. 

Josoph Berry, 


Anthony Kidd, 

Cotlingham, dec. 

Thomas Russell, a. m 



James Davison, 
E. A. Dunn, 

Exeter, (various.) 

John Godwin, 

Wolverhampton, dec. 

John Gray, 


Thomas Hopkins, 


Richard Simmons, 

J J as tings, dec. 

Henry Knight, 

Yclvertoft, dec. 



James Browno, 

North Walsham. 

B. Cracknell, d. d. 

Weymouth, doc. 

William Clayton, 

Mill Hill. 

Daniel Fleming, 

Bradford, dec. 

John Harris, 

St. Albania. 

Samuel Toir, 

Slebbing, dec. 

James Hatton, 

Sower by. 

John Jerard, 


James Prankard, 


Rev. Robert S 

impson, d. d. Tutor, Itoxton. 

Samuel Sleigh, 



Rev. R. Simpson, d 

. n. and Rev. J. Atkinso 

Arthur Bromiley, 

late at Needham Market. 


Charles Buck, 

London, dec. 

John Dennant, worth. 


Thomas Stollery, 

London, dec. 

Thomas Fisher, 

late at Harlston. 


Don. Morrison, 


George Payne, ll. d. 

Exeter, (Tutor.) 

Mic. Castleden, 

Woburn, Beds. 

Thomas Pmchback, 


William Gunn, 



Jos. Slatterie, 


Wm. Warlow, 

New Milford. 

George Brooks, 


H. F. Burder, d. d. 



John Clunie, ll. d. 

Manchester, (Tutor.) 

Wm. Hopkins, 

Tisbury, dec. 

William Dryland, 


Thomas Low, 


Josoph Fletcher, d. d. 

Stepney, London. 

Thomas Mark-, 

Weathersfield, dec. 

Richard Hartley, 


John Mann, 


AVilliam Hayward, 

Rendham, dec. 

John Hooper, a. m. 

London, dec. 


Thomas Humpage, 

Bristol, dec. 

George Collison, 

Hackney, (Tutor.) 

Robert Morrison, d. d. 

China, dec. 

John Mills, 

Terling, dec. 

Mark Robinson, 


John Gore, 

Stratford on Avon. 

Thomas Sleigh, 


James Spurgeon, 


William Judson, 
William Laxon, 
Dan. Tyreman, 
Eben. White, 


High Wycombe. 
Madagascar, dec. 
Chester, dec. 

Stephen Johnson, 
James Knight, 
John Leifchild, 
William Salt, 


Wickham Brook. 



Thomas Denny, 

Wareham, (various.) 

T. B. Browne, 

Buntingford, dec. 

David Smith, 


John Gleed, 

Lower Canada. 

Thomas Weaver, 


Joshua Harrison, 

Wooburn, Bucks, dec. 

William Jones, 


Rev. R. Simpson, 

d. p. and Rev. G. Collison, 

J. W. Percy, 



G. Redford, ll. d. 


Richard Slate, 




Charles Dewhirst, 

Bury St. Edmund's. 

George Betts, 

Foleshill. • 

Thomas Durant, 


John Burder, a. m. 


William Hordle, 


Thomas Heward, 


William Kent, 

Oravesend, dec. 

Benjamin Jeanes, 


William -Pod more, 


Thomas Scales, 


John Thornton, 


Thomas Stenner, 


John Vincent, 




Thomas Adkins, 


Ingram Cobbin, 


James Cope, 

West Cowes, (various. 

Richard Cope, ll. d. 


Thomas Dix, 


John Foxell, 


William Evenett, 


James Gawthom, 

a. Stoke Newington, dec. 
Nun Eaton. 

George Harris, 


William Harris, ll. 

John Hasloch, 

Kentish Town. 

Samuel Hartnell, 

E. H. May, 

Saratoga, N. America. 

John Hudson, 

West Bromwich. 

William S. Palmer, 


Richard Keynes, 


Stephen Percey, 


Thomas Spencer, 

Liverpool, dec. 


Joseph Turnbull, B. a. 

Brighton, (various.) 

Isaac Allen, 

Lynn, (ill health.) 

I. F. West, 


George Clayton, 


James Dawson, 


Rev. Robert Simpson 

, d. d.John Hooper, a. 

Samuel Hackett, 

Hampton, dec. 

and Henry Forster Burder, d. d. Tutors. 

J. H. Hopkins, 

Newport, Essex. 


Eph. Jackson, 

Torrington, dec. 

Joseph Johnson, 


Ed. Andrews, ll. d. 


John Mitchell, 


George Cave, 


John Philip, d. d. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

William Miles, 

Ford, near Dartmouth. 

John Richards, 

near Birmingham. 

R. S. M'All, LL. D. 


John Styles, d. d. 

late at Brixton. 

J. Sanderson, 

Sotith Petherton, dec. 




Robert Bolton, 
John Carter, 
William Gilson, 
Leman Hall, 
Walter Scott, 

William AVhillans, 
J. Whitehousc, 

W. P. Davis, 
James Hemsley, 
John Wills, 
John Bodington, 
Thomas Greenhall, 
R. W. Hamilton, 
John Bristow, 

Joseph France, a. m. 
John Ely, 
George Wright, 
John Petherick, 
Thomas Searle, 
John Blackburn, 
Robert Philip, 
John Morisoo, d. d. 

Samuel King, 
Mason Anderson, 
Henry Townley, 
Thomas James, 
Nathaniel Pugsley, 
John Hall, 
Joseph J. Freeman, 
James Stratton, 
William Urwick, d. d. 

David Davies, 
J. M. Clack, 
R. Fairbrother, 
R. W. Newland, 
Thomas Edkins, 
C. Townley, ll. n. 
George Flocker, 
J. W. May-hew, 
Samuel Bell, 

A. Bromiley, Jun. 
Samuel Spink, 
Edm. Jinkings, 
John Morris, 
John Alexander, 
Robert T. Hunt, 

Thomas Evans, 
James Davies, 
William Davis, 
William Holmes, 
Algernon Wells, 
William Lothian, 
Enoch Barling, 
George D. Mudie, 

John A. Coombs, 
Henry B. Jeula, 
Benjamin Byron, 
John Tennant, 
William Snell, 
Thomas Haynes, 
Thomas Stratten, 
Henry Bromley, 
James Monro, 
John Sibree, 
James MatheBon, d. d. 
William H. Cooper, 
Henry Welsford, 


Henley on Thames. 

Bradford, Yorkshire, 

Beer Alston. 
Dorking, dec. 


Wharton, dec. 



Ham, near Richmond. 



late at Totness. 

Stoney Stratford. 





Bath, dec. 

Church of England. 




Che sham. 





Church of England. 

Hastings, dec. 



Nails worth. 


Market Weighton. 




Leamington, dec. 







St. Andrew's, N. B. 

Buckingham, dec. 


18 If.. 



Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Wells, Norfolk, dec. 





Peterhead, N. B. 





John Griffin, 
William Low, 
John Forsaith, 
Matthew Jeula, 
John Davies, 
Richard Soper, 


Exeter, dec. 
Norwood, dec. 
late at Frame. 
Bury St. Edmund's. 

Rev. William Harris, ll. d. John Hooper, a. h. 
and Henry Forster Burder, d. d. Tutors. 


Melton Mowbray. 
Bradford, Wilts. 
Leominster, dec. 
Dorking, dec. 
Matlock, Bath. 
Wymondham, dec. 


N. America. 






Dublin, fill health.) 

Birmingham, (various.) 

Swan age. 



Hadham, Herts. 







Saffron Walden. 


Yardley, Hastings. 


Axminsfer, (various.) 
late at Halifax. 


James Roberts, 
William Gear, 
Josiah Redford, 
James Elborougb, 
John Pain, 
Alfred Dawson, 
William Temple, 
Rohert Littler, 
William Evans, 
John Wooldridge, 
John Anderson, 
John Tippetts, 
Peter Sibree, 

David A. Jones, 
Robert E. May, 
William Clulow, 
Charles Greenavvay, 
Robert Ashton, 
John Varty, 
George Shilling, 
Henry Pemhle, 
Robert Chamberlain, 
Thomas Hushes, 

William Foster, 
Alexander Stewart, 
John Roaf, 
Charles Williams, 
Obadiah Atkins, 
John Bunter, 

Robert Ainslie, 
John G. Hewlett, 
Luke Forster, 
Joseph Hague, 
Jesse Hopwood, 

Henry J. Bunn, 
John Harris, 
William Maiden, 
Henry Isaac Roper, 
John Hill, 
John Barling, 
William Powell, 
Thomas Wallace, 


Jame3 Robertson, a. m. 
Thomas C. Everett, 
H. J. Crump, 
James G. Miall, 
William E. Buck, 
Thomas B. Barker, 
William F. Bailey, 
Henry L. Adams, 
George Stevens, 
Thomas Harris, 
Richard Harris, 
Aaron Buzacott, 

Richard Fletcher, 
Charles Hickman, 
Luke Mali bows, 
William Roaf, 
Simon Binks, 
William Forster, 
John L. Duvies, 

Bethnal Green. 
Bristol, (ill health.) 
St. Neat's. 
Tollesbury, Essex. 
Tiverton, dec. 

Totton,near Southampton. 
South Sea Mission, 

late at Soham. 
South America, dec. 
Bristol, dec. 
St. Heller's, Jersey. 
Edmonton, dec. 




John Watson, 
William Whoeler, 
Robert Ray ley, 
Henry Cresswell, 
Barzillai (luaife, 
Samuel Bellamy, 

John Rennie, a. m. 
Alfred Pope, 
William Legg9, 
Cuthbert R. Blacket, 
James Griffin, 
David Blow, 
William P. Bourne, 
Joseph Wall, 

late at Cork. 
Wells, Somerset. 
Chelwood, near Bristol. 


Inch, near Huntley. 







Mlddleton.near Bakewell. 


Rev. W. Harris, ll.d. H. F. Burder, d. d. and 

R. Halley, Tutors. 


Henry Winzar, 

Edmund T. Prust, 
Henry Rogers, 
George Taylor, 
John Kelsey, 
Henry Edwards, 
Ebenezer Prout, 
Jonathan Glyde, 
Samuel B. Bergne, 
Benjamin Johnson, 
Thomas Cousins, 
John Bramall, 
William Ford, 
John Titley, 

Alexander C. Reid, 
Patrick Thompson, a 
William Woodward, 
James Gallaway, 
William H. Drew, 
John Hoxley, 
James Sibree, 
John Raven, 
Samuel Davis, 
John Whitby, 
John Harrison, 
James Savage, 

Frederick Miller, 
Benjamin Slight, 
John Stnughton, 
William Tarbotton, 

William Campbell, . 
George Legge, a. m. 
Charles Price, 

William J. Unwin, 
John Pulling, 
John Button, 
Thomas Rees, 
James Loxton, 

Rozton Park, Bedford- 
Long Sutton. 

Exeter, (Tutor.) 
Mr es ford. 


Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 
i. Chatham. 
West Bromwich. 
Needham Market. 

Stretton under Fosse. 
Ilkeston, near Nottingham. 


Hobart Town. 
Tunbridge W p lls. 




Port Stephen's, N. S. 

South Seas, dec. 

Rev. Ebenezer Henderson, Ph. D. and Robert 
Halley, Tutors. 


Samuel Luke, 
David Thomas, b. a. 
James Hamer, 
John Flower, 
Thomas Atkins, 
Henry Richard, 

James Penman, 
Joseph Gibb, 



Sutton Valence. 




Samuel Dyall, 
John Lnyho, 
Adam S. Niven, 
William Bevan, 
John Taylor, 
John Theodore Barker, 
Charles Fox Vardy, 
Charles B. Gibson, 
Isaac Watts, 
Joseph Sherrin, 
Stephen Martin, 
Jacob Roberts, 

John Crombie Brown, 
John Obery, 

Henry Rees. 

Richard Connebee, 
George J. Pillgrem, 
Richard Gould, 
Robert Goshawk, 
Matthew Poole, 
Percy Strutt, 
Frederick Neller. 


Joseph Augustus M 
Morgan Lloyd, 
James T. Pattison, 
John H. Godwin, 

Stanford Rivera. 


Chatham, dec. 



Wells, Norfolk. 






Heme Bay. 



Glasgow University. 


Julius Mark, 
Thomas James. 

William Smith, 
Alexander Smith, 
William Skae, 
William Wright, 
Jonah Reeve, 
David Hewitt, 
John S. Pear3all, 
Edward Jukes, 
Robert Hamilton, 
John Bright, 
iller, Thomas Mann, 
Joseph Field, 
George J. Tuhbs, 
Thomas Aveling. 

There are in addition to the above, fourteen 
Candidates for admission. 

Missionary Student. 
John Cox. 




Rev. G. Wardlaw, a. m., Theological Tutor. 
Mr. D. B. Hay ward, Classical Tutor. 

Mr. George Hadfield. 
Rev. J. Cltjnie, ll. d. 
General Committee. 
Rev. T. Raffles, ll. d. Mr. J. Eccles, 
Rev. R. S. M'All, ll. d. Mr. S. Fletcher, 
Rev. J. A. Coombs, Mr. T. Harbottle, 

Rev. R. Fletcher, Mr. O. Heyworth, 

Rev. J. Kelly, Mr. R. Roberts, 

Rev. J. J. Carruthers, 
Mr. T. Blackburn, 
Mr. E. Dawson, 
Mr. B. Eccles, 

Examining Committee. 
Rev. T. Raffles, ll. d. Rev. W. Jones, 
Rev. R. S. M'All, ll. d. 
Rev. J. Cltjnie, ll.d. 
Rev. S. Bell, 
Rev. D. T. Carnson, 
Rev. J. A. Coombs, 
Rev. S. Ellis, 
Rev. J. Griffin, 
Rev. J. Gwyther, 
Rev. J. Hague, 

Mr. W. Kay, 

Mr. J. Priestly, 
Mr. L. Williams. 

Rev. S. Nichols, 
Rev. T. Parry, 
Rev. R. Slate, 
Rev. G.Taylor, 
Dr. Bell, 
Dr. J. P. Kay, 
Mr. E. Dawson, 
Mr. W. Howle. 


schlegel's philosophy. 


List of Ministers and Students. 
Da%-id T. Carnson, Preston. 
William Hurdekin. 

Richard Robinson, Witham, Essex. 
W. H. Stowell, Theol. Tutor of Rolher- 
ham College. 

Robert Elliott. 
John Wyld, 
James Gwyther, 

Richard Jones, 
William Williams, 

Burton-on-Tr ent. 


dec. . 


John Jeffreys, 

William Raine, 
William Wild, 


(late MissUj to Madagas- 
car,) dec. 
Market Harborough. 

Francis Evans, 

William Willitts, 
Robert Roberts, 


Richmond, Yorkshire. 
Bootle, Cumberland. 



Henry Birch. 


Samuel Barton Schofield, Burslem, Staffordshire. 

John Thorpe, 
John Smith, 

Madras, (Missionary.) 

Robert Thomson, 


Staindrop, Durham. 



James Kennedy, 
Henry Hope Leigh, 
John Cook, 




Samuel Jones, 
Daniel Kenyon, 

Lane Ends, Staffordshire 
Berbice, (Missionary.) 



Daniel B. Hayward, 
James Dean, 
Charles Bassano, 

Classical Tut. of this Acad. 




Tobias Carlile, 
Thomas Newnes, 


John Brown, 

Robert Wolstenholme. 

David Moses, 
John Murdock, 

Twyford, Berks. 


Wm. Murphy O'Hanlan, John Baker, 
John Morris, James Devine. 

Edward Edwards, 
William Lyhall, 


George Rees. 



The Philosophy of History ; in a Course of Lectures delivered at Vienna, 
by Frederick Von Schlegel, translated from the German, with a 
Memoir of the author, by James Burton Robertson, Esq. In two vols. 
London : Saunders & Otley. 1835. pp. 454, 336. 

The character of these volumes may be inferred, in some respects, from 
incidents in the life of the author. Frederick Von Schlegel was born at 
Hanover in 1772. Though destined for commerce, he received a classical 
education ; and, in his sixteenth year, prevailed on his father to allow him 
to devote himself to the belles-lettres. After completing his academical 
course at Goltingen and Leipzig, he rejoined his brother William, and 
became associated with him in his literary labors. " In my first youth," 
says he, " from the age of seventeen and upwards, the writings of Plato, 
the Greek tragedians, and Winkelmann's enthusiastic works, formed the 
intellectual world in which I lived." He commenced his literary career 
in 1794, with a short essay on the different schools of Greek poetry. Two 
treatises were composed in 1795 and 1796; one entitled " Dotima," and 
which treats of the condition of the female sex in Greece ; the other a 
parallel between Caesar and Alexander, in which he examines their re- 
spective merits as men, as generals, and as statesmen. In 1797, he 
published his first important work, entitled, " the Greeks and the Ro- 
mans." This was followed, two or three years after, by the " History of 

1836.] sciilegel's philosophy. 135 

Greek Poetry." In the new edition of Schlegel's works, these productions 
have been incorporated together. It was his intention to have given a 
complete history of Greek poetry, but the execution of this task was 
abandoned from some circumstances which were then occurring in the 
world of letters. The literary skepticism of Wolf was ably contesting the 
purity of the Homeric text, and the unity and integrity of the Homeric 
poems themselves. Schlegel deemed it a hazardous task to attempt to draw 
public attention to any aesthetic inquiries on the elder Greek poetry. 

In 1802, he repaired to Paris, which had long been celebrated for her 
professors in the eastern tongues, and for her national library, invaluable 
to the oriental scholar. Here, by the assistance of de Langles and Chezy, 
he made considerable progress in the study of Persian and Sanscrit litera- 
ture. In the mean time, he studied the Provenoal poetry, undertook 
researches into the history of the middle ages, lectured in metaphysics in 
the French language, and wrote a series of articles on the early Italian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, and Provengal poetry. He also addressed to a friend 
in Germany, a series of letters on the different schools and epochs of 
Christian painting. 

On his return from France, in the year 1805, Schlegel was received 
into the bosom of the Catholic church. The motives, which led to this 
extraordinary step, will, perhaps, never be fully known. Probably, it was 
in part owing to the character of his mind. In the cherished unity and 
universality of the Romish faith, there may have been something con- 
genial to his modes of thinking on literary subjects. The opposition 
which he experienced from some Protestants in Germany, particularly 
those of the Rationalist school, was not without effect. He might also 
have hoped to awake a new literary energy in the dormant Catholic mind 
of Europe. The Catholics hailed his accession to their ranks with great 
enthusiasm. After several years spent in the study of Sanscrit literature, 
Schlegel, in 1808, published his celebrated work, entitled the " Language 
and Wisdom of the Indians." The first part is occupied with a compara- 
tive examination of the etymology and grammatical structure of the 
Sanscrit, Persian, Greek, Roman, and German languages ; the second part 
treats of the filiation and connection of the different religious and philo- 
sophical systems that prevailed in the ancient, oriental world ; and the 
last consists of metrical versions from the sacred and didactic poems of the 

In 181-0, Schlegel delivered at Vienna, a course of lectures on " Mo- 
dern History." These lectures were published in two volumes, 8vo., but 
they have long been out of print. Previously, he had edited in conjunc- 
tion with Tieck, Novalis, and his brother, a literary journal, called the 
" Athenaeum ; " and afterwards successively conducted political and 
philosophical journals, such as the " Europa," the "German Museum," 
the "Concordia;" also liberally contributing to the "Vienna Quar- 
terly Review." He, at the same time, published various fugitive pieces in 
prose and poetry. 

In the spring of 1812, Schlegel delivered before a numerous audience 
in Vienna, his lectures on Ancient and Modern Literature. This may, 
perhaps, be regarded as his great work. An English translation appeared 
in 1818. For a number of years, subsequently to 1808, he was employed 
in editing the Austrian Observer, as Secretary to the Archduke Charles, 
and in diplomatic missions under the auspices of Metternich. He finally 
received a pension, letters of nobility, and the office of Aulic counsellor. 
In 1827, he delivered a course of lectures in Vienna, on the Philosophy of 

136 schlegel's philosophy. [Nov. 

Life. They are composed of a variety of observations, psychological, on- 
tological, ethical, political, and aesthetic. In 1828, he delivered his 
lectures on the " Philosophy of History," which are embodied in the 
volumes translated by Mr. Robertson, and which was his last work, with 
the exception of nine lectures on the " Philosophy of Language," delivered 
at Dresden in 1828, and J 829. 

Schlegel died at Dresden, on Sunday, Jan. 11, 1829. It was said that 
he had for some time before his death been more than usually fervent in 
his devotional exercises. He had commenced writing a sentence, when 
sickness arrested his pen, and in four hours terminated his earthly 

Schlegel married early in life a daughter of the celebrated Jew, Men- 
delsohn. She followed her husband in his change of religion. A com- 
plete edition of Schlegel's works was announced in 1822. Ten volumes, 
out of fifteen, the proposed number, have appeared. To these fifteen 
volumes, four are to be added, which were published in the last years of 
his life. 

The first two lectures in the Philosophy of History, along with the 
introduction, embrace man's relation to the earth — the division of mankind 
into several nations — and the twofold condition of humanity in the primi- 
tive world. The subjects discussed in the seven succeeding lectures are 
as follows : — the antiquity of China, and the general system of her empire — 
the mental culture, moral and political institutions, and philosophy of the 
Hindoos — the science and corruption of Egypt — the selection of the 
Hebrew people for the maintenance of divine revelation in its purity — the 
destinies and special guidance of that nation — account of those nations 
of classical antiquity, to whom were assigned a paramount influence 
over the world, such as the Persians, Greeks, and Romans. The next 
five lectures treat of Christianity, its consolidation and wide diffusion — of 
the emigration of the German tribes, and its consequences — and of the 
Saracenic empire during the first caliphs. Then follows an account of the 
establishment of the German empire — the great schism of the West — the 
struggles of the middle ages, and the period of the crusades, down to the 
discovery of the new world, and the new awakening of science. The 
three following lectures are devoted to the religious wars— the period of 
illuminism — and the time of the French revolution. The eighteenth and 
concluding lectures, turn on the prevailing spirit of the age, and on the 
universal regeneration of society. 

The most marked characteristic of these volumes, is the power of ex- 
tensive survey and wide generalization, which is every where prominent. 
The author delights to look at men in masses, and at the great influences 
which are at work in the world. In some of the lectures, there is 
hardly enough of circumstance and detail to diversify the current of 
general speculation. This passion for generalities, is not entirely owing 
to the nature of the subject. It is partly to be ascribed to the structure of 
the author's mind. 

Another striking characteristic, is the mixture of a religious spirit, in 
opposition to all illuminism, rationalism, indifftrcntism, etc. Reverence 
for the Bible is very conspicuous. There is no inconsiderable degree of 
correct religious sentiment, both Protestant and scriptural. This may be 
attributed, in part at least, to the revulsion which the author's mind expe- 
rienced in relation to the doctrines of the French infidels, the German 
illuminati, and the present rationalist sect. His return to the " mother 
church," might have been in part owing to the inward need of something 

1836.] schlegel's philosophy. 137 

better than the shallow waters of Protestant Germany could furnish at the 
beginning of this century. At the same time, the author is vague in many 
of his statements. He wanted an infusion of English point and honesty. 
He does not deal enough in personal beings and tangible doctrines. He 
frequently alludes to the existence of a fallen spirit ; but we are at a loss 
whether or not he considered him to be a personal agent. In one place 
he calls him (or it) the spirit of the times. 

The book abounds with very valuable philosophical criticism. To use 
two favorite German terms, the author looks from a very commanding 
stand-point on the various great developments of thought and feeling in 
nations and worlds of men. What can be more strictly philosophical and 
true, than such positions as these ; — " All things should be deduced from 
God, and God himself should be considered the first existence — nature the 
second." " When man had once fallen from virtue, no determinable 
limits could be assigned to his degradation." " So far from seeking with 
Rousseau and his disciples for the true origin of mankind, and the proper 
foundation of the social compact, in the condition of even the best and 
noblest savages, and so little disposed are we to remodel society upon this 
boasted ideal of a pretended state of nature, that we regard it, on the 
contrary, as a state of degeneracy and degradation." " If Christ were not 
more than a Socrates, then a Socrates he were not." " The soul pre- 
viously distracted, can regain its unity, or become again whole, only by a 
divine illumination." The discussions are conducted, almost without ex- 
ception, in a calm, serene, and unimpassioned manner. The literati in 
Germany of other schools, who stood aloof from him, or vilified him, are 
not the objects of railing accusation on his part. Some of them are inci- 
dentally noticed with commendation. 

Schlegel's residence in the Austrian capital, his conversion to the 
Roman Catholic religion, and his relations to Metternich, will account for 
some of the erroneous, if not " hard speeches," which he employs in the 
last volume in relation to Luther, Calvin, the reformers, and the Protestant 
nations. With considerable candor on these subjects, yet it is not difficult 
to perceive that he writes with a prejudiced pen. The last volume must 
be read with much more abatement on the score of praise than the first. 
The tenderness with which he speaks of the Jesuits, would be not a little 
remarkable, had he not lived in " the old Catholic kingdom of Austria," 
and under the eye of Metternich. 

On the whole, the work is worthy of careful perusal, though it is ob- 
viously inferior to Schlegel's Lectures on the History of Literature. We 
have only one fault to find with the translator ; he is too zealous, or his 
zeal is not always according to knowledge. His discipleship to Schlecrel 
is too thorough-going. He overflows with superlatives. He would seem 
to be anxious either to make amends for the disparagement which Schlegel 
received at the hands of many of his learned countrymen, or to magnify 
the wisdom of his own choice as a translator. He says that the Catholics 
"have produced the two greatest biblical critics of the age, Hug and 
Scholz ;" he speaks of the profound exegetists, Alber and Ackermann ; 
of Molitor, who has created a new era in biblical literature; of Count 
Stolberg, pre-eminent for genius, erudition, and celestial purity ; and of 
others, of vast acquirements, and colossal intellects, etc. etc. The trans- 
lator must certainly be a young man. At the same time, we do not doubt 
the general excellence and fidelity of his translation. 

vol. ix. 18 



We propose to collect a few scattered facts, which we have drawn from 
various sources, in relation to the population of certain portions of the ancient 
world. It is a subject which does not admit of any thing like certainty. 
Nothing similar to the modern census existed, if we make a partial exception in 
reference to Rome. Rival nations, opposing generals, hostile armies, had many 
temptations to exaggerate or to underrate the numbers and power of each 
other, while in general, no impartial historian was at hand to rectify conflicting 
statements. Besides, no part of the recorded memorials of antiquity has suf- 
fered so much in transmission to modern times, as numbers or facts reported by 
definite figures. Here is a peculiar liableness to corruption or alteration, often 
through the carelessness or ignorance of transcribers, while no means of re- 
storing the correct number by collation or otherwise exist. 

On the question of the comparative populousness of ancient and modern 
nations, there has been a wide divergency of opinion ; it being argued on the 
one hand, that the ancient world was comparatively a desert ; and on the other, 
that its population swarmed in all quarters. In this discrepancy of opinion, it 
may be worth while to glance at the causes which operated in ancient times to 
promote, or to hinder, the increase of population. This we must do very 

I. Causes favorable to the populousness of ancient nations. Some of these 
causes exist at the present time in the oriental world, though it may be, with 
diminished force. 

1. A greater simplicity in the general style of living. The recollection of 
the reader of the Pentateuch, and of Homer, will supply many illustrations.* 
The effects of vegetables as food, and of water as drink, must have contributed 
greatly to the duration of human life. Animal food and wine, were, it is true, 
made use of, but to a comparatively inconsiderable extent. Alcohol, " with its 
millions at a meal," was happily not discovered. Luxuries of various kinds 
were, however, known to the Romans in the latter ages of the empire, and 
contributed to open the gates of the city to the temperate Goths. The revival 
or the invention of the arts of cookery, is to be ascribed to the Italians. The 
French now ffive laws to the civilized world in this respect, — laws more arbi- 
trary and extensive in their application, than those of Napoleon. 

2. The absence of certain diseases, which have, in modern times, consigned 
millions to an untimely grave. It may be sufficient here to name the small- 
pox, the Asiatic cholera, and certain diseases connected with licentiousness. 

3. The great mass of the people of ancient nations were engaged in agricul- 
tural and pastoral labors. Very few were employed in manufactories, which, 
in modern times, especially in relation to children, have been a fruitful source 
of disease and death. To this it may be added, that but few, comparatively, in 
former times, perished by shipwreck, by hazardous experiments in mines, etc. 

4. The disgrace attached to the memory of those who died without posterity, 
and the universal custom Avhich made the marriage of children a principal 
concern of fathers and mothers. There was, throughout many large tribes, a 
strict observance of filial duty, while, on the other hand, the prerogatives of a 
father made a son his most valuable property. 

II. Causes unfavorable to the populousness of ancient nations. 

1. The institution of domestic slavery. At Rome, it was a custom not un- 
common to expose old, useless, or sick slaves in an island of the Tiber. 
The ergastula, or dungeons, where slaves were confined and compelled 
to work, were common all over Italy. There was a perpetual flux of 
slaves to Rome. Yet the number of people in Italy did not in- 
crease. Demosthenes inherited from his father a large number of slaves, 

* It ia mentioned by Madame Dacier, that Homer makes no mention of boiled meat in any of bis works, 
from which it is inferred that the Greeks had not as yet discovered the mode of making vesseto to bear 

1836.] populousness of ancient nations. 139 

among- whom were thirty-two sword-cutlers and twenty cabinet-makers. Not a 
word is said of any wives, children, or family, which they would have had, if it 
had been a common practice at Athens to breed slaves. Of course the slaves, 
being recruited from foreign lands, would be liable to much more cruel treat- 
ment. It will be found that slavery was disadvantageous to the happiness and 
populousness of the ancient nations in many ways, and that its place could have 
been much better supplied by hired servants. Whether ancient slavery wa3 
more active in destroying human life than modern slavery, we do not profess to 
determine. The effects in both cases have been decided and mournful. Mo- 
dern Europe has, however, become free from involuntary servitude in its worst 

2. The practice of exposing children. Plutarch mentions it as a merit in 
Attalus, king of Pergamus, that he exposed all his own children, in order to 
leave his crown to the son of his brother, Eumenes. Solon gave parents per- 
mission to kill their children. Seneca approves of exposing infirm children. 
Mount Taygetus, near Sparta, was renowned as the slaughtering place of 
infants. We learn in the Scriptures, that the heathen nations around Palestine 
had the habit of sacrificing their young children to idol-gods. The pra.ctice of 
infanticide in some form, prevails among most uncivilized nations at the 
present time. Formerly it existed among civilized nations also. 

3. Wars. Ancient battles were very bloody on account of the nature of the 
weapons employed in them. The ancients drew up their men, sixteen or 
twenty, sometimes fifty deep, which made a narrow front; and it was not 
difficult to find a field, in which both armies might be marshalled. As each 
man was closely buckled to his antagonist, great slaughter was made on both 
sides, especially on that of the vanquished. The long, thin lines, required by 
firearms, and the quick decision of the contest, render many modern battles 
but partial encounters. The battles of ancient times, both by their duration, 
and by their resemblance to single combats, were wrought up to a degree of 
fury, unknown for the most part to modern times. Nothing could then engage 
the combatants to give quarter, but the hopes of making slaves of their pris- 
oners. In civil wars, as we learn from Tacitus, (Hist. ii. 44,) the battles were 
the most bloody, because the prisoners were not slaves. Instances are fre- 
quent, in ancient history, of cities besieged, whose inhabitants, rather than 
open their gates, murdered their wives and children, and rushed themselves on 
a voluntary death. The ancient Israelites, the ancient Greek republics, and 
Rome, were in' almost perpetual war. Probably the same was the case in 
respect to other nations of whose history we have less information. Chris- 
tianity has, without doubt, contributed greatly to soften the ferocity of wars, if 
not to diminish their number. 

4. The prevalence of factions in ancient nations, resulting from the want of a 
good government or an efficient police. Where one party prevailed, whether 
nobles or people, the conquerors frequently butchered all of the opposite party 
who fell into their hands, and banished such as had been fortunate enough to 
escape without form of law or trial. The copiousness and energy of Thu- 
cydides, seem to sink when he attempts to describe the disorders which arose 
from faction in all the Grecian commonwealths. Think also of the blood which 
was poured out like water in the violent changes which took place in the 
Persian government. Think of the Gracchi, of Sylla, of Marius, in Roman 
history,* of Dionysius the elder, who murdered, in cold blood, above 10,000 of 
his fellow citizens ; of the thirty tyrants at Athens, who murdered 1,200 of the 
people without trial ; of Agathocles, who, in conjunction with the people, 
killed 4,000 nobles and banished 6,000 ; of the inhabitants of ^gestae, who to 
the number of 40,000, were killed, man, woman, and child, for the sake of their 
money. But it is unnecessary to cite further examples. 

5. The ancients were subject to some fatal diseases, while they were igno- 
rant of the remedies. It is not to be doubted but the progress of medical 
science has done much to strengthen and prolong human life. Rome, Athens, 

* The student of modern history will here call to mind the Parisian massacre on St. Bartholomew's 
day ; the persecution of the Jews over the whole world ; the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, etc. 


and the Egyptian cities, might have been spared some of the pestilences, which 
horribly desolated their dwellings, if they had been under the control of an 
efficient municipal government, aided by practised and scientific physicians. 

6. The ancients were ignorant of many of the improvements of modern times, 
by which labor is subdivided, — diversified demands fur labor 'created, — new 
kinds of food discovered, and a vastly larger population supported on small 

Before proceeding to detail facts in regard to particular nations, it may be 
well to say that the present condition of some portions of the eastern world is 
no criterion of the ancient state. Palestine was once the glory of all lands ; 
it has long been cursed by a wretched government and a wretched people. 
The vast regions watered by the Tigris and Euphrates, are full of the vestiges 
of perished cities and nations. Civilized and mighty nations once flourished 
along the Oxus, in the valleys of the Hindoo Koosh, on the plains of Hin- 
doostan. The sands of the desert have for ages been encroaching on Egypt. 
Under the influences of a high degree of civilization, thousands swarmed 
where hundreds are now found. All northern Africa was formerly filled with a 
civilized and Christian population. Ten millions now live where once was the 
abode of fifty millions. There is no question but that Mohammedanism has 
been a most prolific cause of depopulating the finest portions of the globe. 
The Ottoman government is not to be compared with many of the ancient 
heathen States, in the protection which it has afforded to life and property. She 
has been to Africa and Asia, not so much a wise and paternal government, as 
an organized system of extortion and robbery. 


Moses has left us accurate enumerations of the Israelites. The men able to 
bear arms, somewhat exceeded 600,000 ; and, including the Levites, to nearly 
620,000. If, according to a common principle of calculation, we admit the 
whole people, women and children included, to have been four times as many, 
we shall then have nearly 2,500,000. But we must include an additional 
number, resulting from the institutions of polygamy and slavery, and "the 
mixed multitude," who followed in the train of the camp. Moses could not 
have conducted through the desert a much less number than 3,000,000. A 
question now arises, Was it possible, within the limits of Palestine, to find 
support for so large a number ? No doubt, if we include all the country be- 
tween the Jordan and the Euphrates, there Avas room enough for 3,000,000. 
But the first object of Moses was to bring the whole people into the country 
west of the Jordan, and to leave the nations on the eastern side unmolested, if 
they granted him free passage into Palestine. After the two and a half tribes 
were provided for on the east of the Jordan, there would remain 2,500,000 to 
people the western side. Was this possible ?* When it was first occupied by 
the Israelites, the land of Canaan, properly so called, was confined between the 
shores of the Mediterranean and the western bank of the Jordan ; the breadth 
at no part exceeding fifty miles, while the length hardly amounted to three 
times that space. Canaan, it must be admitted, could not be compared to 
Egypt in respect to corn. There is no Nile to scatter an inexhaustible fer- 
tility. Still it was not without reason that Moses described it as " a good land, 
a land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys 
and hills ; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegra- 
nates ; a land of oil-olive and honey ; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread 
without scarceness ; thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones 
are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." 

The reports of the latest travellers confirm the accuracy of this picture. 
Near Jericho the wild olives continue to bear berries of a large size, which 
give the finest oil. In places subjected to irrigation, the same field, after a 

* See Michaelis's Laws of Moses, i. 100. Some writers clioose to limit the whole Israelitish popula- 
tion at this time to ',2,000,000. 

1836.] roruLousNESs of ancient nations. 141 

crop of wheat in May, produces pulse in autumn. Several of the trees are 
continually bearing flowers and fruit at the same time, in all their stages. The 
mulberry, planted in straight rows in the open field, is festooned by the tendrils 
of the vine. If the vegetation seems to languish or to become extinct, during 
the extreme heats; if in the mountains it is all seasons detached and inter- 
rupted, such exceptions to the general luxuriance, are not to be ascribed to 
the general character of all hot climates, but also to the state of barbarism in 
which the great mass of the present population is immersed. Some remains 
are now to be found of the walls which the ancient cultivators built to support 
the soil on the declivities of the mountains ; the form of the cisterns in which 
they collected the rain-water; and traces of the canals by which this water was 
distributed over the fields. These labors necessarily created a prodigious 
fertility under a burning sun, where a little moisture was the only requisite to 
revive the vegetable world. The flocks of the Arabs, still find in Canaan a 
luxuriant pasture, while the bees deposite in the holes of the rocks their deli- 
cious stores, which are sometimes seen flowing down the surface. The 
opinions just stated receive an ample confirmation from the Roman historians. 
Tacitus says, "The soil is rich and the atmosphere dry; the country yields all 
the fruits which are known in Italy, besides balm and dates." Hist. v. 6. In 
the eye of the Arabian, Abulfeda, the vines, the fig-trees, and the olive-groves, 
with which the limestone-cliff's of Judea were once covered, identified them- 
selves with the richest returns of agricultural wealth, and more than compen- 
sated for the absence of those spreading fields, waving with corn, which are 
necessary to the mind of a European, the ideas of fruitfulness, comfort, and 
abundance.* But we may fairly admit the testimony of Moses. He had him- 
self sent spies into the country, and was at pains to obtain satisfactory in- 
formation as to its nature ; and these spies, not excepting those who excited 
the Israelites to mutiny against him, gave their testimony to its extreme 

Besides, the promised land was more extensive than our maps make it. A 
part of Lebanon with its fruitful vales, ought to be included in it ; and the ten 
tribes and a half on the west of the Jordan, extended their settlements south- 
ward into Arabia. Again, every Israelite could enclose and use his land as his 
own, except in the seventh year. As the herds were driven into the deserts, 
common pasturage occasioned no damage to individual proprietors. Palestine 
could thus sustain a greater population than a country equally good, in which 
from the rights of common, the best possible use of the fields cannot be made. 
In Palestine, very little ground was required for wood, or for raising flax and 
sheep. The Israelites, probably, had more wool than they could consume ; and 
of course could manufacture and sell it to strangers, (Prov. xxxi. 24,) and with 
the money thence arising, purchase articles which their own country did not 
produce in sufficient abundance. People in southern climates are also satisfied 
with less food than those in northern. Finally, we may conclude that God in 
his providence, particularly favored the land of Israel. It was a land which 
he emphatically cared for. 

In the time of the Judges, we find in all Israel, only 426,700 men able to 
bear arms ; and during a short war carried on with great fury, they became 
60,000 less. Judges xx. 2, 15, 17. Saul could not collect more than 330,000 
men. 1 Sam. ii. 8. But whether, on either of these occasions, those residing 
in the more distant parts, were included, is uncertain. The tribe of Judah 
seems not to have furnished her full number at Saul's command, as only 32,000 
men appeared. The numerous unsuccessful wars had, doubtless, diminished 
the population of the tribes, many of the people having been made prisoners 
and slaves. The next enumeration was the celebrated one undertaken by 
David. From the command issued by him, from the time of nine months al- 
lotted to carrying it into effect, and from the words, 2 Sam. xxiv. 1 — 8, we see 
that this enrolment comprehended the people in the most remote places, even 
in the Syrian and Arabian deserts ; only that the tribes of Levi and Benjamin, 

* Russell's Palestine, p. 26. Also the Essay of H. E. Warnekros on the Fertility of Palestine, contained 
in the 7th and 8th vols, of Eichhorn's Repertorium. 


the two weakest of all, are said to have been spared. 1 Chron. xxi. 6. The 
great amount of the numbers need not appear incredible, because between the 
Mediterranean and the Euphrates more might have found room. It does not, 
however, seem credible that the whole people should have increased, by births 
alone, from 330,000 to more than 1,000,000 ; or that the tribe of'Judah, which in 
Saul's time could muster only 32,000 men, should now, by births alone, have 
amounted to 500,000. Probably, however, many who had retired to foreign 
lands, in the unsettled state of the times in Saul's reign, had returned when 
David ascended the throne. Besides, many proselytes from the conquered 
countries might be included. According to the book of Samuel, Joab found 
800,000 in Israel, and 500,000 in Judah ; total, 1,300,000. According to 
Chronicles, there were in Israel 1,100,000 ; in Judah 470,000 ; total, 1,570,000, 
making a difference of 270,000. It is difficult to reconcile these statements. 
If there be no error in the copying, it is possible that some districts were in- 
cluded in the account in Chronicles, which are omitted in that of Kings. 
According to the least number, the people of Israel, women and children in- 
cluded, amounted to more than 5,000,000. David had in addition, 150,000 
tributary Canaanites, with their wives and children ; as also the conquered 
nations, at least those among them who had not become Israelites by circum- 
cision, and the slaves, who might, however, chiefly belong to the conquered 

The number of the Israelites under Jeroboam and Abijah, which is men- 
tioned 2 Chron. xiii. 2, is nearly the same with that under David, if we only 
suppose that all who could bear arms were present in one battle. For the ten 
tribes mustered 800,000, and Judah and Benjamin 400,000. The list of fighting 
men, 2 Chron. xvii. 14, 18, belonging to the kingdom of Judah alone, under 
Jehoshaphat, reaches the great amount of 1,160,000. In the reign of Uzziah, a 
century later, only 307,500 men, able to bear arms, could be mustered. 

Josephus informs us, that in his time, there were in Galilee, two hundred and 
four cities and towns ; that the largest of the cities had 150,000, and the small- 
est towns 15,000 inhabitants. Hence we can account for it, that Josephus 
himself, in this small province, short of forty miles long and thirty broad, col- 
lected an army of nearly 100,000 men.* At the Passover, A. D. 65, when Ces- 
tius Gallus was president of the province of Syria, 3,000,000 Jews were present.f 
The number of those who were carried captive during the war with the 
Romans, was 97,000. The number who perished during the whole siege, was 
1,100,000; the greater part of whom did not belong to Jerusalem, but had 
come up from the country to attend the Passover.:): The whole number of 
Jews who were destroyed during the entire seven years before the actual 
taking of the city, is summed up by archbishop Usher, from Lipsius, out of 
Josephus, at the year of Christ 70, and amounts to 1,337,490. 


Sparta. — There were present in the battle of Platsea, 5,000 Spartans, 35,000 
Helots, and 10,000 Pcriccci. The whole number of Spartans that bore arms, 
amounted, on another occasion, to 8,000, which, according to the same propor- 
tion, would give 56,000 for the number of Helots capable of bearing arms, and 
for the whole population 224,000. If then the State of Sparta possessed 9,000 
lots, there were 20 male Helots to each, and there remained 44,000 for the 
service of the State, and of individuals. The account of Thucydides, that the 
Chians had the greatest number of slaves of any one State after the Lacedae- 
monians, does not compel us to set the amount higher, because the great 
number of slaves in ,/Egina disappeared when that island lost its freedom; and 
Athens, during the Pelopennesian war, certainly did not possess 200,000 slaves. 
The number of Periccci, able to bear arms, would, according to the above pro- 
portion, amount only to 16,000 ; but we must suppose that a large portion of 

* Joseph. Bell. Jud. II. xx. 6. f II). II. xiv. 3. J Joseph. Bell. Jud. VI. x. 3. 


them remained behind in the Pelopennesus ; for since the Periceci were pos- 
sessed of thirty thousand lots, (though of less extent,) there must have been 
about the same number of families, and we thus get at least 120,000 men ; and 
upon the whole, for the 3,800 square miles of Laconia, a suitable population of 
380,000 souls * 

Attica. — According to the map of Barbie du Bocage, the area of Attica, with 
the two islands of Salamis and Helena, amounts to about 874 square miles. 
The whole population of Attica would be known, if we could separately ascer- 
tain the number of the citizens, resident aliens and slaves, together with their 
wives and children. On an occasion of a distribution of corn, which, like all 
other distributions, was made according to the register of the adult citizens of 
18 years of age and upwards, a scrutiny was instituted in the archonship of 
Lysimachus, Olymp. lxxxiii. 4, into the genuineness of their birth. There 
were then found, according to Philochorus, only 14,240 genuine citizens ; and 
4,700 who had assumed the rights of citizens unjustly, were in consequence 
sold as slaves. Previously, therefore, there were 19,000 persons, who passed 
for citizens. After the breaking out of the Pelopennesian war, besides 13,000 
heavy armed infantry, there were also 16,000 others in Athens, who consisted 
of the oldest and youngest citizens, and a certain number of resident aliens; 
the number of citizens must therefore at that time have been higher. An 
enumeration of the people was effected by Demetrius Phaiereus, when archon 
at Athens, in Olymp. cxvii. 4, and yielded, according to Ctesicles, 21,000 
citizens, 10,000 resident aliens, and 400,000 slaves. From this very important 
statement, the whole number of the population of Attica has been variously 
estimated. In accordance with the usual rule of statistics, the adults have been 
generally taken as a fourth part of the population. This would give for the 
citizens 84,000, the aliens 40,000, and the slaves 400,000. St. Croix errone- 
ously adds 100,000 children to the number of slaves ; the children were, doubt- 
less, reckoned in the 400,000. It will be sufficient to estimate the slaves, 
including women and children, at 365,000 ; and the whole population at 
500,000; of whom the larger proportion were men. If 180,000 are reckoned 
for Athens and the harbors, and 20,000 for the mines, there then remain 
300,000 souls for the other 608 square miles in Attica, which gives something 
less than 493| to a square mile, which with the numbers of small market-places, 
villages, and farms that were in Attica, is not to be wondered at.f "The 
fruits of the earth, and native products of our soil," says Xenophon, "are a proof 
of the temperature, of our climate and the mildness of our seasons ; for we have 
plants which bear in great abundance in our country, which will never grow in 
others ; and our sea, as well as land, abounds in all things necessary for life or 
luxury ; add to this, that all the blessings which the gods have made peculiar to 
the different seasons of the year, begin earlier and end later with us, than in 
any part of the world." \ 

Iteo£ia.---Xenophon says that the number of the Athenians was equal to all 
the Boeotians ; that is the citizens of the one country to the citizens of the 
other. Of course, from 80 to 90,000 included the whole free population of 
Bceotia. Of the number of slaves we have no information. Thebes had 6,000 
citizens able to bear arms, when it was besieged by Demetrius. 

Corinth. — Timaeus asserts that Corinth had 460,000 slaves, in early times, 
before Athens had obtained possession of the commerce of Greece and the 
sovereignty of the seas. There were eight tribes of free citizens who dwelt at 
Corinth. In the Cynophali we discover a class of Corinthian Helots. 

Sicyon. — In this city there were four tribes of free citizens, and also bonds- 
men, of whom the names Corynephori and Catonacophori have been pre- 

JEgina. — Aristotle mentions that this island, at one time, contained 470,000 
slaves. This statement seems to be correct, though it has been called in 

* C. O. Mueller's Hist, and Antiquities of the Doric Race, ii. 45. 

| Boeckb, Public Economy of Athens, i. 53. 

X Xenophon's Discourse on Improving the Revenue of the State of Athens, p. 1. 


question by Hume. C. O. Miiller has accurately determined the area of 
iEgina, from Gell's map of Argolis, and made it 42 square miles, English; thus 
increasing the possibility of a large slave population, especially, if we assume, 
as is probable, that JEgina, in early times, had possessions on the coast of 

Sybaris. — The free citizens of Sybaris, able to bear arms, and actually drawn 
out into battle, were 300,000. They encountered at Siagra, with 100,000 
citizens of Crotona, another Greek city, contiguous to them, and were defeated. 
This is the account of Diodorus Siculns, and also of Strabo. 

Agrigentum. — Diodorus says that this city, when it was destroyed by the 
Carthaginians, had 20,000 citizens, 200,000 strangers, besides slaves. The 
women and children are not included. On the whole, this city must have con- 
tained nearly 2,000,000 of inhabitants. They were industrious cultivators of 
the neighboring fields, and traded with their wine and oil to Africa. 

Syracuse. — Diodorus gives to Dionysius the elder, an army of 100,000 foot, 
10,000 horse, and a fleet of 400 galleys. The distinction of the people at 
Syracuse, was first the Gamori, viz. the old Corinthian colonists, who had taken 
possession of the large lots, and divided the land; secondly, a Demus ; and 
thirdly, slaves on the estates of the nobles, whose number became proverbial. 
These were without doubt native Sicilians. The Sicilian and Italian towns 
were very large in comparison with those of the Pelopennesus. 

Heraclea. — This city situated on the Pontus, possessed a great number of 
slaves, who were often employed as sailors. 


The births and deaths of the citizens of Rome were duly registered ; and if 
any writer of antiquity had condescended to mention the annual amount, or the 
common average, we might produce some satisfactory calculation. The most 
diligent researches have collected only the following circumstances ; which 
slight and imperfect as they are, may tend, in some degree, to illustrate the 
question of the populousness of ancient Rome. 1. When the capital of the 
empire was besieged by the Goths, the circuit of the walls was accurately 
measured by Amrnonius, the mathematician, who found it equal to twenty-one 
miles. It should not be forgotten that the form of the city was almost that of a 
circle ; the geometrical figure which is known to contain the largest space 
within any given circumference. 2. The architect Vitruvius, who flourished in 
the Augustan age, and whose evidence, on this occasion, has peculiar weight 
and authority, observes that the innumerable habitations of the Roman people 
would have spread themselves far beyond the narrow limits of the city ; and 
that the want of ground, which was probably contracted on every side by 
gardens and villas, suggested the common, though inconvenient practice of 
raising the houses to a considerable height in the air. But the loftiness of 
these buildings, which often consisted of hasty work and insufficient materials, 
was the cause of frequent and fatal accidents ; and it was repeatedly enacted 
by Augustus, as well as by Nero, that the height of private edifices, within the 
walls of Rome, should not exceed the measure of 70 feet from the ground. 
3. Juvenal laments, as it should seem from his own experience, the hardships 
of the poorer citizens, to whom he addresses the salutary advice of emigrating, 
without delay, from the smoke of Rome, since they might purchase in the little 
towns of Italy, a cheerful, commodious dwelling, at the same price which they 
annually paid for a dark and miserable lodging. House-rent was, therefore, 
immoderately dear; the rich acquired at an enormous expense, the ground, 
which they covered with palaces and gardens ; but the mass of the people were 
crowded into a narrow space ; and the different floors and apartments of the 
same house, were divided, as is still the custom of Paris and other cities, 
among several families of plebeians. 4. The total number of houses in the four- 
teen regions of the city, is accurately stated in the description of Rome, com- 
posed under the reign of Theodosius, and they amounted to 48,382. The two 
classes of domus and of insula^ into which they are divided, include all the 

1836.] RUSSIAN SLAVERY. 145 


habitations of the capital of every rank and name, from the marble palace of the 
Anicii, with a numerous establishment of freedmen and slaves, to the lofty and 
narrow lodging-house, where the poet Codrus and his wife, were permitted to 
hire a wretched garret immediately under the tiles. If we adopt the same 
average, which, under similar circumstances, has been found applicable to 
Paris, and allow but twenty-five persons to each house of every degree, we 
may fairly estimate the inhabitants of Rome at 1,200,000 ; a number which 
cannot be thought excessive for the capital of a mighty empire.* 


" The ancient Slavonians and Russians," says, " suffered 
neither despotism nor slavery to exist among them, and considered unfet- 
tered liberty the chief happiness of man. The landlord was the head of 
the family ; the father ruled over his children, the husband over his wife, 
the brother over his sisters ; every family built its hut apart from all others, 
in order that they might live peaceably and in security ; hence each 
family found a kind of miniature republic, in which ancient usages had 
the force of a code of laws." But as their acquaintance with the civilized 
and luxurious Greeks increased, and they learned something of the advan- 
tages of social life, they gradually became willing to forego part of their 
savage liberty, in order to secure new sources of gratification. 

The Russian population from the earliest ages, appears to have been 
divided into three classes — Buiars or nobles, similar in rank to the ancient 
Scottish Barons ; Ludi, consisting of warriors and freemen, and classified 
according to their occupation and service ; and lastly, Rahi or slaves. 
The latter were prisoners taken in war, their descendants, and persons 
who had forfeited their freedom by breaking the laws. Such, however, as 
had conditionally sold themselves or their children into slavery, were called 
Halo pa ; for, according to their usages, fathers, in their free condition, 
had power, by a deed called kabala, to sell their own children into slavery, 
either for a certain number of years, or during the life of the purchaser. 
Debtors, also, who could not satisfy their creditors, became their slaves 
until their debts should be discharged by their labor. Others, again, being 
unable to support their families, and desirous of living under the protection 
of aboiar, enrolled themselves among his vassals. These conditional slaves 
were also styled yakuprice, " purchased," or kabalnie ludi, " vassals by 
contract ; " and they differed from the rahi in this, that they could not be 
sold or otherwise disposed of; for they, like bondmen for a limited time 
among the Jews, had the prospect of again returning to freedom ; whereas 
the rahi possessed no rights whatever, and were in all respects, the prop- 
erty of their masters, who had over them the power of life and death. 

The Russian historians say, that this distinction between partial and 
complete slavery continued to be respected until the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, and that, with the exceptions above specified, the great 
body of the Russian peasantry were free ; the proprietors of the lands on 
which they were settled had no power either to sell them, pawn them, 
leave them by will to their posterity, or give them in dowry, as is done at 
the present day. They were at full liberty to remove from the lands of 

* Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, iii. 251. Brotier'3 edition of Tacitus, ii. 330. 
VOL. IX. 19 


one lord, and settle on those of another, after having paid the rents agreea- 
bly to law and usage. In 1559, however, the time of this change oi resi- 
dence was limited to the week before and the week after St. George's 
day, in the autumn. But in the year 1597, Tzar Theod,or Ivanovitch 
issued a ukaz, prohibiting the free migration of the peasantry, and com- 
manding them to be registered and kept upon the lands which they had 
occupied. This statute was, however, revoked in 1602, and the peasantry 
regained their former freedom. The deliverance, nevertheless was of short 
duration. The power and turbulence of the minor nobles were such as to 
oblige Tzar Gudonoff to renew the enslaving act by which a great part of 
the people were deprived of their right of free migration. In 1607 this act 
was confirmed by the Tzar, and sanctioned by both the civil and ecclesi- 
astical courts. 

In 1622, Tzar Michael Feodrovitch, by ukaz, commanded all the 
peasantry to be registered on the lands belonging to the crown and nobles ; 
and the latter were strictly forbidden to receive such as had been already 
inscribed on the rolls of their neighbors, in Chap. ii. of the Code of the 
father of Peter the Great, it is enacted, " That the peasantry shall be 
judged according to the register-books ; and in case any man be found to 
have removed from the place where he has been enrolled, he shall be com- 
pelled to return." From this same chapter it is also evident, that the 
peasantry were already sold with the lands which they cultivated, yet still 
these edicts, which gradually reduced the poor peasants of Russia into 
bondage, did not describe the extent of the landholder's power over his 
vassals, until, in the succeeding reign of Peter the Great, the following 
enactments were made. 

In the census, taken in 1718, by order of this emperor, all the existing 
degrees of vassalage were set aside, and the people were reduced to one 
common rubric, that of rahi y (slaves). By two other edicts, he commanded 
the lord of the manor to pay the capitation-tax for the peasantry living on 
his lands, and to furnish the required levies of recruits. In executing these 
decrees, the lord of the soil necessarily assumed unlimited power over his 
tenants, and at this time the practice was tolerated of selling them not only 
in families but also individually. 

"From this period," says the Russian historian, Boltin, " the nobles 
began to exercise the same power over the lives and property of their 
hnlops and peasants, as had been exercised, in ancient times, only over 
prisoners taken in war. There is, indeed, no law by which the peasant, as 
an individual, is made the slave of his landlord. Custom introduced them 
by degrees to serve in the palaces of the nobles, in direct opposition to the 
laws on this subject ; and under the denomination of domestics, they came 
to be sold individually ; and this, being tolerated at the commencement, 
has, by length of time and usage, obtained the power of law." Thus, with 
one hand, Peter did much to civilize the Russians, while, with the other, 
he counterbalanced this benefit, by riveting the chains of slavery. 

The emperor Alexander felt deeply for the degraded state of the com- 
mon Russians, and by various edicts, sought to meliorate their condition, 
and to ease the weight of their chains, but such was the power and influ- 
ence of the nobles, that his autocratic power was nearly powerless. 

At the present time, the Russian slaves compose the most numerous 
class of subjects. They may properly be divided into two orders — slaves 
belonging to the crown, and slaves belonging to the nobles. In the former 
division, are included, first, the peasants who are settled on crown lands, 

1836.] RUSSIAN SLAVERY. 147 

and therefore considered national property. Next, the slaves who formerly 
belonged to the bishops, monasteries, and churches, but were appropriated 
to the use of the government in 1704. These enjoy greater privileges than 
those belonging to the nobles ; because they have full power over the fruits 
of their own fields and labor, and can dispose of their movable property as 
they please. By an edict of Alexander, in 1801, they are permitted to 
hold lands, but not slaves ; and with the consent of their stewards, to carry 
on trade of any kind, to become merchants, manufacturers, etc. They 
generally live in large villages, and are governed by their own elders or 
starosti, who collect the taxes, ballot for recruits, and regulate the common 
affairs of the village community. But though, in this division, the great 
body are possessed of superior privileges, yet the lot of vast numbers is very 
severe ; for, of the peasantry belonging to the empire, many thousands 
belong to the mines, others to the government manufactories, many even 
to those of private individuals. All the various establishments in Russia, 
known under the name of fabrics and zavods, are worked by slaves. For 
instance ; two or three hundred are sent to some cloth manufactory, to 
become weavers and dyers ; an equal number to some foundery, to become 
engineers, smiths, carpenters, etc. ; though totally unacquainted with these 
trades. Nor is it uncommon to make grants of the labor of the crown- 
peasantry to foreign speculators in different branches of foreign manufac- 
tures, which the government are desirous of encouraging among their sub- 
jects. Frequently the vassals experience unfeeling treatment. In these in- 
stitutions, they and their children are compelled to labor for a sorry subsist- 
ence in order to enrich some needy foreigner whom the government thinks 
proper thus to favor. The greater number of the manufactories belonging 
to the crown are likewise under the direction of foreigners, each of whom 
has for workmen, his troop of slaves ; varying in number, from a hundred 
to many thousands, according to the extent of their works. The merchants, 
who have manufactories, are generally supplied with workmen from the 
slaves of the nobility ; as few of them are permitted to hold slaves on any 
condition themselves, and free workmen are not to be obtained. The 
slaves attached to the mines, manufactories, and public works of govern- 
ment, or of individuals, have scanty means of subsistence, are subjected to 
hard labor, and the almost total neglect of their moral and religious im- 
provement. But the desire to promote commerce, the revenues of the 
crown, and the political influence of the nation close up both eyes and ears 
to the miseries endured by more than 250,000 slaves thus employed 
throughout the empire. The English operative is a freeman ; has his 
choice both of labor and master, and a full power over his earnings; the 
Russian workman is a slave, and is deprived of these invaluable blessings. 
Catharine II. gave tens of thousands of these poor creatures, not only as 
rewards to the able men who had served her armies, and in her councils, 
but to enrich her favorites ! The usual method adopted by Alexander 
was, to limit his grants from the crown lands and peasantry, in reward of 
services rendered to the country, to twelve years. This kind of benefice 
is called arcnde. The person receiving such grant has the revenues of 
the villages for the period specified ; after which they revert to the crown, 
though sometimes the time is prolonged by a renewal of the grant. In 
writing to a nobleman, to whom he had granted an arende, the emperor 
says : " The peasants of Russia are for the greater part slaves ; it is 
unnecessary for me to enlarge upon the degradation and misery of such a 
state. I have sworn, therefore, not to increase the number of these 
wretched beings ; and have laid it down as a principle not to dispose of 


peasants as property. The estate is granted to yourself, and to your pos- 
terity, as a tenure for life ; which is a tenure differing from those generally 
granted in this point alone, that the peasants cannot be sold or alienated, 
as beasts of burden. You know my motives ; I am convinced you would 
act in the same manner, were you in my place." 

We come now to speak of the slaves belonging to the nobles. Those 
belonging to the crown are not above fourteen millions, while those belong- 
ing to the nobility are estimated at more than twenty-one millions, male 
and female. 

A nobleman's property is not estimated by his land, but by " the number 
of souls he possesses." According to Alexander's ukazes of 1808 and 
1812, they are not in future to be individually sold, or separated from the 
lands they cultivate, yet there are, practically, many ways of frustrating 
these edicts. By an ukaz of 1782, the slaves may be removed, with their 
families, from one part of the empire to another ; which kind of coloniza- 
tion has been much practised since the conquest of the Crimea, Besarabia, 
and the northern parts of the Caucasus, where numerous villages of peasan- 
try, from the interior of Russia are now settled. 

iJspenskoy further affirms, that, according to the 2d and 22d chapters 
of the Russian code, and the ukazes of 1767 and 1797, the slaves have no 
right in law against their masters ; for every complaint of the slave against 
him is considered an act of rebellion. Consequently, such of the nobles 
as employ their own slaves in their manufactories, etc., work them as they 
please, being under no restrictions. Until 181 J, the nobles had power to 
send their refractory slaves into exile to Siberia ; but this power was taken 
from them by Alexander ; and at present they can only be exiled after 
judgment has been regularly passed upon them in the common courts of 

The Russian slave has, strictly speaking, no rights, and can possess no 
property ; himself, his wife, his children, and all he possesses, are the 
property of his lord ; on whose will, also, his entry into the matrimonial 
state entirely depends. And though the laws of the church do not allow 
marriage unless with the willing consent of both parties, yet it frequently 
happens, that marriage is brought about by the interest of the lord, or the 
caprice of his stewards, and not by the mutual affection of the parties 
chiefly concerned. How can agriculture, or any other national interest 
prosper, where the laborer has, in law, no personal possession, no personal 
freedom, no excitement to industry? 

Many of the nobles are very ingenious in inventing apologies for the 
system. " The slaves," say they, " are as free as we are ; for the Tzar 
has as much power over us as we have over them ; we, our children, and 
our property, are as entirely at his disposal as the persons and property of 
our vassals are at ours." Some of the nobles, however, earnestly wish to 
see the peasantry restored to their ancient freedom, and to have an equi- 
table system of law introduced for all classes. Dr. Pinkerton remarks, that 
he is acquainted with many noblemen who govern their peasantry upon 
truly paternal principles, and take great pains to promote the prosperity, 
health, and comfort of their slaves. Certain advantages are, doubtless, 
connected with the system, but what we complain of is, that an irrespon- 
sible power should be lodged in the hands of so many over the great body 
of the subjects, fn point of law and privilege, there is a very great dif- 
ference between these slaves and the poor in some other countries. A 
plentiful supply of what is required to mere animal subsistence is not to 
prejudice us in favor of bondage. 

1836.] RUSSIAN SLAVERY. 149 

Alexander had a great desire to see the poor Russian mvjik raised from 
his servile vassalage into the rank of a freeman ; but bis plans for bringing 
this about met with the determined resistance of the principal buiars. 
Since his death, nothing effectual has been attempted to accelerate the 
event. Alexander restored liberty of migration to the serfs of Esthonia 
and Courland, and placed them, with the consent of the nobles, in the 
condition of freemen. 

The slaves of rich nobles generally enjoy a much greater degree of free- 
dom than those of the poorer nobles. The former are left to cultivate their 
own land, to engage in traffic, and to follow trades in the towns ; though 
others are obliged to work for their masters three days in the week, and 
have only the remaining days to cultivate their own fields, and gain a sup- 
port for their families. But the peasantry belonging to the poor nobles are 
compelled to work for their masters the greater part of the time. In con- 
sequence of these petty lords possessing little property, or living above their 
income, their agricultural peasants are burthened while their domestic 
slaves drag out a life of idleness, scanty subsistence, and misery. The 
number of these petty nobles is constantly increasing, first, from the subdi- 
vision of the Russian property in every generation, by the Russian law, 
the estates of the father being divided among his children ; and, secondly, 
from the constant augmentation of the nobility, through rank obtained in 
the civil and military services; as every one, on attaining the rank of 
captain is thereby ennobled. 

Many of the nobles pass a great part of the year on their estates, and 
themselves direct the agricultural employments of their vassals. But the 
great majority entrust the government of their villages to stewards, who 
live among the peasantry, superintend the cultivation of the estate, sell the 
corn at the neighboring market, and remit the revenue to the family resi- 
dent at Moscow, or some other town. The estate is often let. a certain 
number of years to farmers, who are left at full liberty to work the peas- 
antry and land as they please. 

The greater part of the domestic slaves, male and female, are unmarried, 
and form a distinct class of themselves. Their numbers are so great, that 
free scope is given to idleness, and to habits which ruin their constitution, 
and vitiate their morals. It is not unusual to find in a single family of the 
nobility, thirty or forty females, from sixteen to thirty years of age, all 
unmarried, most of them employed the whole year in embroidery and other 
needle work ; while as many more men-servants, under the name of coach- 
men, grooms, etc., are spending a life of sloth and sin, a great part of 
whom might be advantageously employed on the farm. But the family 
would suffer were the number of these slaves retrenched. It is no uncom- 
mon thing to find two hundred or five hundred of these domestics attached 
to the residence of the principal nobles, forming bands of musicians, actors, 
singers, dancers, etc. At a tournament acted and prepared by the nobles 
of Moscow in 1811, there were 100,000 spectators present, and a vast 
multitude of slaves, in the capacity of riders, whose horses and trappings 
were of the most splendid description. 



The importance of eminent personal piety might be shown in many 
ways. It. is beneficial to health, and the general condition of the human 
body. It strengthens and enlarges the human mind. " A good under- 
standing have all they who do his commandments." It promotes benevo- 
lence of feeling and purity of manners. It greatly increases individual hap- 
piness in life and in death. Those who are eminently pious, God guides 
by his counsel, and opens for them an abundant entrance into heaven. 
We wish, however, in this place, to show the importance of eminent 
piety, upon society at large, or upon the state of the country in which we 
live. We cannot be good without doing good. We cannot be decidedly 
pious, without inducing others to become so. In other words, a pure 
church is one of the greatest blessings to a country. Pious men are the 
salt of the earth, and the light of the world. 

1. In the first place, eminent piety is important in its influence on a 
small community, like that of a town. A country or a large community is 
divided for the sake of convenience into towns. A town is a republic on a 
small scale. The great difficulty in managing the affairs of a town, arises 
from the selfishness of some of the inhabitants. They will not relinquish 
any personal advantage for the good of their neighbors. Hence proceed 
ill-will, contention, lawsuits, settled enmity. But eminent piety would 
be a corrective of all this. It enlarges and liberalizes the mind, teaches a 
man to love his neighbor as himself, and to regard all men as his neighbors. 
It makes him kind and condescending. In other words, it is constantly 
diminishing his selfishness. 

The support which is rendered to schools, and other important objects, 
the relations of one town with another, and the general character and 
influence of a town, all are greatly dependent on the state of religion in 
that town. Nothing will be a substitute for eminent piety. Wealth, re- 
spectability of connections, ancestors, schools, morality, are no safeguards 
without piety. This hallows and blesses all the rest. It sends its pure 
influence every where. Righteousness exalts a town as well as a nation; 
and a low state of religion is a reproach to any town as well as to any 
nation. It is well that the organization of a church is entirely distinct from 
that of a town, and the condition of membership in one, distinct from that 
of citizenship in the other. Nevertheless, their interests are the same. 
A large and spiritual church is the greatest blessing to a town. A well- 
managed, educated, moral, religious town, is an unspeakable benefit to a 
church. Their influence is mutual and strong, and ought to be, and can 
be decidedly salutary. 

2. In the second place, the need of eminent piety grows out of the 
great extent of territory embraced in this country, and the consequent 
danger of division and disunion. Our country stretches literally from 
sea to sea, and includes several varieties of climate. Products of soil and 
articles of commerce are widely diverse ; different ancestry, associations, 
local interests, neighbors, and many other causes and occasions of vari- 
ance and ill-will. Notwithstanding, there is no indispensable necessity of 
civil war, or of secret enmity. Real religion, prevailing through the whole 
country, would be a sufficient safeguard. It would nourish kind and 


liberal feelings, large and comprehensive views. The man, who comes 
under its influence, would break away from the shackles of ancestry, of 
aristocracy, of territorial division, and of every other thing which hinders 
the exercise of the most generous patriotism. There are no fetters in the 
gospel but those of love; no bounds but the outermost limits of human 
existence. Wherever there is a being made in the image of God, there is 
our brother and sister and mother. The prevalence of such a spirit would 
cause our public men in all parts of the country, to unite on those points 
in politics and political economy, which are known and settled. There 
are such points. This government has not gone on for forty or fifty years 
at random. There are fixed starting points, there are guiding principles. 
The word of God contains such principles. The book of Proverbs is full 
of them. The wisest rulers in every age have perceived them, and have 
tried to bring them into operation, but their efforts have been counteracted 
and opposed by the ignorance, caprice, passion, or malice of those with 
whom they were called to co-operate. The prevalence of such a spirit, 
would cause our public men to discover and arrange those principles or 
points, which are now unknown or unsettled. They would give them- 
selves to patient attention and investigation. Their object in writing and 
in discussion, would be to elicit the truth. The great object of meeting 
in congress or in a State legislature, would be to consider those topics har- 
moniously, which are not yet determined, but which are necessary for the 
adjustment of the interests of the whole country. It would lead men from 
all parts of the land, to dwell on the things in which they are agreed, 
rather than on those on which they differ. They would not aggravate the 
misfortunes or disadvantages of the less favored parts of the country. 
They would act on the noble principle, that if one member suffers, all the 
members should suffer with it. 

3. In the third place, there is an excessive worldly-mindedness in this 
country. It may be said with truth, that the besetting sin of the great 
body of our people is love of money. It is the master passion which is in 
danger of swallowing up every thing else. Other nations have other 
general characteristics. It is love of title, or rank, or equipage, or con- 
quest, or political power, or literary honor; but with us it is a boundless 
selfishness, an insatiable cupidity, a restless desire to amass riches. It 
meets us wherever we go. The ways to employ and increase the wealth 
of the country, are the subjects of hourly conversation and of grave legis- 
lation. Now we do not mean that industry, commercial enterprise, and 
the accumulation of wealth, are to be condemned. No man would wish 
to live in a community which was not prosperous. But the danger is that 
we shall go too far, and make that to be an object, which ought to be the 
only means for the attainment of something else. Are not many men in a 
prosperous commercial or agricultural community, in danger of prosecut- 
ing their worldly business to such extent as to abandon, or greatly neglect, 
infinitely more important interests ? A powerful w r eight should be thrown 
into the opposite scale. This universal passion should be counteracted. 
We are ruined, if we become too prosperous. It is not wealth which will 
save us. It is not the richest communities which are the most happy. 
Venice, and Genoa, and Spain, were once exuberantly rich ; but this did 
not prevent their decline. Affliction is as necessary for nations as it. is for 
individuals. Uninterrupted prosperity hardens the heart,' nourishes pride, 
destroys sensibility of conscience, and prepares the way for utter ruin. 
The only safeguard for a prosperous nation or a prosperous man is eminent 
piety ; nothing else will keep them humble. Nothing else will make them 


grateful. Rich men are sailing over a sea which is covered with wrecks. 
A rich and prosperous nation is often weaving its own winding sheet. The 
loftier its height the more signal its overthrow. Short was the time when 
that city which called herself " Perfect Beauty," which sat as a sovereign 
of the seas, which said in her pride, " I am a God," " I sit in the seat of 
God," short was the period, when all her glory had passed away, and 
Tyre was like the top of a rock, a place for fishermen to spread their nets. 
Now these things were written to teach us, that we might take warn- 
ing. Perhaps no nation on earth is more liable to fall into those very sins 
which ruined Tyre, than our own. It was pride, arrogant presumption, 
overheating haughtiness, a desire to amass riches so unappeasable, that 
she traded in the souls of men. Let our nation learn the solemn lesson 
which comes from the ruins of many a proud city, not to trust in uncertain 
riches, but in the living God ; to be rich in good works, ready to distri- 
bute, willing to communicate. 

4. In the fourth place, our schools and literary institutions, without 
piety, will not save us. Our statesmen and orators, and some of our reli- 
gious men, place too high a value on simple education. But human 
passions will not be restrained by mere knowledge. It may change the 
current of depravity, but it will not dry it up. It may diminish in a man, 
the love of mere sensual pleasure, but it will not lessen his pride, or vanity, 
or ambition. It will not bring him a whit nearer to the meekness and 
humility of the gospel. The universal education of the people of this 
country is not desirable, unless religious instruction can go along with it. 
We sometimes hear it stated that the inmates of our jails and prisons 
cannot read ; and the inference made is, that if they had been taught to 
read, they would not have been vicious. But the fact is, that their reli- 
gious education had been also and equally neglected. The great majority 
of convicts either had no parents when they became vicious, or they had 
irreligious parents, who tempted them to sin. It is not the excellent 
parish schools of Scotland and New England, which have preserved the 
people of these countries comparatively pure and happy. It is the parish 
schools in connection with the parish churches. Our colleges cannot 
prosper for any considerable period, without being pervaded by a religious 
influence, either in the body of students themselves, or in the surrounding 
neighborhoods. The flame of human intellect must be fed from the great 
source of all intellect. The mind must not be cultivated at the expense of 
the conscience and the heart. 

A notion is gaining ground among us, which inculcates a sort of self- 
education, distinct from religious influence. It is said that you can teach 
a child to feel that he has an immortal nature, that he has noble powers of 
intellect, and that reason has been given to him, by which to guide his 
appetites and passions. Leaving out of view the simple truths of the 
gospel, you can make him a pure child of nature, taught by his own in- 
stincts and by the works of God, to love and adore the Author of nature. 
We do not deny that considerations like these do have some effect on a 
few persons, and perhaps on a few families. But we can never influence 
the mass of men with such sentiments as these. The great majority of 
people are engaged nearly all the time in manual labor, and they always 
will be. When they do think, they need the few simple plain truths of 
the gospel. Nothing else will reach them. We may talk to them with- 
out end about our fine theories, and when they go away they will forget it 
all. Besides, what is the use of Christianity, if we could do without it. 
The heathen have every thing else — conscience, reason, immortal minds, 


God speaking to them from his works on every side ; why do they not 
attend to this self-education ? The fact is, there is no dispensing with the 
gospel in education. If we do not teach our children a religious creed, 
they will get it somewhere else. Our community is full of religious 
creeds. If the minds of our children are not pre-occupied with good 
things, they will be with bad. They will have some kind of a religious 
belief. There is no such thing as keeping their minds like blank paper, 
on which they may record the religious belief, which they have thought 
out themselves, when they come to years of maturity. We have no right 
to cut off religious instruction from other kinds of instruction, and there is 
no reason for doing it, if we had the right. 

5. We have need of a much stronger sense of accountability to God 
than now exists. It is of immense importance to the temporal well-being 
of any community, that there should be spread through it a deep sense of 
responsibility to the Judge of the world. It is not too much to say, that it 
is impossible to hold society together without, it. The little measure of 
quiet which the heathen nations enjoy, is drawn very much from the 
belief that some of their gods will punish sin in the future world. The in- 
dividual, who makes it his aim to weaken a feeling of responsibility in the 
minds of the young men of our cities, would deserve a far heavier execra- 
tion, than the man who should set a city on fire that he might have the 
pleasure of seeing it burn. In the one case property is destroyed ; in the 
other case, that on which the value of property depends, on which society 
itself depends, and without which we might abolish all our courts and 
abrogate all our laws. 

A proof of this assertion is found in the habit of prof an c swearing. We 
might with as much reason as the ancient prophet, utter the exclamation, 
because of swearing the land mourneth. 

We do not know that there is any reason to believe that this vice is at 
all diminishing. It is painful in the extreme for a person of any religious 
sensibility, to pass through some of the streets of our cities. Yet it does 
little good to talk against it, or to enact laws against it. We cannot reach 
it with enactments, or with speeches, or tracts. We must bring before 
the whole community, the fact that there is to be a particular judgment ; 
that there is a righteous God, omniscient, whose eyes are as a flame of 
fire, who does not hold them guiltless who take his name in vain. By all 
means in our power, w r e must impress every class in society with the cer- 
tain expectation, that that man's perdition slumbers not who tramples 
under foot his Maker's name. We can extend this belief where there is 
no Christian principle. That God is a righteous and an avenging Gov- 
ernor of the world, is a truth which he has written on the conscience of 
every man. We need to wake it to intenser life. The manner in which 
the names and agency of fallen spirits is frequently mentioned, is another 
indication of an unfavorable kind. They are spoken of with levity, as 
though they were a harmless sort of beings, or with a lurking skepticism 
about their real existence. This habit is sometimes countenanced by pro- 
fessing Christians, certainly with great inconsiderateness and impropriety. 
The Bible plainly reveals the fact that there are hosts of evil spirits, of 
great strength, cunning, and malice, whose only object is mischief, and of 
whose influence we are in constant danger. If we deny their existence, 
we must on the same principles deny the existence of good angels, or even 
of the Bible itself. Because we do not know the manner in which the 
devil can influence us, we have no reason to doubt the reality of it. We 
vol. ix. 20 


do not know the manner in which the Holy Spirit operates on our minds, 
shall we, therefore, doubt his existence ? 

6. There is need of augmentation in the piety of Christians, in order to 
convince unbelievers of the truth of Christianity. No new miracles are 
wanted, no clearer fulfilment of prophecy, no more perfect harmony be- 
tween the different parts of the Bible, no other historical proof. All these 
things are clear as the light of day. Not a book in the world has one half 
the evidence, of its being what it professes to be, as the Bible. Every 
objection has been met a thousand times, every slander has been refuted, 
every cavil has been silenced. But notwithstanding all this, great num- 
bers of our countrymen remain unbelievers. Irrational as the thing is, 
they continue to reject that only religion by which they can be saved. 
On any other subject, which is accompanied with a tenth part of the 
evidence which blazes around the sacred volume, they would consider it to 
be a disgrace to their understandings to continue in doubt and impeni- 
tence. Let, therefore, the light of evidence, be thrown upon them, strong 
and clear, from the lives of Christians. Show them what Christianity 
really is. Ye who are enlightened with light from above, reflect it all 
around you. Jf you have been guilty of any conduct, which will not bear 
the eye of your fellow man, be guilty of it no more. Utterly avoid all 
deceit, dishonesty, equivocation, taking advantage of the ignorance of 
others, every thing which the most scrupulous integrity would condemn. 
Every member of the church of Christ, should recollect that he is the 
representative of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in his character is to embody 
his religion. The churches are greatly deficient in this respect. How 
often is their religion blasphemed, because they do not come up to their 
standard. Their deficiencies are taken for a true representation of Chris- 
tianity. There are more than a million of professing Christians in this 
country. What might they not do, if they followed near their great Leader ? 
What might they not do, if they really felt that they were the salt of the 
earth, the light of the world, cities set on a hill? Here is need for 
fasting and prayer. On this point the most bitter tears of repentance 
should be shed. The Christian's own happiness is greatly diminished ; he 
is preparing for himself a doubtful death-bed, and a doubtful eternity ; he 
is depriving his country and the world of a most happy influence, because 
he is not that in practical holiness which he ought to be. 

The main reason why Christians are so much divided in this country, 
is want of eminent piety. A man, who lives entirely devoted to God, lives 
in a purer atmosphere than other men. Holiness is as inconsistent with 
hatred to man as it is with hatred to God. From the nature of our civil 
institutions, from the boundless freedom of inquiry which exists on almost 
all subjects, from the number of rival religious denominations, some of them 
differing in so slight a degree as to produce from that very fact, occasions 
of strife and enmity, from all these circumstances, and from many more 
which might be named, there is great danger of endless controversy, and 
bad passion, and bitter animosity among the different sects. The grand 
corrective of all these things is eminent holiness. Bring a man near 
to the Saviour, and he will bring near to himself all whom the Saviour 
loves. Fill the human soul with love to Christ, and there will be no room 
for angry passions. If it be necessary for any Christians to contend in 
controversy with their fellow Christians, let them first engage in a special 
season of prayer for them, and then contend for what they think to be the 
truth, as they imagine holy angels would. 

When shall the whole church of Christ in this country, move on as the 

1836,] STATISTICS OP DENMARK, 1834. 155 

Macedonian phalanx did — compact, unbroken, one spirit, and but one 
reigning in the dense mass — fidelity to their leader. 

We stand on commanding ground. The Christians of other countries 
are looking to us, as the patriots of other countries look to the patriots of 
this. Destitute of eminent piety, we cannot fulfil the great duties which 
are assigned to us ; we cannot answer the end of our existence in this part 
of the world, and in this age. Why have we this prominent station in the 
centre of North America, in a temperate latitude, under pure and healthful 
skies? Why are we placed in connection with so many half-civilized and 
savage tribes in other parts of the continent ? Why such a spirit of adven- 
ture and foreign enterprise in our merchants and seamen ? Why such 
facilities for carrying the lights of learning and Christianity to all other 
nations ? Why all this, but that God intended us to be the almoners of 
his bounty, the dispensers of his grace, the blessed bearers of his salvation 
to countless multitudes of our perishing fellow men. He intended that if 
we were disposed to set a noble example of public justice, of regard for the 
rights of others, of large-hearted benevolence, he would take care that our 
opportunities should be equal to our disposition. 


The Danish government has recently promulgated some statements concern- 
ing the progress of the population of Denmark in the year 1834. According to 
the latest census, which, it is believed, was taken in 1830, the population of 
Denmark Proper, to which part of the monarchy the following figures relate, 
was 1,224,000 souls. The total number of marriages, in 1834, was 10,774, or 
in the proportion of 1 to 113.61 of the population. This proportion is much 
greater than that of England, where the annual average of marriages in each 
of the quinquennial periods that preceded the enumerations of 1801, 1811, 1821, 
and 1831, was as fellows: 

1796, 1800, 1 in 123 1816, 1820, 1 in 127 

1806, 1810, 1 in 121 1826, 1830, 1 in 128 

The average proportion in France, during 17 years, 1817 to 1833, was 1 to 
131. The average number of children born to each marriage in Denmark, is 
stated to be 3.62 about 3 5-8. The total number of births within the year 
amounts to 43,266 (22,109 males, 21,157 females). In this number were 
included 1,810 still-born children, (1,024 males, 768 females.) The proportion 
-of births to the population, including those still-born, is thus, — 1 in 28.27 ; if 
only living children are considered, the proportion will be reduced to 1 in 29£. 
The proportion which the still-born children in Denmark bore to the whole 
number of births in 1834 was 1 to 22.90 ; in Copenhagen the proportion was 
much higher, having been 1 to 16. 

The proportion of illegitimate births is very great in Denmark, being, in 
1834, 4,077 out of 43,266, or 1 illegitimate to 9.16 legitimate children. The 
proportion in Copenhagen is even much greater than this, being 864 in 3,671, 
or 1 in 4.25. Though this proportion is not so unfavorable as that experienced 
in the city of Paris, it appears that the laxity in this particular branch of moral 
conduct is greater throughout Denmark than it is in the entire kingdom of 
France, and greater than that ascertained with regard to most other European 

The number of deaths throughout Denmark, in 1834, was 31,294 ; of whom 
16,296 were males, and 14,998 females. The proportion to the whole popula- 
tion is therefore 1 to 39.11. The number of deaths being: taken from the num- 


ber of the births, leaves 11,972 as the increase of the population during the 
particular year under examination. This increase on a population of 1,224,000, 
is a small fraction short of 1 per cent. (0.978 per cent.), and at this rate of 
progression, the population of the country would double itself in about seventy- 
four and an half years. 


The present kingdom of Saxony, which, previous to 1806, was simply an 
Electorate, is situated towards the North East of Germany, being bounded on 
the South by Bohemia, and on the North by the Prussian States. Its limits 
were greatly reduced by the Congress of Vienna in 1814. Its length is about 
140 English miles, and its greatest breadth about 75. The present administra- 
tive division of the Saxon dominions consists of four great circles, the localities 
of which are — Dresden, Leipzig, Zwickau, and Bautzen. The total population, 
on the first of July, 1832, was 1,558,153, (756,554 males, and 801,599 females ;) 
and on the first of December, 1834, 1,595,668 persons, showing an increase 
between the two periods of 37,515 individuals, which would double the popu- 
lation in about sixty-nine and two thirds years. 
.The following summary may be given. 













, 213,852 























Military and 
their families 





Totals, 141 3,501 209,122 775,244 820,424 1,595,668 

The number of children under fourteen years of age, forms nearly one third 
part of the whole population. The total number of householders is 351,723 ; of 
married pairs 277,812; of married persons living separate, 11,213; of unmar- 
ried persons, 1,028,831. The number of married persons of all descriptions is 
about one third of the whole population. Of every 100 widowed persons, there 
were 29 males to 71 females. 

The following table exhibits the population by religious persuasions : 




Greek ch. 



Circle of Dresden, 







« « Le 








" " Zwickau, 







" *' Bautzen, 

















■Resident in 















The proportions borne by the individuals of different religious persuasions to 
the entire population, were respectively, for every 100,000 persons : — 

Lutheran, 98,091 "| 

Reformed, 101 | 

Catholic, 1,749 }> 100,000. 

Greek church, 6 

Jews, 53 J 

Since the third of July, 1832, the increase in the number of— 

Lutherans was 37,017, or 24 per 1,000. 
Reformed, 230, 165 " » 

Catholics, 241, nearly 9 " 

Greek church, 51, 1,307 " " 

The Jews had decreased by 27 " " 


The total number of deaf and dumb was 1,009, or 1 to 1,579 individuals. The 
number of blind was 324, 1 to 4,924. The number of communicants in the 
Lutheran church in 1834 was 1,639,202, of persons confirmed 33,449 ; of 
Catholic communicants 39,842 ; of persons confirmed, 304; Reformed 85 com- 
municants, and 33 conh'rmations. 

In 1834, the births exceeded the deaths by 13,122 individuals ; being an 
increase of 426 on the excess of births over deaths, in 1833. There are annu- 
ally born more male than female children. The excess of males, in 1834, 
amounted to 1,999. The proportion of illegitimate to legitimate births, for the 
whole country, is shown on the average of four years, (1831 to 1834) to be 1 in 
6.6. The greatest average number of births takes place in January, and the 
least in June. The greatest mortality occurs among children under one year. 
The greatest average monthly mortality for both sexes, is in May ; the least in 

The average number of pupils in the schools to one teacher is 102 ; of 
scholars to each school, 134. The whole number of children frequenting the 
national schools is 274,305, whilst, on the other hand, the proportion of children 
between the ages of 6 and 14 years is only 273,535. Hence there were 770 
children attending the schools above the number of those whose ages were 
between 6 and 14 years. If to these be added the 4,397 children frequenting 
private schools, the aggregate in round numbers is 5,200. 

A comparison of the whole number of persons receiving education, with the 
entire population, shows the average proportion of the former to the latter, to 
be about 1 in 6, or 178 in 1,000 individuals. 


In the elementary schools of the Prussian Dominions, in 1831, the proportion 
of scholars to every 1,000 inhabitants was 147, or about 1 in 7 ; the aggregate 
of scholars being 1,937,934; and that of the population 13,038,960, the average 
number of inhabitants to the German square mile being 2,766. The number of 
teachers, of all description, male and female, was 24,919, and the number of 
schools, 21,889. 

The middle schools amounted to 823, besides the gymnasia and other supe- 
rior schools, 140 in number. The number of pupils receiving instruction in the 
middle schools was 103,477, while the number of pupils receiving instruction in 
the gymnasia was 26,041. The aggregate of children attending school in the 
Prussian Dominions, between the ages of 6 and 14 years was more than 


The territory and population of the Spanish monarchy are as follows : — 

Spain and the Balearic Island 
Canary Islands, .... 
Cuba and Puerto Rico, . . 
Phillippine Islands, . . . 
Coast of Africa, .... 

Sq. leagues. 


Inh.per sq. league. 
















37,902 18,245,000 500 

The Spanish monarchy under Charles V. contained 525,444 square leagues, 
450,000 of which were in America. Part of a statistical account of Spain, 
drawn up by order of Philip II., and which has been preserved, states that there 
were at that time 80,083 civil functionaries, and 367,000 magistrates and subor- 
dinate officers, 58 archbishops, 684 bishops, 11,400 abbes, 936 chapters, 127,000 
parishes, 7,000 religious hospitals, 23,000 monastic orders and congregations, 
and 59,500 convents, of which 46,000 were for men, and 13,500 for women. 
The number of secular clergy was 312,000, of monks and nuns 400,000, and of 


lay-brothers 200,000, altogether 912,000 ecclesiastics. At that time one person 
in every 40 was an ecclesiastic, which gives for the total number of the popu- 
lation 36,480,000, or 676 for each square league. 

The land now under arable cultivation in Spain, is 15,000,000 of English 
acres. One half of the kingdom is in pasturage, supporting 4'00,000 horses, 
3,000,000 horned cattle, and 18,000,000 sheep. The forests occupy one twelfth 
part of the kingdom. The remainder consists of sterile mountains and rivers. 
In 1723, Spain contained 7,500,000 of people ; so that, the present number of 
its inhabitants being very nearly 15,000,000, it has taken 111 years to double 
its population. From 1803 to 1826 the increase was 30 per cent, in unequal 
proportions, as regards different provinces. Grenada has increased 58 per cent. 
The Asturias only 27 per cent. Agricultural productions have increased very 
rapidly during the last twenty years. In 1803, the population, then much 
smaller than now, was fed in part with foreign produce ; the quantity of grain 
now (1834) harvested suffices for the increased numbers. The number of 
bushels now produced is stated to be 22,000,000, nearly double what was 
yielded at the end of the last century. The consumption of all kinds of meat 
is not more than 22 pounds per annum for each inhabitant. The consumption 
of Great Britain is 92, and of London, 143 pounds per annum for each indi- 
vidual. The flocks furnish yearly nearly 40,000,000 pounds of wool. The 
present annual produce of Spain is estimated as follows : — 

Gross value of agricultural produce, £73,886,400 

Net value, . .' 27,267,600 

Gross value of manufactures, 16,126,000 

Net produce, 14,073,600 

Rent of buildings, 7,023,680 

Other sources of revenue, . . . . • 4,394,280 

Total net revenue, £48,759,160 

The total value of imports and exports, in 1784, amounted to £5,727,040, and 
in 1829 to £5,867,760. The present trade of Spain is in great part made up of 
smuggling transactions, which do not appear in the accounts from which the 
last amount was taken. 

Public Revenues, 1833. 

Duties on consumption, 130 millions of reals. Stamps, 20 

Tithes, 40 " " House duty, 60 

Customs and Tobacco duties, 90 " " Various taxes, 200 

Salt duty, 60 

Total, 600 millions 
of reals, or about six millions sterling. 

Expenditure. — Foreign department, 62 millions of reals ; interior, 8 millions ; 
judicial, 18; finance, 80; war, 240; marine, 42; interest on foreign debt and 
sinking fund, 208. Total, 658 millions of reals, or about £6,580,000. 

Education. — The census of 1803 gave 29,900 students for the whole king- 
dom ; or one for 346 inhabitants. The proportion of the population of sufficient 
age to require instruction must amount to 1,500,000 ; so that only one child in 
35 now receives that benefit. 


The accounts are not stated in Austrian Lire, which is the present Venetian 
currency, but in Italian Lire, each of which is equivalent to the French franc, 
or 9&d. English at the usual exchange. The superficial measures are given in 
Tomature, a Tornatura being identical with the French Are, 607 of which 
nearly equal 15 imperial acres. The mile spoken of is the geographical mile of 
60 to a degree. 

Topography. — The Venetian territory consists of eight provinces, divided into 
93 districts, which contain 814 townships, again subdivided into 3,483 sections. 


It comprises 6,902 geographical square miles : its longest diameter is 125 miles, 
and its shortest 112. The country is distributed in the following divisions : 

f Arable, 747,261 Tornature. 

| Meadows, 136,704 

Flat Lands. 1 Pastures, 52,296 

I Rice grounds, 17,821 

L Woods, . . . . • 37,571 

v ,. C Capable of cultivation, 51,274 

Valleys • £ MarsheS) 63,202 

I 777,995 

Hills, . . 186,831 
Mountains, 591,164 
Barren wastes, . 486,947 

Total surface, .... 2,371,071 Tornature. 

Roads. — There are 723 miles of Royal roads, maintained at an annual expense 
to the state of 890,000 lire. There are besides 1,922 miles of main township 
roads, and 3,806 inferior township roads, whose length is not stated, which are 
maintained by the townships chiefly benefited by them. These do not include 
2,108 streets in Venice. 

Bridges. — The State maintains 77 bridges of wood and 401 of stone : there 
are also 369 main township stone bridges, and 263 wooden, besides 3,833 
smaller ones. Venice in addition contains 36 wooden and 270 stone bridges, 
besides 80 private ones. The annual township expenditure on the roads and 
bridges is 370,000 lire. 


In the 8 chief cities, 242,456 

In the 87 chief district towns, 382,984 

In the rest of the country, 1,268,997 

Total, . . 1,894,437 

In 1812 the population was 1,913,986. 

The average number of inhabitants to a square mile is 274. There are 
397,098 families dwelling in 362,854 houses, which gives 477 persons to every 
100 families, and 522 persons to every 100 houses. 

Every male between 14 and 60 not afflicted with habitual disease and living 
without the city, pays a poll-tax. The number so taxed is 409,118. The city 
inhabitants are taxed separately. There are 3,222 nobles, or 1 in 587 inhabi- 
tants ; 14,955 persons officially employed, or 1 in 120 persons : of. these 3,581 
or nearly one-fourth are paid nothing. There are 6,506 pensionaries, or 1 in 
291, more than half of whom belonged to suppressed monasteries. The students 
at the public schools and universities are 70,149, being one-twenty-seventh 
part of the whole. The legal profession reckons 765 members, the medical, 
2,044, the clerical, 8,770, being respectively 1 in 2,476, 1 in 926, and 1 in 216. 

There are 51,651 merchants and dealers, 97,991 artisans, 800,512 agricultur- 
ists, and 16,288 boatmen, mariners and fishermen. The poor amount to 70,961, 
or one-twenty-seventh of the population ; of these, 5,894 are foundlings, being 
1 in 321 ; but this number probably requires modification, as it is suspected that 
the Tyrol furnishes some of the foundlings. In 1823 there were 1,718 found- 
lings, and 85,161 births, being in the proportion of 1 to 48. 

There are 2,329 persons in prison, or 1 in 815 : this number has fallen off by 
one-third since 1818, when it was 3,699, or 1 in 515. 

The average excess of births above deaths in the 5 years from 1819 to 1824, 
was 17,048; but the famine and pestilence of 1816 and 1817 caused the deaths 
to exceed the births in the former year by 11,904, and in the latter by 67,221. 
In the 5 years from 1814 to 1819, the population decreased 89,029 persons, 
being one-twenty-second part of the population. 

The rural population of 1,268,997 contains 823 more males than females, and 
the town population of 625,440, gives 22,272 more females than males. The 
average of 5 years from 1819 to 1824, makes 1 birth in 23 inhabitants, 1 death 


in 29, 1 marriage in 108. The register of deaths includes the still-born. The 
least annual number of marriages was in the famine year of 1817, when they 
were 1 in 176, and the greatest in 1819, when they were 1 in 93 persons. One- 
eighth of all who are born, die on the day of their birth ; one-fifth within the 
month ; one-third within the year, and one-half before their tenth year. 


General Description. — Odessa has two ports, one of which is 12 feet in depth, 
and the other, which is devoted to quarantine purposes, 16 feet. The depth of 
the roadstead is 22 feet. The navigation is annually interrupted by the ice for 
a period of 39 days on the average. 

The city contains, according to a return made in 1832, 

22 Houses three stories high. 
444 do. two do. 

4,076 do. one story. 
1,952 Offices and Cabins. 

Total, . . 6,494 Habitations. 

- There are 17 places of worship, 3 charitable institutions, 546 corn stores, 900 
shops, 4 chief hotels, and 1,535 cellars. 

Population. — The census of Odessa and its environs, for 1833, gives the fol- 
lowing results : — 

Males. Females. 

Nobles, whether officially employed or otherwise, . . . 1,793 1,729 

Other persons officially employed, 299 364 

Clergy and their families, 133 142 

Merchants and their families, 1,741 1,451 

Citizens, 16,875 15,178 

Country people, 2,067 1,577 

Colonists, 215 134 

Military of inferior rank, and their families, 655 1,030 

Foreigners, 2,749 2,175 

Total, 26,532 23,780 

In the above total of 50,312 persons, are included 6,668 Jews, of whom 3,457 
are males, and 3,211 females. In 1804 the population was only 15,000, and in 
1820, 36,000. 

Education. — Odessa contains 18 schools, of which the following are the par- 
ticulars : — 

Boys' 1 School. 


Richelieu Lyceum, 470 

Greek School, 236 

Oriental do., 6 

Evangelical do., 107 

Jewish do., 267 

Orphan Asylum, 85 

Six Private Schools, 203 

Total, 1,374 

Girls' School. 

Institute of Young Ladies of Noble Birth, 79 

City School, 132 

Four Private Schools, 186 

Total, 397 

Total attending the schools of both sexes, . . 1,771 
Thus one person in every 28 inhabitants is at school. 




IAterature and Science. — 25,000 volumes were imported into Odessa in 1831, 
and 40,000 in 1832. 

Odessa possesses two public and four circulating libraries, of which latter 
two are French, one Russian, and one German ; reading rooms are attached to 
these, the subscribers to which, in 1833, amounted to 175 in the French, and to 
55 in the Russian and German libraries, making altogether 230 subscribers. 
There is also a museum of antiquities which were collected in New Russia. 

The periodical publications of Odessa are, — 

The "Journal of Odessa" (in Russian) and its supplement. 

The "Feuille Litteraire." 

The " Bulletin of Odessa" (in French). 

The " Odessa Calendar." 

In 1832, ten works were published in Odessa, and in 1833, six. Of these 
sixteen works, six were scientific, four elementary for education, and six on 
miscellaneous literary subjects. 



Of Deaths, Births, Marriages, and Population, in the provinces of the kingdom of 
Sicily, north of the Straits of Messina, for the year 1833. 







Deaths | Births 
over over 



Births. | Deaths. 



Capital of Naples, . . 







Province of Naples, . . 








Terra di Lavoro, . . . 








Principato citeriore, . . 
















Principato ulteriore, . . 








Capitanta, . . . 








Terra di Bari, .... 







43 1 ,380 

Terra d' Otranto, , . . 








Calabria citeriore, 








Calabria ulteriore, 1, 








Calabria uiteriore, 2, 






333,017 . 










Abbruzzo citeriore, . . 








Abbruzzo ulteriore, 1, . 








Abbruzzo ulteriore, 2, . 



43,865 1 








It is thus seen that in 1833, the births, deaths, and marriages were respec- 
tively, in proportion to the whole population, as one in 27, one in 38, and one in 
135 inhabitants. 

In 1832 the births were 206,344, the deaths 165,753, the marriages 42,932— 
the proportions to the population being, therefore, one in 23, one in 35, and one 
in 136 inhabitants. In 1831 the births were as one in 152 — being respectively 
213,031, 192,038, and 37,901. 

Hence, in 1831, the population had an excess of births over deaths of 25,993 
individuals ; in 1832, of 40,591, and in 1833, of 61,687. 






From the statements presented, it will appear that we have, in England 
and Wales, about 802 churches in association; 663 of whom have reported 
4,261 baptisms within 12 months, and a clear increase of 2,275 members. In 
498 churches, we have 40,763 members. In 136 of our Sunday schools, there 
are instructed 19,480 scholars. These are numbers which may excite our 
devout gratitude, and which should call forth the most lively effort and earnest 
supplication in reference to the future. If the 500 of our churches not at 
present associated have prospered in the same degree, they, with the churches 
whose numbers we have not ascertained, must contain not less at present than 
106,000 members; and their Sunday schools upwards of 180,000 scholars. 

Income and Expenditure of the principal Public Institutions con- 
, nected with the baptist denomination in england, during the 
year ending june, 1835. 

Baptist Missionary Society, 
Baptist Home Missionary Society, 
Baptist Irish Society, 
General Baptist Missionary Society, 
Serampore Missionary Society, 
Baptist Continental Society, 





218 10 




£. s. 

35,248 6 

2,052 18 

2,600 2 


2,419 9 

340 1 















No. of Students. Receipts. 

£. s. d. 






776 14 




250 4 

1,307 12 10 

226 9 


£. s. d. 

1,446 1 4 

168 10 0% 

838 9 1 

216 9 5 

1,370 7 1 

200 4 6 

Baptist Fund, 

Baptist Magazine, 

Bath Society, 

Baptist Building Fund, 
New Selection of 

Miscellaneous Societies. 
Founded. Objects. 

1717 Education of Ministers, 
Support of Poor Church- 
es, &c. 

1809 Relief of Ministers' Wi- 

1816 Support of Superannuated 

1824 Erection of Chapels, 

1829 Relief of Widows and 
Orphans of Ministers 
and Missionaries, 

£. S. d. 


£. s. d. 

,059 8 10 

3,684 5 


380 3 8 
910 13 10 

286 13 6 
803 9 11 

136 3 6 100 

* It i-j important here to remark, 1 hat Iho ordinary income of the society during the past year was about 
£10,200. The remaining portion nroae from contributions of about £14,000 from the public for rebuilding 
the chapels in Jamaica, and a grant from the Government for the same purpose, of £ 11,705. In addition 
to tin- income, stock to the amount of upwards of £5,000 has been traDsferrod to the trustees of the 
society, under the will of the late H. Cock, Esq. of Colchester 


Scotland and Ireland. 

Mr. M'Lean is the acknowledged founder of the "Scotch Baptists." T'hHr 
leading peculiarities, in the early part of their existence, were a plurality of 
elders or pastors in each church, and weekly communion. A considerable 
number of Baptist churches exist in Scotland, some of which are large and 
respectable, that are constituted on the same principles as the English Baptist 

The churches in Ireland are also constructed on the same general form. The 
probable number of churches in both countries is 120 — members 10,000. 


We find the following summaries in vol. ii. of the Rev. I. M. Allen's ex- 
cellent Triennial Baptist Register. 

From the statements presented in the preceding pages, it will appear that we 
have in the United States 365 associations, 252 of which reported 25,224 
baptisms within 12 months, and a clear increase of 27,718 members. In 6,319 
churches we have 452,000 members. The Free Will Baptists are not included 
in this enumeration. In 750 churches they have 33,882 members. In British 
America, we have 172 churches with 25,195 communicants. In 1,038 of our 
Sunday schools, reported by unions or associations in New Hampshire, Mas- 
sachusetts, -Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and 
North Carolina, we have 62,333 scholars. This enumeration is very imperfect. 
Many of our churches in these States and throughout the Union have flourishing 
Sunday schools and Bible classes in operation, whose numbers have not been 
reported. The whole number may be safely computed at 3,000 with upwards 
of 170,000 scholars. 

It is probable that we have not less than 50 churches in association and 
about 200 unassociated, whose numbers we have not ascertained. The number 
of their members may be computed at 10,000. Including these, we have in 
the United States and British Possessions in America 7,549 churches, and 
527,523 members. 

Income and Expenditure of some of the principal Public Institutions connected with 
the Baptist Denomination in the United Slates, during the past year. 

Societies. Formed. Income. Expenditure. Annual Meetings. 

Triennial Convention, 1814 $60,000 $70,000 Last Wednesday in April. 

Baptist General Tr. Society, 1824 8,000 8,000 First Wednesday in Jan. 

Northern Education Society, 1814 9,404 9,348 Last week in May. 

Western Education Society, 1834 First week in November. 

Home Mission Society, 1832 *16,910 First week in May. 

New England Sab. S. Union, 1836 

Baptist Bible Society, 1836 

* 1836. 



Communicated by a Foreign Missionary. 

It has been said from high authority, that the missionary question, in 
whatever way decided, is momentous. Should the verdict of Christendom 
be favorable, results will ensue without delay, and instead of the limited 
experiments now making, a few more years may witness the stupendous 
spectacle of Europe and America transplanting their religion into Africa 
and Asia, and the islands of the deep ; baptizing the savage in the bosom 
of Australia ; erecting churches in the valleys of Himmaleh, or rearing the 
cross upon the mountains of the Moon. If, on the other hand, the judg- 
ment be adverse, what resources will be husbanded, what efforts will be 
saved for the successful furtherance of wiser plans? * 

-And why should not all Christendom speedily decide this question, and 
act without delay, according to the dictates of truth ? It is admitted that 
it is momentous. Every man, then, is called upon to examine the claims 
of missions on his attention. He who proudly turns away from it has no 
claim — I do not say to the character of a Christian — he has none to the 
character of a candid and unprejudiced mind. In this paper, I propose to 
examine (he ground of sending missions to the heathen; the necessities of 
the u it evangelized ; and the encouragement to engage in this icork. 

To all who acknowledge the authority of the Bible, I need scarcely say, 
that in the commission of Jesus Christ to his disciples, we have ground 
for proclaiming the gospel to pagan nations. 

Sin interrupted the intercourse which man once maintained with his 
Creator. In approaching Cod, after the violation of his holy law, there 
was a constant and striking allusion to the necessity of a propitiatory sa- 
crifice. Altars, smoking with the blood of victims slain to atone for guilt, 
indicated that without the shedding of blood there could be no remission. 
At length Jesus Christ appeared to take away sin, or to lay the foundation 
of its being forgiven by the sacrifice of himself. That the design of his 
mission was to benefit the world, is evident from the annunciation of his 
nativity. " Behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to 
all people." That all should be benefited by his death, the Saviour plainly 
declared, " And I, if 1 be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto 
me." " By the grace of God," declares an apostle, " he tasted death for 
every man." " lie is the propitiation for the sins of the whole world." 

The death of Christ opened a medium of intercourse between heaven 
and earth. God can now be just while he extends mercy to the 
penitent. Nor is there any other method by which sinners may obtain 
the divine favor. " There is no other name under heaven given among 
men, whereby any may be saved." Jesus ascended the mediatorial throne, 
and being at the right hand of God, exalted to give repentance and remis- 
sion of sins, he is ready to shed forth the Holy Spirit. While he holds 
the mediatorial throne, there is ample ground for proclaiming the gospel to 
every creature. 

Nor is this all. In consequence of the atonement, Jesus Christ has a 

* See American Quarterly Review, 1831- 


special title to the affections and service of the heathen secured to him by 
the promise of the Father. This prerogative of the Messiah was propheti- 
cally announced long before his advent. " When thou shalt make his soul 
an offering for sin," declares the prophet, " he shall see his seed, he shall 
prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hands. 
He shall see of the travail of his soul and shall be satisfied." " I have 
set my king upon my holy hill Zion. Ask of me, and I will give thee the 
heathen for thy inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy 
possession." The apostle Paul declares, that in consequence of the hu- 
miliation and death of Christ, "God hath exalted him, and given him a 
name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee 
should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the 
earth ; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to 
the glory of the Father." Thus having redeemed the world by the blood 
of his own cross, and having the nations secured to him by the promise of 
the Father, as the reward of his sufferings, there is laid the broadest foun- 
dation for proclaiming the gospel to pagan nations. It is exceedingly 
painful to look back and trace generation after generation of men, who 
lived before the advent of Christ, and to reflect that with a single excep- 
tion, all nations lived and died without religious instruction. All who 
would become proselytes to the Jewish religion, were indeed circumcised, 
and taught the knowledge of the true God ; but we hear of no command 
given to the Israelites to afford instruction to their neighbors, nor do we 
read of a single effort made beyond the limits of their own country, to 
scatter the darkness of idolatry, and to give perishing men the means of 
raising them from the degradation and ruin of sin. The wall which sepa- 
rated the Jewish from all other nations, reached to heaven, and seemed to 
preclude all hope to the latter. The providence of God, which thus aban- 
doned to the darkness of paganism, so vast a majority of the human 
family, is exceedingly mysterious. 

But it was very different when Christ appeared. With his expiring groan, 
he sapped the foundation of that wall which separated the Gentiles from 
the Jews. No sooner had he risen, than he inculcated the duty of universal 
philanthropy. " Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every 
creature." He declared that it " behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise 
from the dead, and that repentance and remission of sins should be 
preached in his name, beginning at Jerusalem." He assured his disciples 
that they should be "witnesses unto him, both in Jerusalem, and in all 
Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost parts of the earth." To 
remove their prejudices to the work of preaching the gospel to the despised 
Gentiles, a vision was disclosed to the apostle Peter, assuring him of God's 
design of extending mercy to them ; and while the commissioned heralds 
of the cross still lingered, the scourge of persecution drove them from the 
borders of Judea, and scattered them among the nations of the earth. 
What ample ground in the mediation of the Son of God ; in the right of 
universal possession vested in his hands ; and in his ascending command, 
for preaching the gospel to pagan nations. 

But why preach the gospel to the heathen ? Do the necessities of pagan 
nations require, on the part of Christians, so great a sacrifice as is im- 
plied in the act of carrying to them the gospel ? Must educated and re- 
fined men, and delicate females, go and live and die among pagan stran- 
gers 7 Let us contemplate their condition, examine their necessities that 
we may determine this interesting question. Men exist as physical, social, 
and moral beings. In respect to each of these attributes, it can easily be 


shown that wherever the gospel has not been proclaimed, the state of the 
heathen is exceedingly degraded, — their prospects fearfully dark. Go and 
examine the physical condition of those nations which know not the true 
God. The picture of their degradation, which should be true to the ori- 
ginal, must be drawn in disgusting colors. Destitute of motives sufficiently 
powerful to elevate their character, they sink to the level of the brutes. 
This shade of native character, I freely admit, is less worthy of notice 
than that of others ; yet who does not know that there is a connection 
between all the attributes of the man ? that the mind is influenced by 
the purity of the body ? and that the happiness and usefulness of men 
depend upon the right direction of their physical energies ? When, 
therefore, we look upon men imbedded in filth, and averse to labor, let us 
consider, not merely what a loss of rational enjoyment we contemplate, but 
how many avenues we see thrown open to guilt, disease, and death. 

Again, man is a social being. The power of interchanging thought, is 
one of the richest gifts which God has conferred on men. Hence arise 
the sweet intercourse of life, — the joys which cluster about our path, and 
yield the most delicious fruits. The proper use of this attribute, confers 
on man the highest dignity, and renders society on earth a type of the 
society of the upper world. 

But what is the social character of pagan nations? In most cases, the 
ties which bind in sweet union, husbands and wives, parents and children, 
are exceedingly feeble. Often do they seem destitute of natural affection. 
Children are sacrificed to appease the anger of idol gods. In case of sick- 
ness or age, often is the parent abandoned by his offspring to a lingering 
death, or consumed on the funeral pile. Even in less barbarous societies, 
what is the character of social intercourse? Listen to the language of 
this intercourse for a single hour, and tell me what is its tendency ? Has 
it a tendency to ennoble and refine? Is it harmless even ? No ; it may 
not be repeated. It shocks the ear — taints the mind — is utterly debased 
and ruinous. 

There is among pagan nations a great waste of mind. Indications of 
intellectual strength frequently appear, and occasionally there seems to be 
something like an effort made to break the spell by which mind is holden ; 
but ignorance rivets her chains, and thus deprives the world of efficient 
power. And what a loss is this. I do not say of individual happiness 
merely, though I ask, Is the besotted Hindoo, or the wandering savage, 
as happy as the Scottish peasant, poor, but cleanly, industrious, and intelli- 
gent? But what a loss to the world. Would it have been no public loss, 
had Bacon, and Newton, and Edwards, been placed in circumstances 
where they could not have developed those powers of mind which aston- 
ished the world, and enriched almost every department of science? And 
does not the amazing waste of intellect which the world sustains in conse- 
quence of withholding instruction from heathen nations, show that their 
circumstances are exceedingly wretched ? 

But man has a much more important character than physical or social. 
He is a moral being, and as such we must contemplate him, would we 
ascertain his real condition. Now it is the concurrent language of facts 
that pagan nations are exceedingly wicked. Those who have been most 
intimately acquainted with their character, have acknowledged the cor- 
rectness of the catalogue of their crimes — the picture of their degradation 
as drawn by the hand of Paul. They are the slaves of superstition, 
passion and appetite — are revengeful, deceitful, bloody — utterly disqualified 
for heaven. The father teaches his lisping son to bend the knee to gods 


which his own hands have made. The mother, the friend who should 
guard her charge with the utmost care from all pollution, for a contemptible 
trifle, leads her daughter to the temple of lust, arid witnesses without 
emotion, her degradation, crime and wretchedness. Thus is the fountain 
of society tainted, and the streams which flow from it are bitter, polluted, 
deadly. Such are the necessities of the heathen. And are they not 
sufficiently great to call forth the deepest sympathy of every friend of his 
species'? — and do they not fully justify all the sacrifices which have ever 
been made? — and do they not demand a great increase of effort, and a 
perseverance in labor till those necessities shall be fully removed ? 

But what encouragement exists to labor for pagan nations? I answer 
great, both from the promises and providtnce of God. 

The promise of God to his servants, who in his name go forth to evan- 
gelize the heathen, is very precious. fi Lo 1 am with you always." The 
honor of the Saviour is pledged to afford them aid. The heathen are his 
possession. With his blood has he purchased them; and in respect to their 
condition as physical, social and moral beings, he is dishonored by withhold- 
ing from them evangelical instruction. The body he has fitted up for the 
residence of the Holy Spirit— to become the temple of the living God ; and 
shall it be occupied by foul spirits — be a den of thieves without displeasing 
him ? The social powers were given to assimilate men to angels ; and 
shall they be perverted to the worst of purposes? — shall the immortal mind, 
endowed with the noblest faculties, capable of vast enlargement, of receiv- 
ing and imparting happiness, be suffered to lie utterly waste ?— especially, 
shall that homage which is due to the living God, be paid to dumb idols, 
and that atonement which has been made at infinite expense, be slighted 
by the fruitless efforts of men to obtain the same end by self-inflicted 
penances, and the Saviour not be dishonored and offended ? His honor then 
is pledged to render effectual the efforts made to scatter the darkness of pa- 
ganism — to shed the light of life on the benighted nations. And who is he that 
hath pledged his honor to sustain and bless his people in their labors? The 
King of kings, and Lord of lords, who was dead, and is alive, and behold 
he liveth forevermore, and hath the keys of death and hell — to whom all 
power is committed, and who will reign till he hath put all his foes beneath 
his feet. 

And do not the providences of God afford encouragement to send the 
gospel to pagan nations? Has not success attended missionary efforts in 
a sufficient degree to inspire hope in the hearts of Christians; to call forth 
their warmest thanksgivings to God, and to strengthen their hands for in- 
creased action? No one who has candidly read the record of missionary 
labors among the heathen can for a moment doubt it. Look we to the 
east, and to the west, to the north and to the south, among the sottish 
Greenlanders, the licentious Islanders of the Pacific, the haughty Asiatic, 
or the bloody savage of the wilderness, we see the most unequivocal evidence 
that no well-directed efforts to bless bewildered nations, have ever been 
made in vain. The Bible translated into the languages of the heathen ; 
the thousands of every age and condition gathered into mission schools 
and instructed in the principles of the Christian religion, and taught also 
the arts and sciences; the churches formed, and the Holy Spirit shed down 
upon heathen congregations, all, all show the hand of God, who in his 
good providence is encouraging his people to go forward in their benevolent 
work of reclaiming a vicious, and saving a dying world. 

So plainly has God indicated his designs of mercy to the heathen, so 
evidently is a redeeming process going on which promises at no very distant 


period to convert a vast morass to a fruitful field, that no man who claims 
a heart of benevolence can stand back from bearing a generous part in the 
work of extending to the earth's remotest bounds, the benefits of the gospel. 
All, all are called upon in the most impressive manner to come up to the 
" help of the Lord against the mighty/' to spread the knowledge of the 
Saviour among every benighted tribe of men. 

Happy they who find a heart to engage in self-denying efforts, in bringing 
back to its allegiance to God, a revolted world. What though they be a 
little band, engaged almost single-handed against a mighty host, and well- 
nigh sundered from human sympathy and aid; they need not despond, they 
that be for them, are more than they who be against them. What though 
their toils and sufferings be severe and exhausting. They toil and suffer 
for Jesus, who for the sake of raising from the degradation of sin, polluted, 
dying men, left the throne and society of heaven, tabernacled on earth, 
endured shame and reproach ; and that they might wear an immortal 
crown, suffered the agonies of the cross. What though their honest and 
well-directed efforts awaken the dislike, and call forth the opposition of 
wicked men? Shall they therefore abandon their work ? Let them not 
fear. The Son of God, long dishonored by the sins of men, offended that 
the world which he has redeemed should so long be a theatre of idolatry, 
and lust, and blood, is on his way to universal dominion. Wo, wo to those 
who attempt to arrest the progress of his triumphal car. They shall 
submit, and bemoan their folly, or be crushed beneath it; for he shall go 
forth from conquering to conquer till it shall be said, "The kingdoms of this 
world are become the kingdom of our Lord, and he shall reign forever." 


William Carey, the distinguished missionary, was born in the village 
of Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, England, August 17, 1761. His edu- 
cation was such as was commonly acquired in country villages at that 
time. From about seven years of age, he was afflicted with a very painful 
cutaneous disease, which, though it scarce ever appeared in the form of 
an eruption, yet made the sun's rays insupportable to him. This unfitted 
him for earning his living by labor in the field, or elsewhere out of doors. 
His parents were poor, and unable to do much for him ; but being pain- 
fully affected by his condition, they, with great difficulty, apprenticed him 
to a shoemaker at Hackleton. When he had served two years, his 
master died. He then engaged to pay the widow a certain sum, for 
the remainder of the time for which he was bound, and from that 
time worked as a journeyman with Mr. T. Old, of Hackleton, till the 
death of Mr. O. He was accounted a good workman, Mr. Old keep- 
ing a pair of shoes, made by Carey, in his shop as a model. He was 
obliged, however, to work for lower wages than usual, on account of 
his not having served the full time in the business. This compelled 
him to labor very hard, and kept him very poor. On one occa- 
sion, without a penny in his pocket, he went to Olney to hear Dr. 
Ryland preach. He fasted all day because he could not purchase a din- 
ner. After Mr. Old's death, he took the stock and business. Trade at 
that time being very good, his prospects seemed promising, but he soon 


after failed. A large order, Mr. Old had engaged to supply, was returned 
on Carey's hands, just after it was executed ; so that he felt considerable 
embarrassment from it, and was obliged to dispose of the goods to great 
disadvantage. After his marriage, he settled in a small house at Hackle- 
ton. Here he was attacked with a violent fever. After that was removed, 
an ague followed, which, for more than a year and a half, could not be 
removed. Often he travelled from place to place to dispose of his stock. 
His brother, then quite a youth, had so great anxiety for him, that he 
saved, out of his own earnings and from little trifles which he possessed, 
considerable sums, which he presented to William, who received them 
with sentiments of tenderness and gratitude. The ague was the cause of 
his hair coming off, which never grew again. It was likewise attended by 
a severe cough, which never wholly left him while he was in England. 
The scorbutic disorder he had when a boy, he always felt while in Eng- 
land, if he was for a short time exposed to the sun. After he removed 
to Moulton, there was a prospect of his obtaining a good school, while he 
was occasionally called to " exercise his gifts " of preaching among the 
Baptists. His prospects were soon, however, blasted, by the return of the 
former schoolmaster. He had, probably, much less faculty for communi- 
cating knowledge, than for acquiring it. He could never assume the 
carriage, nor utter the tones, nor wield the sceptre of a schoolmaster. He 
would frequently smile at his incompetency in these respects ; and used to 
say facetiously, " When I kept school, the boys kept me." To compen- 
sate for this failure, he had recourse to his business, working to some 
extent with his own hands, and giving out work to be done for others, for 
a gentleman residing at Kettering. 

'On his removal to Leicester, his temporal circumstances were some- 
what improved ; yet here he also found it necessary to increase his income 
by again teaching a school. He thus writes to his father, in November, 
1790. " On Monday, T confine myself to the study of the learned lan- 
guages, and oblige myself to translate something. On Tuesday, to the study 
of science, history, composition, etc. On Wednesday, I preach a lecture, 
and have been for more than twelve months on the book of Revelation. 
On Thursday, I visit my friends. Friday and Saturday are spent in pre- 
paring for the Lord's day ; and the Lord's day, in preaching the word of 
God. Once a fortnight, I preach three times at home ; and once a fort- 
night, I go to a neighboring village in the evening. Once a month, I go 
to a neighboring village, on the Tuesday evening. My school begins at 
nine o'clock in the morning, and continues till four o'clock in the winter, 
and five o'clock in the summer. I have acted for this twelvemonth, as 
secretary to the Committee of Dissenters ; and am now to be regularly 
appointed to that office with a salary. Add to this, occasional journeys, 
ministers' meetings, etc., and you will rather wonder that I have any time, 
than that I have so little." 

On the 1 1th of November, 1793, Mr. Carey arrived at Calcutta, the 
capital of the British possessions in Hindoostan, in the vicinity of which 
city, he spent the remainder of his life as a missionary. On the 9th of 
June, 1834, he slept in Jesus. 

" The first of the Indian tongues," says Mr. H. H. Wilson, Sanscrit 
professor at Oxford, " to which the attention of Dr. Carey was directed, 
was naturally that of Bengal. He soon found, however, that a thorough 
knowledge of Bengali was unattainable, without a conversancy with 
Sanscrit, which he always regarded as ' the parent of nearly all the col- 
loquial dialects of India/ and 'the current medium of conversation among 
vol. ix. 22 


the Hindoos, until gradually corrupted by a number of local causes, so as 
to form the languages at present spoken in the various parts of Hindoostan, 
and perhaps those of some of the neighboring countries.' He commenced 
the study of Sanscrit, therefore, at an early period of his residence, and 
his labors in it have placed him high amongst the most distinguished of 
our Sanscrit scholars. It appears also, that he was early induced to 
acquire a knowledge of Mahratta. Upon the first establishment of the 
college of Fort William, in 1800, the known attainments of Dr. Carey, 
pointed him out to the government of India, as a fit person to be attached 
to the new institution; and he was accordingly engaged to give tuition in 
the Sanscrit, Bengali, and Mahratta languages, with the title of teacher; 
his own humility disclaiming the more ambitious designation of professor, 
at least until the year 1807, when he submitted to be so entitled. He 
continued to occupy this station, until the virtual abolition of the college, 
by the discontinuance of European professors in 1^30-1. He then retired 
on a pension, far from adequate to the length and value of his services, and 
the character for ability, industry, regularity, and judgment, which he had 
uniformly sustained." 

"One of the first works published by Dr. Carey, was his Grammar of the 
Sanscrit language. " It is a work," says Professor Wilson, " of immense 
extent and labor. It forms a quarto volume of more than 1,000 pages. 
It is divided into five books ; the first treats of letters and of their eupho- 
nic combinations; the second, of declension; the third, of conjugation ; 
the fourth, of the formation of derivative nouns ; and the fifth, of syntax." 
" Notwithstanding some drawbacks, his grammar is a work of very great 
merit; and in the immense accumulation of useful examples and illustra- 
tions which it affords, especially in the paradigms of the verbs, and in 
the development of derivative nouns, it is of invaluable assistance, both to 
the beginner, and to the more advanced student." 

Dr. Carey never engaged, to any considerable extent, in the prosecution 
of Hindoo literature, unconnected with philological research. The only 
published work in which he is known to have been concerned, is the text 
of the epic poem, the Ramayana, which he edited, and to which he sub- 
joined a translation, in concert with Dr. Marshman. Mr. Colebrooke has 
acknowledged his assistance in conducting the Amara Kosha through the 
press at Serampore. Dr. Carey was also the editor of the Hitopadesa. 
It seems probable that he assisted Mr. Ward in his account of the Hindoos. 
It was not his nature to volunteer a display of his erudition. It may be 
added, that Dr. Carey spoke Sanscrit with fluency and correctness. He 
left the students of the Bengali language, not only well supplied with ele- 
mentary books, but furnished standard compositions, and laid the founda- 
tion of a cultivated tongue and flourishing literature throughout the country. 
A highly competent native authority, Baboo Ram Comol Shen, says, " I 
must acknowledge that whatever has been done towards the revival of the 
Bengali language, its improvement, and, in fact, the establishment of it as 
a language, must be attributed to that excellent man, Dr. Carey, and his 
colleagues, by whose liberality and great exertions, many works have been 
carried through the press, and the general tone of the language of the 
province of Bengal has been so greatly raised." Several editions of his 
Bengali Grammar, and of his Dialogues in Bengali, have been published. 
The first volume of his Bengali and English Dictionary, was published in 
18 •">. It was reprinted in lrtl8; the second and third volumes appeared 
in lri2>. The whole comprehend above two thousand quarto pages, and 
about eighty thousand words ; a number that equally demonstrates the 


copiousness of the language, and the industry of the compiler. An abridg- 
ment, in one octavo volume, was printed in 1827. 

Of a less prominent, but equally useful character, were the labors of 
Dr. Carey in other Indian dialects. lie reduced the rudiments of the 
Mahratta language for himself. He published a Grammar of this language 
in 1805, and a Dictionary of ten thousand words in 1810. His Telinga 
Grammar, was the first published grammar of that tongue in English. 
For the Kurnata Grammar, also, no model existed, nor was there any for 
the Punjabi. These works are all characterized by succinctness and 

Dr. Carey was an early associate of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and 
furnished one or two instructive papers to the Researches. He was a 
diligent contributor to the Agricultural Society of Calcutta, of which he 
was one of the founders, and for some time president. Besides a valuable 
catalogue of the plants of the Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta, 
which he printed in 1814, he was engaged for several years, in the publi- 
cation of a Flora Indica, in concert with Dr. Wallich ; two volumes of it 
have appeared. He also bore a considerable part in the periodical publi- 
cations of the Serampore press. 

These various pursuits were all, however, secondary to the main end of 
multiplying and disseminating translations of the Holy Scriptures. He 
commenced his labors in this department in 1794. He completed his 
Bengali New Testament, and a part of the Old, in 1796. His next un- 
dertaking was a Sanscrit translation. This was completed in 1816. 
Revised editions of both the Bengali and Sanscrit translations have been 
published. " They are," says Professor Wilson, " performances of real 
merit, and have been very extensively serviceable in diffusing accurate 
notions of gospel truth amongst the millions of Bengal." Shortly after the 
establishment of Dr. Carey and his brethren at Serampore, they devised 
and carried into execution a comprehensive scheme for the translation of 
the Bible into all the languages of India. Accordingly they published, in 
the course of about five and twenty years, translations of portions of the 
Old and New Testaments, more or less considerable, in forty different 

* The facts in the preceding sketch are drawn from the very interesting and valuable Life of Dr. Carey, 
by Eustace Carey, republished in this city by Gould, Kendall & Lincoln, in one volume of 422 pages, with 
A v portrait, and a well-written introductory essay, by President Wayla-nd. 



1. Mammon; or, Coveiousness the Sin of the Christian Church. By the Rev. 
John Harris, author of the Great Teacher. Boston : Gould, Kendall & 
Lincoln. 1836. ' pp. 230. 

Mr. Harris is a glowing and spirited writer, with no inconsiderable claims to origi- 
nality of thought and of expression. Covetousness, in common hands, would be a 
jejune and threadbare topic. It is a favorite theme for schoolboys, and third-rate 
public teachers. Mr. Harris, however, brings to the consideration of it, a logical mind, 
the stores of extensive illustration, and a heart warm with love for perishing men-<- 
deprived of the gospel of Christ through the penuriousness of its professors. We do 
not think the author's style and manner faultless ; neither do we accord with every 
sentiment which he propounds. Yet no Christian, we should think, could read it, 
without deriving much benefit, and feeling stronger desires to correct in himself and 
in. others all tendencies to that covetousness, which is, in the sight of God, idolatry. 
The essay received a prize of 100 guineas, given by a Dr. J. T. Conquest, and awarded 
by Rev. Dr. John Pye Smith and the Hon. and Rev. Baptist W. Noel. The number 
of essays offered in the competition was 143. Mr. Harris considers, 1, that selfishness 
is the antagonist of the gospel ; 2, covetousness as the principal form of selfishness — 
in its nature, forms, prevalence, particularly in Britain — disguises, tests, evils, doom, 
pleas ; and, 3, an explanation and enforcement of Christian charity. 

2. The Philosophy of Benevolence. By Pharccllus Church, A. M., Rochester, 
JY. Y. New York : Leavitt, Lord & Co. 1836. pp. 355. 

This volume comes highly recommended by the Rev. Drs. Spring, Brownlee, Peters, 
Milnor, Going, Proudfit, Davis, Professors Bush, Caswell, and others. It seems to us 
to be composed strictly in conformity to its title. It is a thorough, temperate and fair- 
minded discussion of some of the more important principles and modes of procedure of 
oifr benevolent associations. The subject has evidently not attracted the attention of 
thinking and practical men, to the extent which its importance demands. No conside- 
rate Christian can, for a moment, suppose that the directors of our benevolent associa- 
tions have reached the ultimate point of sound wisdom and of the greatest efficiency in 
the management of the interests intrusted to them. They, as well as others, ought to 
be thankful for many of the suggestions of Mr. Church. His opinions, however, on 
some topics, for instance those on permanent funds, we could not admit without decided 
qualifications. Foundations, we suppose, are absolutely necessary to ensure the con- 
tinued prosperity of our literary institutions. The expediency of an entire exclusion 
of them in the support of charitable societies, is not a self-evident proposition. 

3. Ciceronis Selector Qu<edam Epistolce, accedunt Notulce el llluelrationes An^lica. 

Cura M. L. Hurlbut. In usum scholarum. Philadelphia? : Surnptibus H. 
Perkins. 1836. 

" During the whole of his career," remarks Mr. Hurlbut, " Cicero was in the habit of 
frequent and full epistolary intercourse with the principal men of the time, of all parties 
and characters. To some of them he was in the practice of pouring out his thoughts 
and feelings on all kinds of topics, as the passing events of the day suggested them, 
without reserve." "The letters of Cicero are history, in its truest and best sense. 
They are history in its elements. They are instinct with the spirit of life and reality. 
They form, as it is well known, the basis and substance of one of the most valuable 
historical biographies in our language — Middleton's Life of Cicero." We have only to 


add that the selection seems to have been judiciously made. A number of illustrative 
notes are added. We have not observed any fault in the typography. The letters of 
Cicero certainly claim a very high rank in respect to Latinity, grace, flow, good sense, 
and the valuable information which they furnish. 

4. Memoir of the Rev. Joseph Sanford. By the Rev. Robert Baird. Philadel- 

phia: Henry Perkins. 1836. 

Mr. Sanford was a faithful and affectionate Presbyterian minister, first of a church in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. and afterwards of a church in Philadelphia. The memorials compiled 
and edited by Mr. Baird, exhibit him to us in a very amiable and attractive point of 
view — as supremely desirous to commend himself to his flock as a good steward of the 
manifold grace of God. 

5. The Stability of the Church of God, independent of Political Changes : a 
Discourse delivered at Orange Street Chapel, Leicester Square, London, Feb. 
7, 1833, before the Monthly Meeting of the Congregational Pastors and 
Churches. By John Blackburn, pp. 26. 

The text of this sermon is Psalm xlvi. 5 : " God is in the midst of her ; she shall not 
be moved." That the stability of the church of God is certain, is proved, 1, in order 
that the immutable purposes of Jehovah may be accomplished ; 2, that the express 
declarations of Scripture may be fulfilled, and, 3, that the moral glory of the Cieator 
may be maintained. Conquest may destroy its local influence, but cannot extinguish 
its spiritual life. Spoliation may destroy the temporal distinction of the church, but 
cannot lessen its moral dignity. Controversy may destroy its social tranquillity, but 
cannot obliterate evangelical truth. Some practical remarks close the discourse. 

6. The Third Address of the Annual Assembly of the Congregational Union of 
England and Wales, held at the Congregational Library, London, May 10, 

This address is mainly confined to the discussion of the following topic : " Great 
attainments in personal piety are absolutely indispensable to the effective operation of 
the voluntary system among the churches of the Congregational order." The bearings 
of this subject are pointed out in relation to ministers, deacons, and private members of 
churches. Various exhortations are then addressed to Christians, in respect to provid- 
ing and recommending individuals as suitable persons to be educated for the Christian 
ministry; to pious dissenters, who are members of the colleges; to the churches, on the 
importance of providing for each church a stated ministry ; to ministers, in relation to 
the watchfulness required in setting apart others to the office of the ministry ; and to 
all the followers of Christ, in relation to the importance of procuring an increasingly 
efficient ministry. Some closing remarks are offered on the signs of the times, as illus- 
trating and enforcing the preceding considerations. 

7. The Salvation of Britain, introductory to the Conversion of the World: a 
Discourse delivered before the London Missionary Society, at the Tabernacle, 
Moorfields, on Wednesday evening, May 13, 1835. By John Blackburn, pastor 
of the Congregational Church, Pentonville, London. With Notes and Illus- 
trations. London : Jackson & Walford. 1835. pp. 85. 

This is an elaborate and valuable sermon, well-reasoned and abounding with striking 
facts. The text is Zech. viii. 13 : " And it shall come to pass, that as ye were a curse 
among the heathen, O house of Judah, and house of Israel; so will 1 save you, and ye 
shall be a blessing: fear not, but let your hands be strong." The author justifies his 
assertion, that Divine Providence is about to make the British nation a blessing to the 
heathen, 1, from the fact that her national position renders this possible. Her gigantic 
possessions are inhabited by nearly 150,000,000 of the human family, or one sixth part 


of the race. 2. From the national reformation of Britain. Reference is here made to 
the prevalence of better books for general reading, to a considerable reform in respect 
to profane swearing, Sabbath-breaking, drunkenness, etc. to the abolition of West 
Indian slavery, Hindoo infanticide, etc. 3. The national conversion of Britain will 
render it certain. The author tben proceeds to discuss the Christian obligation resting 
on Britain. She ought to seek the conversion of her countrymen by diversified efforts, 
and for the sake of the world. We heartily commend this sermon to all who may 
have the means to procure it. It breathes a truly Christian spirit, is written in a 
glow T ing style, and is crowded, especially in its appendix, with highly important and 
well-authenticated facts. 

8. The Eleventh Annual Report of the Society for Promoting Christian Instruc- 
tion in London and its Vicinity, presented at the General Meeting, May 3, 
1836. pp. 63. 

This, together with a number of other valuable pamphlets, has been forwarded to us, 
by one of the secretaries of the Christian Instruction Society, the Rev. John Blackburn. 
The design of the association is to advance evangelical religion amongst the inhabitants 
of London and the vicinity, by promoting the observance of the Sabbath, the preaching 
of the gospel, the establishment of prayer meetings and Sabbath schools, the circulation 
of religious tracts, accompanied with systematic visitation, etc. During the past year 
there have been connected with the society in London and its environs, 83 associations, 
1,867 gratuitous visitors, 46,448 families, and 115 prayer meetings; being an increase 
during the year of 8 associations, 237 visitors, 5,907 families, and 24 piayer meetings. 
A great number of facts are stated, showing the usefulness of the society's labors. 

9. The Signs of the Times : a Sermon delivered before the Pastoral Association 
of Massachusetts, in Park Street Meeting-house, Boston, May 24, 1836. By 
John Codman, D. D. Pastor of the Second Church in Dorchester. Boston : 
D. K. Hitchcock. 1836. pp. 24. 

The text on which this sermon is founded, is Matt. xvi. 3: " Can ye not discern the 
signs of the times? " The author, in the first place, states some of the peculiarities of 
the times in which we live. It is an age of excitement ; of moral reform ; of cen- 
soriousness and denunciation ; of innovation and love of novelty ; of restlessness and 
uneasiness in the churches; and, of religious controversy and separation. In the second 
place, Dr. Codman considers some of the appropriate duties, which the peculiarities of 
the times impose upon the pastors of the churches in our connection. There are 
demanded in pastors, great firmness and steadiness; independency of mind and action; 
great circumspection and prudence ; a conciliating and affectionate spirit; faithful and 
discriminating preaching of the doctrines of the gospel ; particular attention to pastoral 
duties; increasing zeal in their appropriate work; deep piety, and humble and per- 
severing prayer. Churches should exercise mutual forbearance, a spirit of prayer, and 
of confirmed union. It will be easy to see that in the hands of Dr. Codman, the dis- 
cussion of topics important and interesting as those now enumerated, could not fail to 
furnish rich instruction to the hearer and reader. Sound judgment, careful discrimina- 
tion and good sense, are conspicuous throughout. 

10. An Appeal to the Young Men of the Presbyterian Church in the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia. By George Howe, Professor of Biblical 
Literature, Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C. 1836. pp. 48. 

This is an able and effective appeal, based on undeniable facts, and sustained by 
earnest reasoning and affectionate remonstrance. " On diligent inquiry," says Prof. 
Howe, '• there are not found within the bounds of this synod more than 40 young men 
in all, in any stage of preparation for the ministry. In our seminary there have been 




but 16 this present year, and in the other 
seminaries of the United States, but (5 more 
who belong within the bounds of our synod. 
Of these 22, only 18 are natives of our 
soil." " Half our population only can 
furnish candidates for the ministry. Still, 
though this is the case, the number of our 
ministers should not be less when compared 
with the whole population, than in the free 
States. Our slaves must have the gospel, 
and as they are more blind and needy, they 
require more labor to teach ihem the re- 
ligion of Christ ; and where the labor is 
greater, more men are required to perform it. 
So that if one man in 500 ought to enter 
the ministry where all are free, two among 
every 500 freemen ought to enter it where 
half of the population are slaves." " In 
1S00, the population of South Carolina and 
Georgia was 508,277. In 1835, the popula- 
tion was about 1,300,000. In 1803, there 
was 1 Presbyterian minister to about every 
15,883 of the population, and 1 Presbyterian 
church to about every 8,611. In '835, 
there was 1 Presbyterian minister to about 
every 9,352, and 1 Presbyterian church to 
about 7,831." "The number of ministers 
and licentiates, in 1835, in the synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia, was 129; of 
communicants 13,346." 

11. Hamilton Library and Theological 
Institute, Madison County, New York. 

Resident graduate 1, theological depart- 
ment 9, collegiate 83, academic 61, total 
154. This seminary, in all its departments, 
appears to he in a very prosperous state. 
The schedule of studies is well selected, 
and is of a high order. 

12. Address to the Medical Graduates 
of ike University of Pennsylvania, 
delivered March 26, 1836. By 
George B. Wood, M. D. Professor 
of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in 
the University. 1836. pp. 36. 

This address contains a valuable his- 
torical sketch of the medical department 
of the university, and some notices of Drs. 
Shippen, Morgan, Rush, Bond, Barton, 
Wistar, Physick, Dorsey, and Dewees. A 
large amount of valuable statistics is found 
in the appendix. 




GEORGE C. HYDE, Cong-, on], pastor, Readfield, Maine, 

Julv 14, 1836. 
JOHN W. SHEPARD, Cong, ord. pastor, Windham, Me. 

Au»\ 3. 
WII.I UM V. JORDAN, Cong, ord. pastor, Dixfield, Me. 

Sept. 14. 
JONATHAN COLE, Unitarian, inst. pastor, Hallowell, Me. 

Sept. 21. 

JOHN C. NAYLOR, Baptist, ord. pastor, Portsmouth, New 

Hampshire, Aug-. 17, 1836. 
EDWIN HOLT, Cong. inst. pastor, Portsmouth, N. H. Oct. 

JOHN C WILDER, Cong. ord. evang. Stockbridge, Ver- 
mont, Aug. 10, 1836. 

JOSEPH PACKARD, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. July 

31, 1836. 
CHARLES MASON, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. July 

GEORGE WATERS, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. July 

WILLIAM H. HOIT, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. July 

P. H. GREENLEAF, Epis. ord. deacon, Boston, Mass. Aug. 

JOHN JENNINGS, Baptist, inst. pastor, Grafton, Mass. Aug. 

PRESERVED SMITH, Cong. inst. pastor, Carlisle, Mass. 

Am- 31. 
WASHINGTON LEVERETT, Baptist, ord. evang. Roxbury, 

Mass. Sept. 
LOO MIS G. LEONARD, Baptist, ord. pastor, Webster, Mass. 

Sept. 7. 
ZENAS B. NEWMAN, Baptist, ord. evang. Seekonk, Mass. 

Sept. 9. 
CONSTANTINE BLODGET, Cong. inst. pastor, Pawtucket, Sept. 28. 
GEORGE W. BLAGDEN, Cong. inst. pastor, Old South Ch. 

Boston, Mass. Sept. 28. 
LEVI HALL, Jr. Consr. ord. miss. Sonthbridge, Mass. Oct. 4. 
WILLIAM A. HALLOCK, Cong. ord. evang. Middlefield, 

Mass. Oct. 5. 
ORTGEN CRANE, Baptist, ord. pastor, Newton, Upper Falls, 

Mass. Oct 14. 

LEWIS JASON, Epis. admitted deacon, Newport, Rhode 

Island, Aug. 14, 1836. 
HORACE T. LOVE, Baptist, ord. miss, to Greece, Providence, 

R. I. Sept. 8. 
CEPHAS PASCO, Baptist, ord. miss, to Greece, Providence, 

R. I. Sept. 8. 

AMCS B. BEACH, Epis. ord. deacon, Hartford, Con- 
necticut, Julv 10, 1836. 

GEORGE BENTON, Epis. ord. deacon, Hartford, Ct. July 

EDWARD J. DARKIN, Epis. ord. deacon, Hartford, Ct. 
July 10. 

DAVID H. SHORT, Epis. ord. deacon, Hartford, Ct. July 

CHARLES T. PRENTICE, Cong. ord. pastor, North Fair- 
field, Ct. An?. 8. 

HIRAM P. ARMS, Cong. inst. pastor, Norwich, Ct. Aug. 

MASON GROSVENOR, Cong. inst. pastor, Sharon, Ct. Sept. 

FREDERIC GRIDLCY, Cong. inst. pastor, East Lyme, Ct. 
Oct. 5. 

BENJAMIN FAL-TS, ord. pastor, New York, July 6, 1836. 

LUCAS H. PARKER, inst. pastor, N. Y. Julv 6. 

JOSEPH H. PaINE, inst. pastor, N. Y. Julv 6. 

A. M. LEEKNER, inst. pastor, N Y. Julv 6. 

WILLIAM M. DOOLITTLE, ord. pastor, Greenville, N. Y. 

Julv li. 
HUTCHINS TAYLOR, Pres. inst. pastor, Salina Village, 

N. Y. Julv 20. 
BENJAMIN B. NEWTON, Pres. ord. pastor, Plattsburgh, 

N. Y. Julv 27. 
E. WHITNEY, Pres. ord. pastor, Coventryville, N. Y. Aug-. 

ISAAC FERRIS, D. D. Ref. Dutch Ch. inst. pastor, Market 

St. Oh. New York, N. Y. Aug 28. 
FERDINAND D. WARD, Pres. ord. evang. Rochester, N. 

Y. An*. 31. 
HENRY CHERRY, Pres. ord. evang. Rochester, N. Y. Aug. 




E. W. DICKINSON, Baptist, ord. pastor, Poughkeepsie, N. 
Y. Sept. 8. 

JOHN H. SMALTZ, evang. Ref. Ch. inst. pastor, Trenton, 

New Jersev. July 26, 1836. 
ASAHEL BRONSON, Ref. Dutch Ch inst. pastor, Fairfield, 

N.J.Aug. 26. 
THOMAS B. GREGORY, Ref. Dutch Ch. iust. pastor, Pratts- 

ville Village, N. J. Oct. 5. 

THOMAS T. KEETCHIN, Baptist, ord. pastor, New Britain, 

Pennsylvania, June 28, 1836. 
A. M. BRYAN, Pres. inst. pastor, Pittsburgh, Pa. Sept. 3. 
WILLIAM N. DIEHL, Epis. admitted priest, Kingsessing, 

Pa. Sept. 11. * 

T. J. ADDISON MINES, Pres. inst. pastor, Philadelphia, 

Northern Liberties, Pa. Sept. 15. 

RICHARD T. AUSTIN, Cong. ord. pastor, Maryland, Sept. 
28, 1836. 

A. L. WATTS, Pres. inst. pastor, Lincolnton, North Caro- 
lina, July 30, 1836. 

GEORGE WHITE, Epis. ord. priest, Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, Sept. 6, 1836. 

E. THORNTON McLAINE, Pres. ord. pastor, Muhlenburg, 
Kentucky, Sept. 3, 1836. 

JOSEPH BRUCE ADAMS, Cons:, inst. pastor, New Hope 
and Hebron, Alabama, June 19", 1836. 

S. W. BURRIT, Pres. inst. pastor, Austinburg, Ohio, Sept. 

SAMUEL A. McCROSKRY, Epis. consecrated bishop, 
Michigan, July 7, 1836. 

PHILETUS MONTAGUE, Cong. ord. pastor, Hull, Lower 

Canada, Ana;. 11, 1836. 
OTHO BARTHOLOMEW, Baptist, ord. pastor, Augusta, 

Aug-. 24. 
SILAS TROTTER, Epis. admitted priest, Aug. 28, 1836. 

"Wliole number in the above list, 62. 


Not specified. 









Not specified 




1 Maine 4 

3 New Hampshire 2 

I Vermont 1 

— Massachusetts 

62 Rhode Island 


New York 

38 New Jersey 

6 Pennsylvania 

3 Maryland , 

10 North Carolina 

3 South Carolina 

1 Kentucky 

1 Alabama i 

— Ohio 

62 Michigan , 

Not specified , 


Congregational , 




Dutch Reformed 

1 1 . ii elical Reformed.. . 

I . lit i ■ 

Not specified 



10 DA 


11 1836. June... 
3 July.... 
1 August . 
1 Beptembi 
5 October 

Total 62 Total. 




of Clergymen and Students in Theology. 

JOSEPH W. HENDERSON, at. 84, Dec. 19, 1835. 

SAMUEL GILE, D. D. at. 56, Cong. Milton, Massachusetts, 
Oct. 16, 1836. 

ASA MESSER, D. D., LL. D., set. 63, Baptist, Providence, 
Rhode Island, Oct. 11, 1836. 

AMBROSE EDSON, at. 39, Cong. Somers, Connecticut, Aug. 

17, 1836. 
JES.SE FISHER, set. 59, Cong. Windham, Conn. Sept. 


RUFUS STODDARD, at. 26, Pinckney, New York, July 30, 

WILLIAM R. BURROUGHS, at. 36, New Jersey, July 29, 

JOHN WALTER JAMES, Episcopal, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, Aug. 14, 1836. 

J. V. BARTON, Episcopal, Baltimore, Maryland, July 
14, 1836. 

BENJAMIN HOLMES, Epis. Orange, August 4, 183G. 

WILLIAM PHILLIPS, at. 39, July 4, 1836. 
JOHN HOWARD, Meth. Epis. Aug. 22, 1836. 
PALMER BROWN, at. 49, Epis. Sept. 19, 1836. 
Wliole number in the above list, 13. 




From 20 to 30 1 

30to40 3 Massachusetts 1 

40 50 1 Rhode Island 1 

50 CO 2 Connecticut 2 

60 70 1 New York 1 

80 90 1 New Jersey 1 

Not specified 4 Pennsylvania 1 

— Maryland 1 

Total 13 Notspecified 5 

Sum of all the ages speci- — 

fied 456 Total 13 

Average age 50 2-3 


Congregational 3 1835. December 1 

Methodist Episcopal. 


Protestant Episcopal. 
Not specified 

1 1836. July 4 

1 August 4 

4 September '.... 2 

4 October 2 


13 Total. 








NOVEMBER, 1836. 


By Henry Wood, Pastor of the Church at Dartmouth College. 

The pervading interest which has been 
awakened in the Christian community 
within a few past years, for the conver- 
sion of the young men connected with our 
colleges, is not only an indication of an 
excellent spirit and judicious views in the 
churches of our land, but is itself bofb the 
promise and the earnest of that higher aim 
and wider range of Christian enterprise, to 
which, we are assured, the piety of the age 
is advancing. Too long for the glory of ihe 
gospel, has the skeptic taunt been heard and 
endured, that evangelical religion gains a 
credence for its doctrines only in the minds 
of the undisciplined and unthinking, and 
shows its converting power only upon the 
hearts of the weak and vulgar. Even good 
men are not exempted from a share in the 
guilt of the existence of such an opinion, 
from the secret suspicion they have har- 
bored, that the gospel could not reach the 
class of cultivated minds, through the 
pride, and sufficiency, and skepticism which 
environed them, or from the absence, the 
heartlessness, or the feebleness of all efforts 
for their salvation, which that suspicion had 
induced. The humble inmates of the 
kitchen, the operatives of the manufactur- 
ing; village, and the untutored backwoods- 
man, over whom superstition tyrannizes, are 
regarded as the hopeful subjects of religious 
conversion, by men who are ever renewing 
the question of their early brother in doubt: 
" How can these things be ? " whilst light, 
intellect, and cultivation, are thought to be 
so many effective repellencies to the fanati- 
cism of orthodox revivals. The many and 
pure refreshings from the presence of the 
Lord, which have visited our colleges, and 
sanctified the most vigorous and cultivated 
intellect, since prayer has been offered and 
effort made for the conversion of the young 
men they are educating, is a glorious 
confutation of the calumny; the highest 
cultivation and the widest intelligence are 
found to be no impediment to the belief of 
the doctrines, or obstruction to the most sig- 
nal exhibitions of the power of the gospel ; 
the most splendid triumphs it has won 
since the time Peter preached his revival 


sermon on the day of pentecost, have been 
seen in those seasons of awful interest, 
when the seriousness of eternity gathered 
at once upon the minds of congregated 
hundreds of young men, ardent, cultivated, 
ambitious, and the voice of praise and 
prayer was heard ascending from every 
chamber in college. Then have been 
broken up the purposes of a worldly ambi- 
tion and selfish enterprise; from the fruits 
of these revivals, our colleges and semina- 
ries have been supplied with presidents and 
professors ; our churches with intelligent 
and earnest ministers of the word, and the 
heathen world with able and devoted mis- 
sionaries of the cross ; the course of thought 
and feeling has been so changed and di- 
rected, in these institutions thus favored of 
Heaven, that for years the holy influence 
has been transmitted from class to class, in 
diligence of application, a high moral de- 
portment, the formation of worthy designs, 
and consecration to the cause of humanity, 
of patriotism, and of God. We cannot, then, 
too much encourage a spirit which has 
taken so strong a hold upon .the hearts of 
Christians, and been so conspicuously ap- 
proved of Heaven; a spirit which is des- 
tined to widen its circumference of desires, 
and prayers, and effoits, till it shall encircle 
in its benevolent embrace, all the intellect, 
and learning, and talent, in our world, and 
achieve their consecration to their Crea- 
tor and Lord. The promotion of this object 
is the design of the following historical 

Dartmouth College was originated in 
the wannest spirit, and establi-hed in most 
elevated principles of Christian piety. The 
remote cause of its organization lies back in 
the great revival of religion which pervaded 
nearly the whole of New England in the 
year 1740 and following: the spirit and 
principles of a truly primitive and apostolic 
religion were awakened and called forth 
from the grave in which they had slept for 
nearly half a century, in an expansion of 
views, a warmth of zeal, a self-denial, a 
boldness and enterprise for the glory of God 
and the enlargement of Zion, both in the 




bosoms of individuals and churches, such as 
had not been witnessed since the days of 
Eliot and the Mayhews. The labors and 
success of David Brainerd had also an im- 
portant influence in arresting public atten- 
tion, and correcting the public sentiment, 
forcing upon the Christian community not 
only the conviction of duty, in respect to 
efforts for the conversion of the Indians, but 
holding out the most encouraging assurances 
of a favorable result. Among the ministers 
who caught the spirit of that exciting day, 
was the Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, of Leba- 
non, Conn., then young, ardent, eloquent, 
not only assiduous in discharging the duties 
he owed to his own parish, but extending 
his labors to other and distant congregations. 
The character of the first president Ed- 
wards, then residing at Northampton, Mass. 
is so generally understood and justly appre- 
ciated, that we may safely form our estimate 
of Mr. Wheelock as a Christian and a min- 
ister, from the views he entertained. In a 
letter addressed to Mr. Wheelock, in 1741, 
he writes thus : — " Another thing that I 
desire of you is, that you would come up 
hither and help us, both you and Mr. 
Pomeroy. There has been a revival of 
religion amongst us of late ; but your labors 
have been much more remarkably blessed 
than mine ; other ministers, as I have heard, 
have shut up their pulpits against you ; but 
here I engage you shall find one open. 
May God send you here with a like bless- 
ing, as he has sent you to other places ; and 
may your coming be a means of humbling 
me for my barrenness and unprofitableness, 
and a means of my instruction and enliven- 
ing. I want an opportunity to concert 
measures with you for the advancement of 
the kingdom and glory of our Redeemer." 
Commendation like this from Jonathan 
Edwards, whilst it confirms our highest 
opinion of the talents and piety of Mr. 
Wheelock, presents that great man to us, 
the author of the commerdition, in the light 
of the artlessness of a child and the meek- 
ness of a saint, in addition to that peerless 
reputation he has long sustained, as " the 
Prince of New England divines." Eesides 
his parochial labors, Mr. Wheelock had 
been occupied for years in instructing classes 
of Indian youth, together with other young 
men designed for college. As the school 
increased in numbers, and advanced in 
attainments, and his views enlarged in re- 
spect to his ultimate objects, he saw the 
necessity of giving his seminary a higher 
character, and larger accommodations, and 
of securing for it a wider influence ; he 
wished to mould it into an institution, in 
which all the branches of a liberal educa- 
tion could be pursued, from the simple ele- 
ments of a common school, up to that high 
finish of professional study which should 
qualify the pious young men to go forth as 
accomplished ministers of the gospel, and 
missionaries to the Indians. In concurrence 


with the patrons of the school in England, 
he resolved to obtain a charter embracing 
all the powers and privileges of a college, 
and remove the institution to some central 
point more favorable to Its grand object of 
operating upon the Indian race. Hanover 
was eventually selected, to which, in Sep- , 
tember, 1770, the president's family re- 
paired in a carriage, and thirty of his former 
students on foot, pursuing their way for one 
hundred and seventy miles over nearly im- 
passable roads, and through unbroken forests. 
The president had secured the erection of a 
log cabin, as he states in his "Narrative," 
" without brick, without glass, and without 
a nail," in which he deposited his wife and 
the female portion of his family, whilst his 
sons and the students addressed themselves 
to the construction of booths and beds made 
of pine and hemlock boughs according to 
each one's taste and skill in this new order 
of architecture. In these savage tents they 
resided for a month, exposed to the cold, and 
rain, and snow of a season remarkably in- 
clement, and furnished with provisions well 
consorting with their rude habitations, till 
about the first of November, the president 
removed his family into a one-story framed 
house, and the students entered their rooms 
in the college edifice, which had been 
roughly and rapidly erected, two stories in 
height and eighty feet in length, and a part 
of which only was completed. The 23d day 
of January, 1771, was observed as a sea- 
son of solemn fasting and prayer, after 
which a church was gathered from mem- 
bers of the school, the college, and the 
family, consisting of twenty-seven indi- 
viduals ; on which occasion, as the presi- 
dent remarks, " they solemnly renewed 
their oath of allegiance to Christ, and entire 
consecration of body and soul, and all en- 
dowments of both, without reserve, to God, 
for time and eternity. And a solemn and 
joyful day it was ; for they rejoiced, many 
of them at least, as having sworn with the 
whole heart. The Lord make us steadfast 
in his covenant, and enable us by his grace, 
on which alone we depend, to perform 
unto him our vows, and never more suffer 
among us an evil heart of unbelief in de- 
parting from the living God, nor any root of 
bitterness resulting from it, to spring up in 
this seminary, to the dishonor of God, or to 
obstruct the progress of true religion in this 
school of the prophets, to the latest pos- 

Dr. Wheelock left his parish in Lebanon 
in the midst of a revival in the spring of 
1769, bearing in his bosom a coal which 
was destined soon to kindle up a kindred 
flame in the wilderness he had selected for 
his home. " In February, 1769," he re- 
cords in his Narrative, " there was a special 
season of the ontponring of the Spirit of 
God upon my people, and also upon the 
school ; great numbers in the parish and 
school appeared to be under deep religious 



impressions. The Indian children appeared 
to have a growing concern for their eter- 
nal salvation; and my hopes were never 
more raised, that I should soon see the good 
effects of it in a number of instances." 
With these sentiments in his heart, and 
these scenes in his recollection, he de- 
parted for the wilderness of New Hamp- 
shire, to select the site, and erect the build- 
ings of his future college. Late in the fall of 
1770, he entered his humble dwelling, and 
the students who had followed him, their 
unadorned chambers, " in which," as he 
records, " they find the pleasure and the 
profit of such a solitude ; and since the 
settlement of the affair, all are sufficiently 
engaged in their studies." But God had 
better things yet in store for a. servant so 
devoted, both as a seal of approbation upon 
his character and enterprise, and an earnest 
of future blessings of a similar kind upon 
the institution he founded. No sooner was 
order secured after so much toil and con- 
fusion, and the doors of the college opened 
for the reception of the young men, not 
more hardy in body than resolute in spirit, 
than the windows of heaven were opened 
upon the infant school, devised from senti- 
ments of humanity, and consecrated to the 
cause of the Redeemer ; and whose appro- 
priate motto would be, " Through him and 
for him." " That which crowns all, is the 
manifest token of the gracious presence of 
God, by a spirit of conviction and consola- 
tion. For no sooner were these outward 
troubles removed, but there were evident 
impressions upon the minds of a number of 
my family and school, which soon became 
universal ; insomuch that scarcely one re- 
mained, who did not feel a greater or less 
degree of it, till the whole lump seemed to 
be leavened by it ; and love, peace, satisfac- 
tion, contentment, and joy, reigned through 
the whole." The happy effects of this 
revival are seen in the fact which he records 
in the same Narrative. " If God shall please 
graciously to continue the same influence 
upon the minds of the students, there will 
never be need of any other form of govern- 
ment [than the paternal] to the end of time, 
nor any other or greater trouble in the mat- 
ter, than only to point out to the students 
what is right and well pleasing to God, and 
what is not." The salutary impressions of 
this revival upon the students and the com- 
munity, were not of a superficial and tran- 
sitory nature, but deep and abiding; for in 
the year 1773, three years after, he gives 
the following account of their moral condi- 
tion. " The number of my servants for six 
months past, has generally been from thirty 
to forty, besides those employed at the mills 
and as domestics. The number of the stu- 
dents, dependent and independent, the last 
year was about eighty ; and the number of 
my family together consequently large; 
and through the pure mercy of God, I have 
been blessed with a peaceable family, diligent 


and orderly students, and faithful laborers. 
I have not heard a profane word spoken by 
one of my number, nor have I reason to 
think there has been one spoken for three 
years past." 

The year 1775 was distinguished by 
another season of special religious influence 
upon the college and village. The presi- 
dent had been seriously sick, for whose 
recovery the physicians recommended a 
long journey, which occupied about two 
months. On his return he found the insti- 
tution disordered " by gentlemen of profane 
and immoral conversation from abroad;" 
"and traduced," to use his own language, 
"by means of a few malevolent instru- 
ments, who filled the whole country with 
slanders and lies ; which, after passing 
through a number of hands, and being con- 
firmed by several authorities, gained credit 
with men of the best characters, though none 
more credible than a Gashmu hath said it." 
By dismissing a few disorderly students, all 
returned to their former state of quiet and 
application. " Most of the youth," he add-;, 
" seemed to receive such conviction of the 
source of the past calamity, and the chan- 
nel and instruments by which it had been 
introduced, and arisen to such a height, as 
disposed them in their several classes, and 
of their own accord, with a general una- 
nimity, and in some classes entirely with 
one heart, by their resolves to set up a 
standard, so far as in them lay, against 
every thing which might lead to such evils 
in time to come. This conduct of the stu- 
dents seemed most directly to proceed from 
a good cause, and has been evidently 
attended and followed with the blessing of 
God. And to this God seems to have further 
testified his approbation, by pouring out the 
Spirit of conviction upon a number of the 
students of late, which in the judgment of 
charity, has issued in saving effects in a 
number of instances; and 1 hope in God to 
see evidences of the same effectual work in 
many others, which at present seem to 
have some real conviction of their perishing 
necessity of the renewing work of the Spirit 
of grace. Hitherto the work has appeared 
to be very genuine, and the fruits of it very 

President Wheelock deceased in the year 
1779, four years after the second revival in 
the college ; how many were the subjects 
of these works of grace, cannot at this day 
be ascertained, nor the number who united 
with this church at these seasons, as the 
records do not give the dates when the indi- 
viduals were added to the church, whose 
names are found in the catalogue of its 
members; nor have we any satisfactory 
means of ascertaining. the progress of re- 
ligion during the remaining period of his 
presidency. The revolutionary war oc- 
curring at this time, though it did not inter- 
rupt the operations of the college, beyond 
doubt diverted the minds of the students, 




and dissipated that holy influence which for 
years had hovered over the place. 

In the years 17S1 — 2, a revival occurred 
of uncommon purity, extent, and power, 
under the ministry of Prof. Ripley, who 
inherited the spirit, and followed up the 
labors of President Wheelock. For an ac- 
count of it, we are indebted to the Rev. 
William F. Rowland, of Exeter, who was 
at that lime a member of college, and pie- 
served among his papers a notice, which 
he wrote at the time and upon (he spot, 
from which we make the following extract. 
"About (lie latter part of November, some 
happy dawniugsof a good work appeared 
among the young people of this town; they 
discovered a disposition to leave scenes of 
merriment and vanity, and to give a listen- 
ing ear to religious instruction, and to meet 
in conference ior that purpose. The stu- 
dents of college, upon the expiration of 
vacation, returned about the same time, a 
number of whom were ready to give their 
attention to mallei s of the greatest impor- 
tance. Soon the minds of several were im- 
pressed wiih a sense of their lost and ruined 
staie by nature, and their perishing need of 
a remedy. The work advanced by slow 
steps, and for several weeks was like a 
still, small voice, and sometimes appealed 
scarcely to go forward, although several, 
during this time, were hopefully brought 
into the light and liberty of the gospel; 
when, about the first of January, it became 
almost universal ; convictions were very 
solid, rational, and free from animal pas- 
sion. It was a matter of astonishment to 
those who lived in the time of the reforma- 
tion, forty years ago, [1742,] to see a work 
so powerful, and yet so pure. In the com- 
pass of three or four days, twenty and 
upwards, gained a comfortable hope of their 
good estate. A large number of children 
in the town have been hopeful subjects of 
the work; in one school two or three and 
twenty, which may appear almost incredi- 
ble, and yet is attested by so many wit- 
nesses a-s to render the account indisputa- 
ble. The addition to this church within 
the space of four months, amounts to 
upwards of eighty ; in the college and 
school, [Moor's Indian charity school,] be- 
tween twenty and Unity entertain hope, 
that they have obtained newness of life, and 
others who previously had a hope, have 
been much aroused and animated. The 
rulers of the college have but little to do, 
by way of government. The work extends 
to all the towns around us in a greater or 
less degree ; upwards of twenty towns have 
shared in this great mercy, which calls for 
high acclamations of praise and gratitude 
to that God, who is sovereign in the be- 
stowment of his grace. I have heard of no 
instance of wildness, or enthusiasm, or that 
savored of party zeal. In short, the alter- 
ation is exceeding great ; iniquity stops its 
mouth ; vice flees into a corner, and all the 

air is love. This is the Lord's doing, and 
marvellous in our eyes." The year 
1738 was signalized by another season 
of deep and pervading religious interest in 
the college, of the extent of which we have 
no means of judging, excepting the fact, 
that fourteen were added to the church in 
one day. This occurred under the labors 
of Prof. Smith. From that period till 
the year 1805. neither the records of the 
church, nor the recollection of individu- 
als, furnish us with information of any 
special religious influence ; in the autumn 
of the above year, under the ministry of 
Prof. Shurtleff, the college and the village 
were both visited by a refreshing from the 
presence of the Lord ; nearly twenty of the 
students and the same number of individuals 
in the village, became the subjects of re- 
newing grace. For the ten succeeding 
years, though there was nothing like a 
powerful and rapid revival, there was an 
abiding influence of the Spirit of God through 
that whole period upon the college and village, 
resulting every year in from five to twelve 
instances of conversion. The year 1815 
is worthy of enduring remembrance, as a 
year of the right hand of the Most High. 
A marked solemnity, as well as uncommon 
attendance upon the means of grace, had 
existed during the winter, with such indi- 
cations of interest and feeling in public 
worship upon the Sabbath, as led the pastor 
to expect intelligence early in the week of 
cases of awakening and conversion. During 
the winter, a Saturday evening conference 
had been established for the special benefit 
of young people, and which was to be con- 
ducted by individuals of their own number; 
this meeting has continued without inter- 
ruption down to the present time. Early in 
the spring term of that year, three young 
persons, of whom one was a member of 
college, were brought under the power of 
divine truth and the influence of the Spirit 
of God; hope dawned upon the soul of the 
student, of pardon through the cross of 
Chiist, upon the last day of the week; 
with a heart glowing with joy and gratitude 
for redeeming mere}', he repaired to the 
social conference on the evening of the 
same day, at which he made a short address, 
and offered prayer. The effect was instan- 
taneous and overpowering upon the com- 
pany present. On the Sabbath morning, 
the whole congregation in the house of 
God was found under the same influence 
which had pervaded the Saturday evening 
conference ; the stillness and solemnity 
were such, that the preacher could hardly 
recognize his own voice; from that time, 
the place seemed to be filled with the 
Holy Spirit, like the house in which the 
disciples were assembled on the day of pen- 
tecost ; the whole population nearly were 
impressed by divine truth, and inquiring 
the way to Zion ; the conviction of the law 
was so short, as well as pungent, that it 




could hardly be credited, when any came 
forward and declared " what God had done 
for them, and how he had mercy upon 
them.'" So much was the work carried 
forward apart from human agency, and so 
rapid was the movement, the pastor and 
church could only " stand still, and see the 
salvation of God." In the course of the 
first week, there were more than forty cases 
of hopeful conversion; and within a month, 
ahout sixty students and as many of the 
inhabitants were rejoicing in Christ, as all 
their salvation, and all their desire. What 
adds to the interest of this revival, is 
the fact, there is not known to be one 
instance of apostasy in all the fruits of that 
work of grace. Three of the presidents 
and three of the professors of our colleges, 
date their hopes as Christians, from (hat 
pure and powerful revival. In the year 
1S19, the college enjoyed another season of 
special interest, though of short duration, 
and limited extent, the result of which was 
an accession of sixteen members to the 
church, of whom a part were members of 
college. An additional visitation of divine 
grace occurred in the year 1821. At the 
close of the spring term, the students had 
returned to their homes and friends without 
any unusual interest on their part in the 
subject of religion, or any indications from 
other sources of a revival ; it is not easy to 
conceive the wild rush of emotion, when, 
unapprised of the fact God was there, tbev 
entered the chapel upon their return, for 
evening prayers; where instead of the inat- 
tention, the indifference, the irreverence, 
and trifling, there was nothing, apart from 
the president's voice, but the stillness of 
the grave, the fixedness of statues, 'and the 
solemnity of eternity. In a retired chamber 
after a season of social prayer, the first 
note of praise for redeeming mercy broke 
out from the lips of a most a unable and 
intelligent young man, who forthwith con- 
secrated himself to the ministry of the 
word ; two others in the same class, who 
had been nurtured in the doctrines of Uni- 
versalism, were now reached by divine 
truth, with a conviction of such power as 
seemed to drink up their very spirits ; the 
work advanced till about twenty of the 
students and eighty of the inhabitants be- 
came obedient unto the faith. In one of 
the classes, the most favored in this refresh- 
ing, the practice was begun and continued 
to their last day in college, though it was of 
more than a year's duration, to sing a stanza 
from some familiar hymn, and offer a short 
prayer, at the close of the morning reci- 
tation, at which nearly all the members 
were accustomed to tarry from the im- 
pulse of their own hearts. The year 1826 
was signalized by the occurrence of a similar 
refreshing from the Spirit of God ; about 
foity individuals became connected with 
this church, of whom thirteen were mem- 
bers of college, whilst a number larger still 

United with churches in places where they 
li\ed. Of the thirteen connected here, 
nine became preachers of the go-pel, of 
whom one is a president, and four profes- 
sors in different colleges. In 18211, there 
was some special interest, and ;t few cases 
of conversion in (he college and village. 
In the spring term of 1834, a revival com- 
menced in the Sabbath school, under the 
faithful instructions of the teachers, a part 
of whom were young gentlemen in college ; 
it ultimately extended to the college and 
village, resulting in about one hundred 
cases of hopeful conversion, of which from 
twenty to twenty-five were of students in 
the academic and medical departments of the 
college. It is worthy of remark, that for 
a considerable period not a year has passed 
without some individuals of this latter de- 
partment becoming wise unto salvation. 

Jn accordance with the above statements, 
Dartmouth college has enjoyed no less than 
nine extensive revivals of religion in the 
period of sixty-five years, besides interven- 
ing seasons of more or less interest. The 
church was organized January, 1771, con- 
sisting of twenty-seven members; two hun- 
dred and sixty-four had been connected 
with the original church, when, in 1805, 
for convenience in attending public wor- 
ship, a separation was made, and a new 
church organized ; eight hundred and fifty 
members have been connected with the two 
churches, whose common stock was planted 
by Dr. Wheelock sixty-five years ago. 

It is a remarkable fact, and one that de- 
serves to be made known and understood, 
that not an individual of another denomina- 
tion has been received into the Congrega- 
tional church at Hanover in the period 
of sixty-five years since it was organized ; 
though so much religious interest has 
been felt at Dartmouth college from the 
time of its establishment, it has not been 
directed in a sectarian channel ; though 
unceasing prayer has been offered and 
Christian efforts made for the conversion of 
the young men who come to prosecute their 
education here, it has been, not to make 
them the bigots of a party, but the disciples 
of Christ; it has been thought sufficient 
glory to enlist them into the host of God's 
elect, without prescribing the badge they 
should wear. Thus has it been ; thus may 
it ever be. 

It may be a matter of gratification and 
curiosity, to know who have become min- 
isters of the gospel, since their connection 
with the church at Dartmouth college, the 
most of whom were fruits of the revivals 
we have noticed ; the catalogue, more than 
any argument, will evince the importance 
of these seasons of divine influence, both to 
the interests of learning and religion. Prof. 
Sylvanus Ripley, Ozias Silsby, Prof. John 
Smith, Ambrose Porter, Jacob Wood, Jacob 
Cram, Samuel Sargeant, Nahum Sargeant, 
Christopher Paige, John Wilder, Joseph 



Langdon, Amos Chase, Elijah Brainerd, 
John Sawyer, Joseph Blodgett, Elijah Kel- 
logg, Nathan Church, Benjamin Chapman, 
Mase Shepard, JNoah Miles, William F. 
Rowland, Thomas Grosse, David Porter, 
D. D., Henry A. Rowland, Jonathan Strong, 
D. D., Reed Paige, Timothy Dickinson, 
Ethan Osborn, Azel Washburn, Josiah Car- 
penter, Elijah Parish, D. D., Asahel Hun- 
tington, Gordon Dorrance, Alvan Hyde, 
D. D., Ariel Parish, Elijah Lyman, John 
Webber, Samuel Hidden, John Fisk, Elipha- 
let Gillet, D. D., Seth WMlliston, Joel 
Baker, Asa McFarland, D.D., David Hardy, 
Tilton Eastman, Sebastian Cabot, James 
"Woodward, Jeremiah Noyes, Mighill Blood, 
Asahel Stone, Joseph Richardson, John 
Dutton, Thomas A. Merrill, Samuel Bas- 
comb, Henry Colman, Asa Rand, Charles 
Johnson, Silas Blaisdell, Warren Day, 
Ebenezer Everett, Absalom Peters, D. D., 
Joseph B. Felt, James R. Wheelock, John 
Boardman, Abel Caldwell, Prof. Charles B. 
Hadduck, Prof. Joseph Torrey, Pres. John 
Wheeler, Prof. James Marsh, Prof. Nathan 
W. Fiske, Cyrus P. Grosvenor, Thomas W. 
Duncan, Elijah Demond, Asa Mead, Moses 
Chase, Marshall Southard, Prof. George 
Bush, George Richardson, Aaron Foster, 
John Millot Ellis, Jonathan Ward, Rosvvell 
Tenney, James W. W T oodward, George H. 
Woodward, Spafford D. Jewett, Isaac Hos- 
ford, Pres. Benjamin Labaree, Prof. Clem- 
ent Long, Prof. Milo P. Jewett, Prof. 
Alpheus Crosby, Prof. Jarvis Gregg, Peter 
P. Oosunkarhine, an Indian recently or- 
dained by the Presbvtery of Champlain. 
Total, 95. 

Of these, some have fallen asleep, after 
having served their generation according to 
the will of God, one of whom was the judi- 
cious and indefatigable Dr. Alvan Hyde, of 
Lee, Mass., who gathered more than seven 
hundred souls into his own church, as the 
fruits of the divine blessing upon his 
labors ; whilst others in different spheres 
and at distant posts, are honoring their 
college, promoting the interests of educa- 
tion and learning, or conducting to eternal 
glory, a great throng of redeemed sinners. 

In closing this narrative, a crowd of in- 
teresting reflections rush upon the mind, in 
contemplating not only the adaptation, but 
the possibility of a direct and successful ap- 
plication of the gospel to the understandings 
and consciences of educated young men ; 
in respect to the happy influence of a deep, 
earnest piety, as an aid to discipline and 
government in institutions of learning ; in 
respect to religion, as a means of the most 
perfect intellectual, as well as moral devel- 
opment; in respect to the duty of those 
Christian men and Christian ministers, to 
whom the instruction in our colleges is 
committed, to make direct, personal efforts 
for the conversion and salvation of their 
pupils in respect to the relation between 
revivals of religion in colleges and the evan- 


gelizing of the world ; and in respect to the 
measure of interest this object should re- 
ceive in the affections and prayers of the 
people of God ; but we have only time to 
record " the last will and testament" of the 
pious, the heroic, the eloquent founder of 
Dartmouth College, as it is found in one of 
his last " Narratives," with our most earnest 
supplication to Heaven, that his purposes, 
and hopes, and prayers may be realized, in 
respect to the institution he loved so well, 
and for which he did and endured so much. 
" It is my purpose, by the grace of God, to 
leave nothing undone within my power, 
which is suitable to be done, that this school 
of the prophets may be, and long continue 
to be, a pure fountain. And 1 do with my 
whole heart, will this my purpose to my 
successors in the presidency of this semi- 
nary to the latest posterity, and it is my 
last will, never to be revoked ; and to God 
I commit it ; and my only hope and confi- 
dence for the execution of it, are in Him 
alone, who has already done great things 
for it, and does still own it, as his cause ; 
and blessed be his name, that every present 
member of it, as well as great numbers 
abroad, I trust, do join their hearty Amen 
with me." 


Extracts from the Annual Report, read 
May 25, 1836. 

The whole number assisted by the Parent 
Society, during the past year, is one hun- 
dred and twenty-two: received, during the 
same period, seventeen; dismissed, nineteen; 
leaving the present number one hundred 
and three. Of those dismissed, eight had 
completed their education — five of whom 
have since received ordination; one has 
become a teacher; of the other two, we 
have received no information since they left 
our patronage. Five have been dismissed, 
having obtained other means of support; 
one has died ; two have been discontinued, 
for the want of suitable promise; and three, 
for various reasons, have discontinued their 
studies for a season. 

The whole number upon the respective 
Branches is seventy-two, increasing the 
entire number under patronage, to one hun- 
dred and seventy-five. Should we, how- 
ever, include the twenty-five young men 
alluded to, the whole number of whom it 
is expected, will be directly brought upon 
our funds; the actual number of beneficia- 
ries, for whom provision is requisite at this 
moment, is two hundred. 01 those under 
patronage, thirty-six are in Theological 
Institutions; sixty-eight are in College, and 
the remaining seventy, are in various stages 
of preparatory studies. 




Branch Societies. 
Each of the several Branch Societies in 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island, are now support- 
ing, with scarcely a single exception, their 
own beneficiaries. Maine reports thirteen 
beneficiaries, and $356 expended ; New 
Hampshire, fifteen beneficiaries and $621 49 
expended ; Connecticut, thirteen bene- 
ficiaries and $448 80 expended; Vermont, 
twenty-five beneficiaries and $631 92 ex- 
pended ; Rhode Island, six beneficiaries and 
$475 35. This efficiency on the part of the 
Branches is the more desirable, as it enables 
the Parent Society to extend its influence 
to remote and destitute regions. 

Plan of the Society. 
The organization of the Northern Baptist 
Education Society is confined to the New 
England States; while its patronage has 
hitherto been extended to young men, 
coming from whatever country, or section 
of country they might. A young man, to 
make a successful application, must come 
recommended by the church of which he 
is a member, as being indigent, and as 
being, in their opinion, designed for the 
ministry. If admitted, he is placed upon 
the funds of the Society, from which he 
draws quarterly, a certain amount per 
annum, varying according to the stage of his 
education ; $48 being the minimum, and $75 
being the maximum. For each appropria- 
tion he gives his note, without security, and 
without interest, payable, one third at the 
end of one year after he shall have com- 
pleted his education, and the other two 
thirds, at the end of the second and third 

Closing Remarks. 
In closing their Report, the Board would 
express, as well as they are able, their con- 
victions of the comparative value of this 
Society. We regard it as being of indis- 
pensable importance ; as being a kind of 
pre-requisite to the success of most other 
schemes of benevolence ; especially so, to 
the success of Home and Foreign Missions; 
and consequently, as being pre-requisite to 
the evangelization of the world. The object 
of this Society, is to obtain a well-trained, 
holy, and heaven-appointed ministry. Now 
such a ministry is what is needed, more 
than any thing else, in the prosecution of 
all plans to do good ; and if we mistake not 
such a ministry, this Society is fitted, as a 
means, to procure. Such a ministry the 
Society has been instrumental in procuring. 
The former beneficiaries of this Society are 
found in almost every State in the Union; 
and are among our most esteemed and 
useful pastors; they are among the Pres- 
idents and Professors in our Colleges, Theo- 
logical Institutions, and other seminaries of 
learning ; and among those who have gone 
forth to heathen lands. God seems to have 

honored the Society, in a special manner, 
as an instrument in raising up missionaries 
for the heathen. A large number now 
under patronage have chosen this foreign 
field as the place of their future labors ; a 
number of whom have already been accep- 
ted by our Board of Foreign Missions; three, 
at least, are expecting to embark early in 
the ensuing autumn. 

The conviction which we have now ex- 
pressed is the result of no sudden impulse ; 
it is our most deliberate opinion, founded on 
a patient examination of facts; and we now 
utter our voice of supplication to the churches 
to come to our help with renewed energy. 
We have undertaken a great labor, which 
God will not allow us to abandon. Our 
pecuniary responsibilities, are now equal to 
the support of two hundred young men, to 
meet which will require from ten to fifteen 
thousand dollars. 

The Society and this assembly will readily 
unite with us, we trust, in rendering devout 
and hearty thanks to Almighty God, for 
having enabled the Eoard to prosecute their 
labor another year, without embarrassment; 
and in humble supplication to Him, who is 
the giver of every good gift, that He, who 
has guided us hitherto, would guide us still. 


Connected with the American Education Society. 

New Hampshire Branch. 

The Annual Meeting of this Society was 
held at Exeter, August 30, 1S36. 

Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D., President, took 
the chair. 

The Rev. Mr. McGee led in addressing 
the throne of grace. 

The Report was read by the Secretary, 
Professor Haddock of Dartmouth College, 
and the meeting was then addressed by the 
Rev. Mr. Root of Dover, Professor Rood of 
the Theological Seminary, Gilmanton, and 
the Rev. Dr. Cogswell, Secretary of the 
Parent Society. 

We regret that the Report could not be 
obtained in season for this number of the 

We have obtained for insertion the ad- 
dresses of Prof. Rood and Rev. Mr. Root. 

On moving the adoption of the Report, 
Mr. Root observed — 

Mr. President, — I love, Sir, eminently 
love and admire the Education cause. And 
the more I contemplate its operations and 
results the more is my confidence confirmed 
in its paramount claims upon the Christian 




When, however, I say this, I would not 
be understood to cherish an improper ex- 
clusiveness in reference to other benevolent 

No, Sir, I love the Missionary cause, be- 
cause to sustain it by our prayers, and 
efforts, and sacrifices, is only to obey the 
command, to follow the example, and cher- 
ish the spirit of Christ. 

1 love the Bible cause. It is a noble en- 
terprise. It proposes to multiply copies of 
the Word of God ten thousand times ten 
thousand, until every kindred and tribe of 
earth shall read in their own tongues the 
wonderful works of God. 

I love the Sabbath school cause. It is 
laying the axe to the root of the tree. It is 
a lever whose purchase is tremendous. It 
is rearing a generation of cadets who are 
to supply the army of Jesus Christ. 

Nor am I reluctant to say that I love that 
cause, by whatever name you are pleased 
toeall it, which proposes to remember by 
prayer and by corresponding effort in their 
behalf, "those in bonds," the oppressed and 
long neglected captives of this land, who 
have not hitherto often shared our sym- 
pathies ami prayers, when we have come 
together to. contemplate the wants and 
miseries of the world; but though neglected 
by us are regarded with interest by Heaven. 

Indeed, Sir, I love all the benevolent en- 
terprises of the age. Let them have their 
appropriate place in our affections, our 
prayers, and our efforts. 

But, Sir, I am prepared to ask, What 
could we do for the advancement of the 
Redeemer's kingdom in any of these de- 
partments of holy enterprise without the 
living Messenger of life? What one of 
these causes could be sustained without 
living, acting, consecrated agents? The 
education cause is to the other benevolent 
enterpiises of the age what liberty of speech 
and of the press is to our civil and religious 
institutions. It is the basis, the foundation, 
the palladium, the main spring which im- 
parts life, and motion, and energy to all the 
other charitable operations of our times. 

For, Sir, it furnishes that living ministry 
which God has appointed for the conversion 
and salvation of the world, and without 
which not one of those enterprises to 
which we have alluded could be sustained. 

Where, Sir, will you find any people dis- 
posed to feel for the heathen abroad, if they 
have not been accustomed to the quicken- 
ing influences of a preached gospel upon 
their own hearts? Or where will you find 
any people prepared to appreciate the Bible 
and to send it to others, if they have not 
been wont to hear its sacred contents illus- 
trated and pressed upon their own spirits ? 
Or where will you find any people pre- 
pared to move in the sacred cause of human 
rights', unless there be some men of God to 
fronl the opposition and to stand up and 
plead the cause of the oppressed ? 

And, Sir, did you ever know a Sabbath 
school long sustained where there was no 
regular ministry of the gospel to impart 
interest and to form a rallying point? 
Why, Sir, a Sabbath school, morally speak- 
ing, cannot be sustained without the living 
ministry. The experiment has been tried, 
and the fact has been fully ascertained. 

Why, Sir, every thing appertaining to 
the advancement of the great enterprises of 
the age, every thing appertaining to the 
moral and intellectual elevation and im- 
provement of society depends, under God, 
upon a ministry, a living ministry. If New 
England, in point of morals and religion, 
amidst all her obliquities and degeneracy, 
has any thing valuable, any thing desirable 
in her religious institutions and social char- 
acter and regular habits of public worship, 
any thing lovely and of good repoit in her 
sober industry and persevering enterprise, 
she owes it to her gospel ministry and to 
the regular support, which, from the begin- 
ing, she has given to that ministry. 

Look at her colleges and seminaries of 
science. Who originated and reared them? 
Why, Sir, they have been originated and 
reaied under the influence of an educated 
ministry, who know how to appreciate the 
advantages of science. And who has con- 
ducted and who now conducts them ? Why, 
Sir, her clergy. About seven eighths of all 
the presidents, professors, and tutors in 
New England are clergymen. 

Who conducts the colleges and semina- 
ries of the West and South ? Why, to a 
great degree, clergymen from New England. 
Who are traversing the great Western Valley 
and the remoter regions of the South, and 
planting there the gospel, and rearing lit- 
erary institutions in those extended fields ? 
New England missionaries ; men reared 
amidst our own hills and valleys, and many 
of them, Sir, cheered onward in their high 
and holy calling by the patronage of your 

1 have often thought what a fearful blank 
would be produced in those regions, if the 
South and West were to give up our sons 
who have gone there and are laying the foun- 
dations of society and of the future destinies 
of that great country. Why, Sir, it would 
be to those incipient institutions as the giv- 
ing up of the ghost. It would be but the 
signal for the sweep of universal and hope- 
less desolation. 

Upon the fact that more ministers, a 
great many more ate wanted, 1 will not 
dwell. I will only say, that whoever will 
carefully consult the moral and religious 
statistics of our country will be presented 
with a most disheartening and frightful pic- 
ture of its desolations, lie will see a popu- 
lation of 6,000.000 destitute of the proper 
ministrations of the word. Ho will see 
4,000 churches and congregations asking 
for ministers and cannot obtain them. He 
will see this destitution increasing with the 




increase of our population at the rate of 
200 congregations a year; and a population 
of 200,000 destitute every year more than 
the preceding year. 

But the want of ministers is not more 
obvious than the fact that we want minis- 
ters of the light stamp ; men thoroughly 
educated and trained, and qualified " to 
endure hardness as good soldiers of Jesus 
Christ ; " men pious, learned, efficient. 

The exigencies and peculiarities of the 
times in which we live, demand especially 
such men ; men who have been subjected 
to a thorough course of mental, moral, and 
physical discipline, and who are thus pre- 
pared to encounter hardships and fatigue of 
Doth mind and body for Christ's sake. 

For, Sir, there is in our land an immense 
amount of error of the most subtle and for- 
midable character, and this error is to be 
met, resisted, and removed. 

There is the pope with all his emissaries 
trained and marshalled for fierce attack 
upon our free institutions ; sixty female 
seminaries already in operation, and a pro- 
portionate number of establishments for the 
education of priests. From these establish- 
ments you will presently see a host of 
Jesuits swarming forth to annoy this Protes- 
tant land ; Jesuits, who, by their peculiar 
and thorough training, will be prepared, 1 
can assure you, to make the most of a bad 

It has been my lot occasionally to meet 
these combatants in theological conflict, 
and I can assure you that they are no 
despicable adversaries. I can tell you from 
actual experience, that such is their 
subtlety, adroitness and confidence, I might 
say impudence, that only men accustomed 
to close thinking and accurate reasoning; 
men of tried temper, and thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the whole field of discus- 
sion in all its extent, can successfully 
encounter them. What could a novice 
do with these belligerent Jesuits, whose 
professed and exclusive business it is to 
defend the Roman church ? 

There, also, is another class of men 
professedly religious, at least fashionably 
so, for I will not judge them, nor name 
them. You know, Sir, what havoc they 
have made of the Scriptures ; how, by 
learned criticisms, they have frittered 
away the force and efficacy of God's truth ; 
and how necessary it is that they should be 
met on their own ground and just where 
they choose to make their attack, and with 
their own weapons too. 

And there are skeptics, infidels, of every 
character, grade, and name, and many of 
them by no means contemptible opponents. 
These are to be encountered. 

How plain it is, that nothing short of a 
thorough course of education can fit young 
men to acquit themselves advantageously 
and successfully in these fields of conflict 
and of labor. 


Now the Education Society requires of 
its beneficiaries a thorough course of edu- 
cation ; just such an one as the exigencies 
of the times seem peculiarly to demand. 

Will you allow me to suggest one other 
consideration ? 

We want men, also, accustomed to habits 
of diligence, perseverance, and self-denial ; 
prepared to accommodate themselves cheer- 
fully to circumstances, without repining at 
a hard pillow, or loathing a piece of stale 
bread ; men who have been in contact with 
the realities of life, and can take care of 
themselves, and who, if they should go far 
West, would not be likely to be frightened 
and driven back by the horseflies and rat- 
tlesnakes of that country. 

If the world is ever to be converted, 
it must be done by men of physical en- 
durance and moral courage. For, in the 
first place, they cannot expect, in the 
prosecution of this work, to have all or 
many of the conveniences of life. Even in 
this favored land of the Pilgrims, their sup- 
port is ordinarily scanty as well as precari- 
ous. They are often obliged, as you know, 
to make many dextrous shifts in tempo- 
ralities to sustain themselves. 

And then, too, if the work of reform is to 
advance against the combined powers of 
darkness, if the sanctity of the Sabbath is 
to be restored, and licentiousness made to 
cower beneath the frown of virtuous indig- 
nation, and intemperance stand abashed and 
confounded, and slavery, that crying sin of 
this land, to be abolished, then great moral 
courage is required. To do good at this 
crisis a man must take his life in his hand 
and fearlessly breast the dangers of the con- 
flict. Times of primitive suffering have 
returned. The church is to be sifted. 
Satan is loose and gone forth rampant to 
deceive men, and to deceive the church, 
and to gather Gog and Magog together to 

How poorly must he be prepared for 
the labors and trials of the times, who, 
without habits of economy, diligence, self- 
denial, and physical exertion ; without 
moral courage, worn down and exhausted 
with mere mental abstraction, feeble and 
nervous, goes forth to this warfare. Why, 
he must hang as a dead weight upon the 
neck of the church. 

The Education Society is adapted to 
obviate, in a great degree, these difficul- 
ties and discouragements. Your bene- 
ficiaries are obliged to help themselves. 
You do not help them unless they are wil- 
ling to help themselves. And from the 
beginning, through the whole course of 
their training, they are inured to habits of 
economy, diligence, perseverance, and self- 
denial. They are made to account for their 
money, time, and opportunities. In short, 
a system of complete supervision is exer- 
cised over both their temporal and spiritual 





concerns. All this is adapted to fit them to 
act and to act efficiently. 

Now, Sir, I declare, that if I had a son, 
who was a proper candidate for the minis- 
try, though I were as rich as Crcesus, I 
would place him under this supervision, 
and let him help himself. For it is morally 
impossible, that young men should be 
brought forward through this channel and 
by this moral machinery without being pre- 
pared for signal usefulness. 

In this world of tangible realities, mind 
will not answer without body any more 
than body will answer without mind. There 
must be physical as well as mental force. 

I once knew a young man, a charity 
student, whose heart had been touched 
with the love of Christ, and who had been 
induced to direct his course for the gospel 
ministry. He walked six miles daily in 
acquiring his preparation for college. And 
subsequently, during his collegiate course, 
in going to and from college, with his pack 
on his back and staff in hand, he frequently 
travelled eighty miles. While in college he 
rang the bell to pay his tuition and boarded 
himself for thirty-seven and a half cents 
per week. Through many privations and 
discouragements, he honorably received his 
diploma and subsequently entered the min- 
istry. This training was invaluable. 

Of his onward course I say nothing, for 
the person to whom I allude was the hum- 
ble individual who stands before you. 

In conclusion, I will only say, that 
these young disciples taken from the plough, 
the mechanic's shop, from the humblest as 
well as from the most industrious depart- 
ments of life, and by this course of educa- 
tion losing nothing of their original vigor 
and stamina, why, Sir, you may plant them 
on the snowy regions of Siberia, or beneath 
the scorching sun of Hindostan. You may 
send them to the Cape of Good Hope, or to 
the isles of the sea; to the land of Palestine 
to encounter the hostile Arab, or among the 
wild and fierce Battas, where Lyman and 
Munson fell martyrs to the love of Christ, 
or to the Rocky mountains of the West to 
feed on savage fare, and in all circumstan- 
ces, by their Christian courage and endur- 
ance, they will ordinarily be found worthy 
of being the followers of Him who had not 
where to lay his head, who made the 
glens and mountains of Judea his lodging- 

The Rev. Mr. Rood, Professor in the 
Theological Seminary, Gilmanton, pre- 
sented the following resolution. 

Resolved, That the American Education 
Society, while attempting to raise up a 
competent and efficient ministry, is entitled 
to the sympathy, prayers, and charitable 
contributions of the friends of the Redeemer 
and mankind. 

On offering the resolution, the Professor 
remarked as follows. 

The Bible, Mr. President, is the charter 
and guide of the church. Our benevolent 
institutions, such as the American Bible 
Society, the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, the Ameri- 
can Education Society, and other kindred 
institutions, being based on the Word of 
God, are founded on the constitution of the 
church. The Bible authorizes us to form 
these societies, and carry them out into full 
operation. They are simply the way in 
which the church operates to accomplish the 
great ends of her existence. These are for 
the sanctification of the saints, the conver- 
sion of the world, and the glory of God. They 
flourish like willows by the water-courses ; 
they expand themselves like the oaks of 
Bashan ; they are becoming the distinctive 
feature of the age, the moral glory of the 
land, only because the sympathies, the 
treasures, and the prayers of the church are 
clustered around them, and the hand of 
Abraham's God is held over them. These 
benevolent institutions are the voluntary 
cohorts of Zion's King. They have enrolled 
themselves to stand in the front of the bat- 
tle. They are so well marshalled, shoulder 
to shoulder, they arc so skilfully trained in 
the tactics of holy warfare ; their shield of 
faith is so strong and bright, their banners 
so terrible to the hosts of sin, and they 
have withal such implicit reliance on the 
Captain of their salvation, that the strong 
holds of Satan's empire must, eventually, fall 
before them. Joined with kindred institu- 
tions in other lands, they will, if I mistake 
not, preach the gospel to every creature, 
and sound the moral jubilee of earth's re- 
demption. But the moral empire of this 
world will not be yielded without a struggle. 
.It has been too long, and too fully in alli- 
ance with the powers of darkness, and is, 
withal, too fine a field for combat against 
the Lord of hosts. The Christian army, 
that would win it to Jesus, will be long and 
steadily combated. Every branch of it, 
therefore, must march under the banners of 
Prince Immanuel, or it will be attacked, 
and finally overthrown. 

Now, Sir, the American Education So- 
ciety, I regard as one of the most important 
parts of this Christian army. It does and 
will hold a commanding place among the 
great benevolent operations of the church, 
till the world is converted. Its object en- 
titles it to this high rank. This is, to furnish 
captains for the Lord's hosts ; to train and 
equip men who are to marshal the great 
Christian army ; to control its movements; 
to direct its attacks, and to watch over the 
whole combat, till angels bind the prince 
of darkness and shout victory to the Land). 

But can the American Education So- 
ciety show that her operations are based on 
the constitution of the church and the will 




of God ? All who believe in a Christian 
ministry, believe that it .should be one of 
deep and ardent piety ; that the captains of 
the Lord's hosts, should be men who have 
first conquered their own sins; that their 
weapons should he tempered, not so much 
with poetic, as with heavenly, fire ; that 
the fountain of holy love in their souls, 
*' should be deep and full as the swellings 
of the broad river and the heavings of the 
mighty ocean," while that love, tempered 
and controlled by great Christian principles, 
should burn with a flame, calm, pure, and 
bright as the beams of the morning star. 

But there is another point, on which the 
opinions of many, whom we trust are lovers 
of the truth and followers of Jesus, are not 
so well settled. It is this. Is the American 
Education Society, while attempting to 
raise up a iv ell- educated ministry fur the 
world, acting in accordance with the divinely 
established order of the church, and the will 
of Heaven ? Has she the sanction of apostles 
and prophets, of the great Head of the church, 
and the God of Israel in this enterprise ? Or 
is it, as some affirm, a mere human device, 
a mischievous invention, a proud reliance 
on philosophy and learning, instead of the 
teachings of the Holy Spirit ? The history 
of the church and the qualifications of her 
ministry, in all ages of the world, may throw 
some light on this point. 

The church has had three distinct forms, 
the patriarchal, the Jewish, and the Chris- 
tian. Under each form, it has had a min- 
istry. The patriarchal form of the church 
was coeval with the patriarchal age of the 
world. This extended from the creation, 
about two thousand years, down to the time 
of Abraham and Moses. The ministers of 
the patriarchal church were the heads of 
households and of tribes. Noah, Melchize- 
dek, and Job, are examples. We have 
proof that some of the patriarchal priest- 
hood were well educated. Every thing in 
their condition favored this. They lived 
from two to six or seven hundred years. 
The world and the operations of the human 
mind were new. Every new object of sight, 
every new development of mind, or charac- 
ter, every new appearance of the shifting 
winds and changing skies ; as well as every 
star hung up in the vaulted heavens, ex- 
cited a thrill of interest and awakened the 
keenest investigation. The book of Job 
has come down to us, probably from the 
patriarchal age. Among other things, it 
has preserved an example of their modes of 
instruction, and a specimen of their priestly 
learning. The fathers, who had lived many 
hundred years, taught their sons in the free, 
animated manner of oral discussion. Job, 
if not his three friends, held the ministerial 
office. Such arguments and illustrations, 
such clear and graphic descriptions of things 
divine and human, such familiar allusions to 
the history of past ages, and the varied 
works of nature, and such quick and pow- 

erful workings of intellect as flowed from 
their lips, can scarcely be found in the 
whole compass of written language. Who 
that has a mind or a heart can read their 
discussion and doubt their learning? 

Under the Jewish dispensation', the order 
of the church, and the will of God on this 
point, are still more apparent. Schools of 
the prophets were established in many 
places, soon after the Jews became settled 
in the land of Canaan, which continued till 
the captivity. In these schools, many of 
the pious and devoted youth of the nation 
were collected and taught. Isaiah, Jere- 
miah, Hosea, and all the prophets, were 
probably educated in them. No one who 
reads their writings can doubt, whether the 
schools of the prophets were schools of 
sound learning. Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha 
stood successively at the head of one of 
these institutions. 

After the captivity, another class of 
schools to educate religious teachers came 
into existence, more resembling our own 
schools of the prophets. They were schools 
to teach men to read and expound the Law 
of God, to make them acquainted with the 
religion of their fathers, and the practical 
duties of piety. True it is, that there was 
not piety enough in the church of that age 
to preserve them from moral corruption. 
They became the sources of wrong inter- 
pretation, false doctrine, and corrupt mor- 
als. Still, as schools of learning, they were 
of great use to the church. Those in- 
structed in them, wrote out copies of the 
Scriptures, invented the accents and vowel- 
points of the Hebrew, translated the sacred 
books into Greek, and preserved many of 
the opinions and customs of the age, which 
help to explain the Word of God. Paul, 
chosen of God, to write nearly all the doc- 
trinal parts of the New Testament, was 
trained in one of these schools at the feet 
of Gamaliel. 

When Christ established his church in 
the world, he appointed for it an extraordi- 
nary ministry. But there is room to doubt, 
whether this ministry were so wholly unin- 
structed as many have supposed. The 
leading apostles, Peter, Andrew, James, 
and John, were fishermen of Galilee. It 
was not, however, so much an oriental, as 
an occidental idea, that fishermen were 
ignorant men of low occupation and char- 
acter. Strabo, the geographer says, that 
" many of the fishermen of Galilee carried 
on an extensive trade, travelled abroad, 
were conversant with the markets and the 
business of the large towns, and were alto- 
gether a very active, intelligent, experi- 
enced class of men." That such was the 
character of the leading apostles, when 
chosen to their office by the Saviour, it 
would be easy to show. Their ship, their 
hired servants, their acquaintance with the 
high priest at Jerusalem, their familiar asso- 
ciation with John the Baptist, at Bethabara, 




are all proof of this. But after the apostles 
were chosen, they were instructed three 
years in the peculiar duties of their office, 
by Him, who was the light and the life of 
the world. They were then fully inspired 
hy the Holy Ghost in every thing pertain- 
ing to their office and station. The apostles 
then cannot be adduced as an example of 
an uneducated ministry. 

But were the apostles, while guided by 
the Holy Ghost, or the first Christian min- 
isters, who were taught by them, indifferent, 
or uninstructed about the qualifications of 
their successors in the sacred office ; those 
who were to expound the Scriptures, to 
watch over the churches they had founded, 
to contend for the faith, and to preach the 
dying love of Jesus, when the hands, that 
laid the foundations of the church, were 
mouldering in the dust ? Their deeds show. 
The apostles and the first Christian preach- 
ers established schools of sacred learning in 
many places, where those destined to the 
ministry might be well educated for their 
work. The apostle John established such a 
school at Ephesus. Another was founded 
by Polycarp at Smyrna. Others of equal 
or surpassing fame were established at 
Silicia and Antioch. Another of still higher 
repute was founded at Alexandria, and, many 
suppose, by Mark the Evangelist. This 
school was distinguished for raising up a 
succession of learned and able defenders of 
Christianity. Pantaenus, Olerneus, and Ori- 
gen stood successively at its head and ren- 
dered it illustrious by their varied learn- 
ing and distinguished piety. If then, like 
wise men, honest Christians, and good phi- 
losophers, we are guided by facts, we can- 
not avoid the conviction, that it has been the 
will of God, and the order of the church, 
even from its commencement, that a well- 
educated ministry should be furnished. 

Here, Sir, we may, and I think we ought 
to feel, the vftry highest satisfaction in con- 
templating the operations of the American 
Education Society. The fact that such a 
society exists ; that the influence and the 
prayers of the church are thrown around 
it; that it now has eight hundred well- 
trained reapers, who are thrusting the 
sickle into the great harvest-field ; that it 
has aided in all two thousand five hundred 
in preparing for the ministry; that it now 
has nearly twelve hundred in training for 
the same work, is evidence, that the pure 
light of Christianity is breaking through the 
darkness of ages, that the morning star of 
salvation is rising on this world, that the 
church is drawing back to her primitive 
purity, and that the prayers, the alms, and 
the action of God's people, after a perver- 
sion, more or less, for sixteen hundred 
years, are beginning to flow again in those 
sacred channels, marked out for them hy 
Christ and his apostles. 

On a full and careful investigation of this 
subject, I feel the most perfect assurance, 

nay, the most solemn conviction before 
God, that the American Education Society, 
while attempting to raise up, not only pious, 
but well-educated men to preach the gospel, 
are executing both the plan' and the will of 
God respecting the ministry. It is vain to 
talk of modern improvements in education, 
and of raising up a ministry, competent for 
the services of the church, by short and 
hasty courses. Some may, indeed, thus 
come into the ministry, may act their parts 
nobly, and save many souls. But let the 
church beware how she sets her hand or 
her seal to such an enterprise. It never 
was blest of God. I solemnly believe it 
never will be. The church is like a great 
ship on the ocean. Piety and prayer are 
the winds and the sails that move her on 
her gallant way. The Bible is her chart 
and compass; and the well-trained minister 
of Jesus her skilful pilot. The mariners 
may, indeed, set the well-trained pilot 
ashore, and call a zealous tar to the helm, 
who is ignorant of the chart and compass, 
and who only knows how to boast of his 
own skill, to ridicule the pilot, and to pray 
that the breezes may rise and the winds 
may blow. But before they are fairly out 
at sea, they will find their mistake. The 
first storm that rises, the signal of distress 
will be out, and the minute-gun will tell 
their peril. The pilot sent ashore, must 
man the life-boat, be out upon the dashing 
wave, and reach the helm, or the ship 
will go down. 

A ministry, corresponding to the genius 
of the gospel, the will of God, the exigen- 
cies of ttie church and the world may be 
described in few words. It should be one of 
deep piety, of extensive education, of astrong 
hold on great moral principles, of enlarged 
views, of untiring enterprise, and one in whom 
the wisdom of the serpent, and the gentle- 
ness of the dove are sweetly blended. Jlclear 
understanding and a strong hold of great 
moral principles is not the least important. 
God shook up the papal church, and sifted 
out of it the men who were to enlighten 
Europe. He then shook up Europe, thus 
enlightened, and sifted out of it the great 
men and the great principles, destined to 
lay the political and moral foundations of 
this nation. The Mayflower, which brought 
our pilgrim fathers, came freighted with 
great principles. Among others, it brought 
the following. That all men are by nature 
free and equal ; that conscience enlightened 
by the word of God, should be our moral 
guide ; that the church should have a pious 
and learned ministry ; that the Bible teaches 
the doctrines of the reformation ; that the 
character depends, under God, on parental 
and moral training, and that the vote of 
the majority should rule in church and state. 
From the day our pilgrim fathers placed 
their weary feet on the rock of Plymouth, 
till the present hour, we have done little 
else but follow out these great principles. 




It has been blest by the God of nations, and 
the God of armies ; blest on the land and 
on the sea ; blest in the council-chamber 
and in the church. 

Our nation is governed by great princi- 
ples, not by men. But the politicians of 
Europe cannot understand it. They regard 
America as a mighty mass of mind, under 
the strongest excitement, in full and pow- 
erful operation, but without a controlling; 
head ; and they look to every star-set flag 
that rides on the ocean, and listen to the 
sighings of every Western breeze, to hear 
of political earthquakes, and the bursting 
forth of moral volcanoes in this land of the 
Pilgrims. But America, founded on great 
principles, and guided by the men who 
understand and reverence them, still sits 
enthroned on the lovely hills and expanded 
waters of this Western world, the queen of 
of nations, and the praise of the whole earth. 

Now, Sir, if I mistake not. the American 
Education Society is doing much to bring 
out these great principles, to give them 
influence on the public mind, to extend 
them throughout this whole nation, and 
through the world. She is herself based 
on one of these great principles, and every 
well-educated minister, whom she sends 
forth, is trained in them, and goes forth to 
preach and maintain them. I bless God 
that the American Education Society was 
raised up just when it was ; that its charac- 
ter was fixed, and its plan of action formed 
by the great minds, and the pure hearts of 
the church. God has wisely given it age, 
and strength, and manliness of character, 
and fitted it to stand in these times of 
changing opinion, and hold up to the church 
and the world a proper standard of ministe- 
rial qualifications. Henceforth, then, let the 
American Education Society hold a com- 
manding place in the sympathies, the alms, 
and the prayers of the church. Let the church 
stay up her hands, and give her the means 
of extending her operations till the gospel 
trumpet shall be blown on the banks of the 
Amazon and the Nile ; till her blood-stained 
banners wave on the plains of Mexico, and 
float in the valleys over which the Alpine 
eagle soars ; till the Arab, the Persian, and 
the Hindoo shall understand the dying love 
of Jesus; till the standard of the cross shall 
be planted triumphant on the mosques of 
Turkey, the war-girt towers of Russia, and 
the battlements of China ; till every nation, 
every kindred, and every tribe of men shall 
exclaim, " How beautiful upon the moun- 
tains are the feet of him that bringeth good 
tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth 
good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation, 
that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth." 

The officers of the New Hampshire Branch 
for the year ensuing, are Rev. Nathan 
Lord, D. D., of Dartmouth College, Presi- 
dent ; Professor Hadduck, Secretary, and 
Hon. Samuel Morrih, Treasurer. 

Vermont Branch. 

This Society held its Annual Meeting at 
Castleton, Sept. 14, 1836. 

In absence of the presiding officers, the 
meeting was called to order by President 
Bates, of Middlebury College ; and William 
Page, Esq. was appointed Moderator. 

The Report was read by the Secretary, 
the Rev. William Mitchell. 

President Wheeler, of the University of 
Vermont, offered the following resolution, 
which was seconded by President Linsley, 
of Marietta College. 

Resolved, That an educated and evan- 
gelical ministry is indispensable to the suc- 
cess and to the very existence of other 
means, for the moral improvement and the 
salvation of men. 

The following resolution was presented 
by Rev. Mr. Coleman, of the Burr Seminary, 
and seconded by Rev. Mr. Nash, General 
Agent of the American Education Society. 

Resolved, That the experience which 
New England has had of the blessings de- 
rived from an educated and pious ministry 
of the gospel, should excite her sons to 
earnest prayer and efforts, that those bles- 
sings may be perpetuated and extended. 

In support of these resolutions, the meet- 
ing was addressed by the gentlemen named. 
The Report follows. 

The Directors of the North Western 
Branch of the American Education Society, 
in presenting their annual Report, regret 
to state that their hands have not been 
strengthened by the usual munificence of the 
churches. But they would express their 
gratitude to the Head of the church that in 
a world where the prominent trait is selfish- 
ness and sin, he has opened the hearts of 
any to devise liberal things for the pros- 
perity of his kingdom. It is the natural 
character of man to seek his own, and not 
the things which are Jesus Christ's. Every 
pulse of holy benevolence, therefore, is 
cause of thanksgiving to God, inasmuch as 
it is proof that the quickening Spirit still 
moves upon the mass of spiritual death. 

Intelligence and moral purity are the two 
only attributes in which we can approximate 
to God. Both of them are unspeakably 
noble attributes. And it is the office of the 
Christian ministry to impart these blessed 
gifts to man. The explicit design of this 
dearest institution of God is first to recal 
the dead to life, and then to promote their 
growth in grace, and in the knowledge of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, till they 
know as they are known, and are pure as 
Christ is pure. The preaching of the gospel 




by men ordained of God, is the grand means 
for the conversion of the world. It is a sine 
qua non in the work of salvation. It is the 
heart which sends the current of life into 
every benevolent enterprise. Let the heart 
cease to beat, and the whole dependent 
system will be smitten with death. If the 
efforts, therefore, to answer the demands 
for a well-educated and godly ministry, had 
availed nothing more than to gather and 
cultivate a solitary flower which otherwise 
had been 

" Born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air," 

even this would have repaid a thousand fold 
the expended toil and treasure. But many 
such flowers have been gathered from the 
desert, and their sweetness, under the kindly 
hand of the spiritual Gardener, has gone 
forth a savor of life unto life. 

But the little accomplished, seems as 
nothing compared with the magnitude of 
the work which yet remains undone. The 
Secretary of the Parent Society, in his 
Report for 1835, says, from an investigation 
of facts, " There has not been for the last 
30 years so great a demand for ministers in 
New England as at the present time. Many 
vacant churches exist, and their call is, 
Send us pastors. In the South and West 
' there is a famine of hearing the word of 
the Lord.' Between 3 and 4,000 ministers 
are needed to supply the destitute evan- 
gelical churches in this country." Add to 
this destitution the need of men for our 
numerous colleges, schools, benevolent so- 
cieties, and the foreign service. Deduct 
the numbers fainting and falling prematurely 
under the burden grown too heavy to be 
borne, and how many ministers are this 
moment needed for the world's conversion ? 
After every effort, this want increases un- 
ceasingly. And the times imperatively 
demand not only a pious, but a highly-ed- 
ucated ministry. Knowledge rapidly in- 
creases, and the teacher must surpass the 
taught. Infidelity, licentiousness, error, the 
wide spread profanation of the Sabbath, in- 
crease in enormity, and must be rebuked 
from an eminence that shall overawe and 
restrain. The spirit of innovation must be 
checked and modified — the nation must be 
turned back to the fountain of truth, and 
persuaded to anoint her eyes with eye-salve 
that she may see — an age characterized 
more by superficial attainments than depth 
of thought, must be taught first to under- 
stand and then to hold fast the form of sound 
words in faith and love which is in Christ 
Jesus. If the world and the church ever 
needed such lights as Baxter, and Howe, 
and Cud worth, and Lcighton, to lead them 
on their perilous way, they need them now. 
God has always had a learned ministry. 
The Levites were such. The apostles were 
such. They were taught in the school of 
Christ. And if they were illiterate Gflileans, 

they spake with other tongues as the Spirit 
gave them utterance. What unlearned man 
now could write such epistles as those of 
Matthew the publican, or Luke the Evan- 
gelist, or the revelation of John ? A pious, 
a learned, a highly-gifted ministry, we must 
have — a ministry that can compel the 
proudest intellect of the unsanctified to 
learn at its feet. 

But how is such a ministry to be ob- 
tained ? The Lord of the harvest must 
grant the unspeakable gift, in answer to 
the prayers of the church ; but Education 
Societies as a means to this end, have a 
great work to do. 

The Directors of the Society whose an- 
niversary has now returned, feel constrained 
from a survey of the past, and the exigencies 
of the present, to believe that the claims of 
their enterprise have not taken that hold on 
the prayers and sympathies of the churches 
in Vermont, which its importance demands. 
In the second Report of the North Western 
Branch, for 1822, the following statement 
is recorded. " A reference to the Treasurer's 
accounts will show that the donations paid 
into the Treasury during the last year are 
considerably less than those of the year 
preceding. Thus while the number of ben- 
eficiaries has been increasing, the means of 
aiding them are diminished; so that the 
sum now in the Treasury falls more than 
$200 short of the balance at the last annual 
meeting." For the year 1826 the Treasurer 
reports the amount of donations received 
only $474 65. 

To these confessions of the auxiliary we 
add the testimony of the Parent Society. 
Their Report for 1833 says: "The auxiliary 
society of Vermont, paid into our Treasury 
during the year nearly as much as has been 
expended within her bounds for beneficiaries. 
This has been effected through the in- 
strumentality of Agents." The Secretary 
adds that agents are indispensably necessary 
for the raising of funds to aid the Society 
in its operations. But can it be necessary 
for the churches to pay a man for the ex- 
press purpose of telling them their duty in 
this matter? Must charity expend much of 
her means of usefulness in procuring those 
means? Should not the printed documents 
of benevolent societies — their plans — details 
— success — and wants, be sufficient without 
the cost of sending an agent to record their 
claims? We leave this commentary on the 
necessity of agents for the consideration of 
the churches, and present another extract 
from the last Report of the Parent Society. 
(1836.) "This auxiliary society (i. e. North 
Western Branch) has abounded in benefi- 
ciaries, but its funds have not increased as 
the importance of the cause required. Within 
its limits 82 young men have been assisted 
the past year. There have been appropria- 
ted to its beneficiaries $4,164 while only 
$2,064 38 have been raised within the 
bounds of the Society. The deficiency of 


contributions to this object, is probably 
owing to the great efforts which have been 
made in raising subscriptions on behalf of 
the colleges in that State." Can the churches 
in Vermont receive this charitable apology 
conscientiously ? If they can it is well. 
But if the consolation it affords, is similar to 
that with which Joseph attempted to comfort 
his brethren in Egypt, — Now therefore be 
not grieved and angry with yourselves, — 
the validity of this apology needs examina- 

But we feel constrained, for the truth's 
sake, to add one thing more. The Treasurer 
of the Parent Society, Mr. Ropes, has for- 
warded the following information, requesting 
it to be laid before the churches. " Vermont 
has drawn nearly the whole of the two last 
appropriations from the Parent Society. 
The amount appropriated to Vermont for the 
two quarters noticed, is more than $2,700." 
We do not know that Vermont is bound to 
support wholly her numerous beneficiaries, 
but so far as furnishing means is concerned, 
she must not have the name of an auxiliary, 
and assume the character of a dependent, 
on the charities of sister churches. The 
amount of funds contributed for the last 
year is not ascertained, as the Treasurer is 
not present, nor is his report forwarded. No 
Report from the Directors was furnished at 
the last annual meeting. This happened 
in consequence of the removal to another 
field, of Mr. Mather, who successfully filled 
the double office of Secretary and Agent. 
That Vermont abounds in men is honorable 
testimony. Men are more valuable than 
money, but funds are also necessary. And 
we humbly submit this statement of fact3 
to the churches for prayerful consideration, 
hoping and praying that God, according 
to their ability, will excite them to sustain 
liberally a cause so intimately connected 
with their own good and the conversion of 
the world. 

The following officers were chosen for 
the year ensuing. President, Hon. Samuel 
Prentiss, LL. D. ; Secretary, Rev. William 
Mitchell ; Treasurer, Elnathan B. Goddard, 

Auxiliary Societies. 
Essex North. 

The Essex North Education Society held 
its Annual Meeting at Haverhill, May 4, 

The officers elected for the year, are 
Rev. Gardner B. Perry, President ; Rev. 
David T. Kimball, Secretary, and Col. Eb- 
enezer Hale, Treasurer. 



Extracts from the Secretary's Report 

To trace a majestic river to its source, to 
observe its various windings and the rich 
blessings which it pours upon the legions, 
through which it passes, affords inquiring 
minds vast and sublime delight. What 
pleasure does it give the intelligent traveller, 
to explore our own Mississippi ! But there 
is a river, the contemplation of which gives 
the Christian superior delight. Not the 
Nile, the Euphrates, nor the Thames. It 
is a river, strong and mighty, which shall 
overflow all its banks, and fill the breadth 
of ImmanuePs land. 

This river is drawn on the map of the 
Redeemer's kingdom. The smallest stream, 
connected with it, will be traced with high 
satisfaction by every friend of God, when 
other rivers shall cease to run, when " roll- 
ing ocean shall cease to move." 

The name of this river is Divine Good- 
ness. It originates at an everlasting and 
inexhaustible spring, called Love. Who 
can explore this mighty river ? Who can 
number its branches ? Who can survey 
the worlds, which it beautifies and en- 
riches ? Who can conceive the happiness 
it communicates? 

It flows in heaven. Angels drink of its 
waters. Cherubim and Seraphim are re- 
freshed by it. It flows through this world, 
giving subsistence and happiness to all that 
breathe. By it the fowls of heaven have 
their habitations, that sing among the 
branches. By it the wants of man are 

An important branch of the river of Di- 
vine Goodness is Saving Mercy. This 
connects heaven with earth. This wafted 
the Saviour to our world. This conveyed to 
us the book of life. This has brought im- 
mortal life to millions and millions, ■ who 
were dead in trespasses and sins. This has 
borne ransomed myriads to a happy world. 
It will more and more bless the nations. 
Under its influence many a barren waste 
will smile, many a desert become as the 
garden of the Lord. 

The streams, connected with this river, 
are too numerous to be mentioned. Among 
them are the various benevolent societies 
of the present day. These are not to 
be viewed in opposition to each other. 
They are to be regarded as the streams of 
one and the same mighty river. Their 
influence in a moral view- is like the natural 
influence of all the rivers and streams, 
which empty into the Mississippi, on our 
western valley. Is every eye delighted in 
tracing on a map the numerous streams, 
which, after fertilizing- each its particular 
valley, commingle their waters, and pour 
them into the same ocean ? Far more de- 
lightful is it to the philanthropist to contem- 
plate the various benevolent societies in 




this and other Christian countries, concur- 
ring in promoting the happiness of man. 

To the eye of the true philanthropist, 
they present a prospect unspeakably pleas- 
ant and delightful. "The intersection of 
these various streams, is far from exciting 
any unpleasant emotions in him ; for all the 
hills, plains, and vallies are far more bene- 
fited, and rendered more beautiful, than 
they could be by a solitary stream, however 
copious its waters, and however grand its 

In order that our various benevolent soci- 
eties may effect the most good, each of them 
must receive that proportion of public pa- 
tronage, which its comparative importance 
demands. Take as an example the four 
following: The American Bible Society, 
The American Education Society, and The 
American Home and Foreign Missionary 
Societies. These societies are most inti- 
mately connected. They are all funda- 
mental to the sublime object of sending 
Christianity through the earth. Duly sus- 
tained and balanced, they will effect im- 
mense good. Strike either of them out of 
existence, and you dry up one of the most 
copious streams, that water our country 
and the world. Strike out the Education 
Society, and, to change the metaphor, you 
strike from its sphere one of the most 
essential and one of the most brilliant plan- 
ets in our system. Withhold from it a 
proper portion of patronage, and you so 
diminish one of those planets, as to disturb 
the centre of gravity, and introduce fear- 
ful disorder into the system. What can 
the Bible and the Missionary Societies do 
without living men, to expound the Scrip- 
tures, and to preach the gospel in the des- 
titute parts of our country and the world ? 
Is it not as necessary to prepare and furnish 
laborers for the great field, the world, as it 
is to sustain them, when prepared ? Is 
there not a loud call from the four winds 
for able and faithful missionaries of the 
cross ? Are not the wheels of our Mission- 
ary Societies retarded through want of a 
number of duly qualified men, sufficient to 
keep them in swift and successful motion ? 
The great deficiency of the present day is a 
deficiency of men, to supply the destitute 
churches of Christendom, and to proclaim a 
crucified Redeemer in pagan lands. It has 
been maintained, and the sentiment cannot 
be too deeply impressed — "That the Edu- 
cation Society, considering its relations to 
every other department of benevolent effort, 
is a most essential and important part of the 
system of means, which is, by the blessing 
of God, to effect the conversion of the 
world." The sentiment has been pro- 
claimed in our great central valley, and is 
now echoing and reechoing from the Alle- 
ganies and from the Rocky mountains. 
" The western world can be saved from 
moral death, and raised to spiritual life and 
vigor, only by an entirely devoted minis- 

try." And this is equally true in reference 
to all the destitute regions of the earth. 
Considering the present want of able and 
devoted ministers, is not the Education So- 
ciety fairly entitled to a patronage, equal on 
an average to that of the several benevo- 
lent societies, that have been named ? Has 
this equitable claim been practically allow- 
ed ? The proportion, three years ago, stood 
thus : 

The American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, $138,574 

American Bible Society, 84,958 

American Home Missionary Society, . . 68,627 

American Education Society, .... 52,185 

An average of these four Societies, in- 
stead of giving the Education Society 
$52,185, would have given it $84,111. 
This latter sum, I am happy to state, was 
contributed to it, within about $1,000 in the 
year embraced in the last annual report of 
the Parent Society — the sum for that year 
being $83,062, a sum more than $25,000 
larger than had been contributed in any 
preceding year : a sum nearly approaching 
the just claims, comparatively speaking, 
which this Society has on the public pa- 

But what shall be done more effectually 
to promote the object of this institution ? 

1. Let information be communicated to 
all the benevolent among us respecting the 
necessity of an increase of ministers, and 
respecting the operations of the Education 

2. In order to promote the object in view, 
prayer should be offered to God more fre- 
quently and more fervently for an increase 
of faithful and devoted ministers. The fol- 
lowing command of Jesus is too much for- 
gotten by his professed friends — Pray ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he ■ 
would send forth laborers into his harvest. 
Since it is preeminently the work of God to 
prepare men for the Christian ministry ; 
since he has the hearts of all the young in 
his hands, and can, by his grace, furnish 
them with the most essential qualifications 
for this holy work, and since he Will be 
inquired of for this purpose, all persons of 
piety among us should, as with one heart, 
beseech the Lord of the vineyard, that he 
would thrust forth laborers into his vine- 

3. The churches should consecrate their 
young men, Christian parents should conse- 
crate their pious young sons, and young 
men of piety should cheerfully devote them- 
selves to the work of the ministry. A voice 
comes over the ocean, calling upon the 
pious young men of the United States with 
great emphasis, to devote themselves to 
this work. Let them hear and obey this 
voice. Influenced by a powerful appeal, 
on the ground of patriotism, on the ground 
of Protestantism, from regard to the cause 
of Chrisltndom, to the moral condition of 
the world, and to their oivn highest good, 




let them turn aside from worldly pursuits, 
however alluring and however lucrative, 
and devote themselves to the great and 
good work of saving souls from death, by 
the exercise of the Christian ministry. Let 
the appeal referred to, be read and pon- 
dered by all pious young men in our con- 
nection. Let me catch here and there a 
sentiment of it, and echo it in this part of 
the county. 

Young men of Essex North ! I entreat 
you hy the present pleasures of piety, and 
by its eternal joys, by your love to your 
race, by the excellence of the gospel and 
by its moral power, by the worth of the 
soul and the price paid for its redemption — 
I entreat you to give your whole hearts to 
religion, and exchange the common pursuits 
of the world for the divine employment of 
saving souls from death, and of preparing 
sons and daughters for glory. Come, using 
your own means for acquiring an educa- 
tion, if you possess them, and receiving 
assistance, if you need it, and tread in the 
luminous paths of King, Perkins, Hall, and 
Munson ; one of whom planted the gos- 
pel amid the ruins of Grecian temples, 
another labored with success as a solitary 
missionary in the vast Persian empire, and 
another amid the natives of this land by the 
lakes of the North, and the other fell an 
early martyr to the cause of Christ in a 
distant and barbarous island. Come, beloved 
young men, and attach yourselves to the 
kingdom of Christ. Come and help build up 
that kingdom — a kingdom founded on the 
Eock of ages — a kingdom embracing all 
the spiritual worshippers of God, all the 
humble and faithful followers of the Lamb 
— a kingdom governed by law\s of Kindness 
and of love — a kingdom which is to appear 
with so much glory on earth, that even the 
sun will be ashamed and the moon con- 
founded on account of its superior splendor; 
and which, in its heavenly state, will be 
rising in beauty and glory forever and ever. 
Come, young men, formed by your Creator 
for active usefulness, come and attach your- 
selves to that kingdom ; come helpin itserec- 
tion ; come share in its present blessings, 
and in its everlasting felicities and glories. 

Franklin Auxiliary. 

The annual meeting of the Franklin 
Auxiliary Education Society, was held in 
Conway, Oct. 14, 1835, and the following 
officers, who constitute the Board of Direc- 
tors, were chosen. 

Hon. Sylvester Maxwell, Esq. President; 
Joseph Avery, Esq. Vice President; Rev. 
B. F. Clarke, Secretary; Mr. Wm. Elliot, 
Jr. Treasurer: Col. Ansel Phelps, Auditor; 
and Rev. Moses Miller, and Rev. M. G. 


Extracts from the report follow. 

The Directors of the Franklin Auxiliary 
Education Society present in their report, 

1st. A brief history of the society. 

It was organized in Conway, Sept. 9, 
1817, under the name of the " Charitable 
Society, instituted hy the Franklin Associa- 
tion of Ministers." The leading object of 
this society, was to raise and appropriate 
funds for the education of pious young men 
of talents and indigence, for the gospel 
ministry. It was supposed that a considera- 
ble fund might be raised hy the sale of books 
promised by Rev. John F. Schermerhorn ; 
nothing of consequence, however, has been 
realized from that source. The society col- 
lected its funds principally from individuals 
who became members by paying $ 1 00 a 
year, from cent societies, and from con- 
tributions made in several congregations 
connected with the society. 

There was paid into the treasury during 
the 1st year $34 46; 2d year 182 48; 3d 
year 15 75; 4th year 90 26; 5th year 56 93; 
6th year 32 93 ; 7th year 10 28; 8th year 
12 76; 9th year 1100; 10th year 7 94; 
11th year 4 00; 12th year 5 00 ; 13th year 
00; 14th year 103 00; 15th year 309 42; 
16th year 101 96; 17th year 98 21. Total 
in 17 years #1,076 38. 

The society was unconnected with any 
other previous to Aug. 18, 1830, when it 
became auxiliary to the American Education 
Society. It had then collected, during 13 
years, $464 21, a little less than $36 a year; 
or, if we omit the 2d year, the average 
annual collections made in this county by 
this society, to carry forward this part of 
Christian benevolence, amounts to $23 47| ! 

The money thus collected was appro- 
priated to 12 young men — 7 of whom have 
entered the ministry — 6 are now, or have 
been, settled pastors — some of them occu- 
pying very important posts on the walls of 
Zion. Two of the beneficiaries were com- 
pelled by ill health to leave college — one 
deceased between his classical and theo- 
logical studies, a youth of much promise — 
one now in the study of theology, expecting 
to labor among the heathen, and one has 
already requested the privilege of restoring 
to the society what had been granted him. 

If then, we look at what was done by 
this society while it stood alone and in its 
feebleness, we shall not say it has labored 
in vain. If only that beneficiary whose 
earthly race was so short, bad been cherished 
by this society, surely its labors had not 
been in vain. 

We have no doubt that some immortal 
souls will acknowledge him as instrumental 
in their salvation, and a flourishing literary 
institution on the shore of Erie, founded 
chiefly by his persevering and self-denying 
agency, will long cherish his memory with 
tender and grateful affection. To another 
of our beneficiaries is committed the care 





of a church numbering about twice as 
many souls as dollars were paid into our 
treasury during the 12 first years of its 
operations. Of other beneficiaries, located 
in different States of the Union, particulars 
are not known. 

Since the union of this society with the 
American, we have been greatly aided by 
agents sent us by the Parent Society. The 
year previous to that union nothing is re- 
ported as collected — the following year more 
than $100, the next over $300.— The two 
following years, attention was directed more 
particularly to another method of accom- 
plishing the same work, and less was done 
for our society. But we are now permitted 
to rejoice in the substantial evidence, that 
our society has a sure hold on the affections 
of the benevolent, as appears, 

2ndly. By the present state of the so- 

And here it should be remarked, that the 
Secretary of our society has been recently 
removed from his connection with this 
county, and the circumstances connected 
with that event, have doubtless prevented 
him from accomplishing so much for this 
society as he otherwise would have done. 
Most of the churches were visited in the 
spring by an agent of the Parent Board ; 
from most of them returns have been made, 
which show that they are taking a deeper 
interest in the cause. They show that the 
fields already white, have been viewed by 
the eye of faith, and that many have resolved 
to send forth laborers to gather in the harvest. 
When men are willing to give their money 
to aid in an enterprise which has been 
obliged to face much opposition, it shows 
that they see duty and feel obligation, which 
assures us of ultimate success. It is be- 
lieved that no religious enterprise now 
before this community is indebted for its 
present prosperity, more exclusively to fixed 
religious principle than that of our society. 
It is believed that most who give to our 
funds, give because they are assured, " It 
has pleased God by the foolishness of preach- 
ing to save them that believe;" and they 
feel a deep conviction that there are many 
young men whom God has endowed with 
talents and grace, and whom he has com- 
mitted to them to be educated for the 
service of the ministry. Believing that the 
society is based in the hearts of the friends 
of Christ, we have strong confidence that 
objections against it will have less and less 
influence. We would notice, 

3dly. An objection which hinders good 
men from contributing to the funds of our 

The course prescribed to beneficiaries, 
some think too long. They are unwilling 
that young men whose hearts burn to be 
in the field, should be compelled to consume 
si) much time in preparation for labor. 
That some self-taught men have entered 
pn the work of the ministry with distin- 

guished success, almost immediately after 
their conversion, may be true. But these 
are the exceptions, not the general rule. 
There was but one Paul, while the 12 other 
Apostles must be trained under the personal 
instructions of the Saviour during most of 
the time of his ministry, before they were 
commissioned to go and teach all nations, 
and this, too, though they had the gift of 
tongues and miracles for their credentials. 
Young men of right spirit and suitable 
forethought, will not be in haste to enter 
the ministry before they are furnished for 
their work. Prudent and thinking men 
will not encourage them to do it, before 
they have considered well whether the 
amount of labor done, will be proportioned 
to the number of men employed, with 
whatever preparation for service they have 
entered the field. They will pause and ask 
themselves, " Is a seven or a nine years' 
course needful to fit a young man for the 
employment of a mechanic, and is a shorter 
time sufficient for a preparation for the 
work of the ministry ? " they will ask " Shall 
we require more professional knowledge 
to manage our legal concerns and to take 
care of the health of our children, than to 
guide our inquiries about eternity and attend 
to the state of their souls ? " The signs of 
the times surely call for men who can put 
on the whole armor of God, who have 
learned to give not an uncertain sound, who 
have been accustomed to discriminate be- 
tween truth and error, and to make a dif- 
ference between the precious and the vile. 

4th. Collections for the year now closed. 

The Directors are happy to announce 
that $435 92, have been collected during 
the year now closed, the items of which 
may be seen in the Treasurer's report. 
This is a much larger sum than has ever 
before been collected by this society in one 
year. It falls but little short of the whole 
amount collected during the 13 first years 
of the society, before it was connected with 
the Parent Society. We will be grateful to 
God and be encouraged, with the hope that 
future labors in this cause will be more abun- 
dant, and be crowned with more success. 

Strafford County Auxiliary, JST. H. 

The fifth annual meeting of this Society 
was held at Wolfeborough, June 8, 1836. 
The meeting was opened with prayer by 
the Rev. Joshua Dodge, the report was 
read by the Secretary, and addresses were 
made by Rev. Messrs. Young, Willey, and 

The officers for the followingyear are Hon. 
William Badger, President; Rev. Alvan 
Tobey, Secretary ; and William Woodman, 
Esq. Treasurer. 



Report of Rev. Mr. JVash. 

To the Secretary of the American Education Society. 

At the time of preparing my quar- 
terly report in April last, I was employ- 
ed in the county of Berkshire, Mass. 
My labors in this county were ended on 
the first Sabbath in May. Without ar- 
rogance I may perhaps be permitted to 
express the opinion, that they were pro- 
ductive of some little good to our cause. 
A respectable amount of funds was col- 
lected in aid of the good work in which we 
are engaged. What I deem of at least 
equal importance, is, that, so far as I can 
judge, an interest was awakened, which it 
may be hoped will cause the people of God 
in future to feel more and to pray more, with 
regard to the supply of our own country 
and the world with such a Christian ministry 
as the times demand. In furnishing such a 
ministry, there is ground to believe that the 
county of Berkshire will ever be ready to 
do its share. I found the college there in 
a healthful and prosperous condition. On 
this institution, the Head of the church has 
bestowed special favor, having made it the 
place where the spirit of Foreign Missions 
had its origin in our country, and having 
often shed down upon it the renewing 
influences of his Spirit. It was most grat- 
ifying to find a large majority of its mem- 
bers connected with the visible church, 
and setting examples of fidelity and zeal in 
their Master's service. From this fountain, 
we may well hope that streams will con- 
tinue to flow to the ends of the earth, 
which shall make glad the city of our God. 
In one of the churches in Berkshire county, 
ten young men, and in the whole county, 
forty are in a regular course of study pre- 
paratory to the Christian ministry. could 
all the churches in the land be brought to 
imitate the example here before them, we 
might hope to see the want of Christian 
ministers in time supplied ! Would all 
the parents who pray that the kingdom of 
the Redeemer may come, devote their sons 
to him and train them up for the service 
of the sanctuary, the spiritual harvest might, 
at no distant day, be furnished with laborers. 
It should be deeply felt, that every new de- 
gree of interest in the church on this subject, 
is one step towards this all-important result. 

During the last six months, I have been 
enabled to continue, with but little interrup- 
'•tion, in the prosecution of my agency. In 
this time I have attended three annual 
meetings of the larger ministerial bodies in 
New England, and have been present at the 
anniversaries of the State Education Societies 
held at the same time. I have likewise 
assisted at the annual meetings of five 
County Education Societies, and have usu- 
ally presented the object of my agency in 
two or three congregations on each Sabbath, 
and have occasionally presented it on other 
«?ays of the week. Truth however requires 

me to state, that every attempt to assemble 
a congregation to hear an address on any 
day except the Sabbath, has been so much 
a failure as to discourage its repetition. 
Alas, that so few Christians have yet learned 
that it is more blessed to give than to re- 
ceive, and hence most of the spiritual 
family are so slow to place themselves in a 
condition to be reminded of their duty to 
the Lord who bought them ! 

On the first of July last, at the request 
of the Directors, I left the former field of 
labor which I had occupied, and removed 
to the State of Massachusetts. The time 
which I have spent in this State has been 
chiefly employed in the county of Essex. 
Hitherto, I have uniformly experienced a 
kind reception and a measure of success 
which is encouraging. But in the midst of 
kindness and success, my heart has been 
often ready to sink, in view of the slow 
progress which we are making in furnishing 
laborers in any proportion to the extent of 
the harvest — in any thing like the numbers 
in which they must be furnished, before our 
own country can be brought under the 
power of the gospel, or the world be con- 
verted to God. And why is this thing so ? 
Why are all the aggressive movements of 
the church against the sin and the darkness 
of this world so few and so inefficient ? 
Why are the followers of Christ so slow to 
obey his commands — so dull and inactive 
in his service ? In saying this I am only 
asking in other words, Why it is so difficult 
to engage the youthful talent and piety of 
the community in the work of the ministry? 
While the other learned professions are full 
to overflowing, and every kind of secular 
business has hands enough to sustain it, 
that office, which is by far the most honor- 
able and the most useful ever sustained by 
man, must be urged on the attention even 
of the friends of the Redeemer, and, in a 
great majority of cases, be urged in vain. 
Godly parents are slow to dedicate their 
promising sons, and pious young men are 
slow to dedicate themselves to the Christian 
ministry, [n many instances, the call which 
now comes from all parts of a dying world, 
is by these individuals heard with seeming 
indifference. But why is it so ? Have these 
individuals any doubt whether in the Chris- 
tian ministry is full scope for all the capacity 
and all the benevolence of the human 
mind ? Do they question whether their 
children or themselves can do more for the 
glory of God and the good of the world, by 
preaching the unsearchable riches of Christ, 
than by engaging in any other employment ? 
In many instances, beyond all doubt, they 
are deterred from this most noble and ne- 
cessary service, by a conviction, that to de- 
vote themselves to it, is to renounce the 
hope of that honor which comes from men, 
and that wealth which perishes with the 
using. But why is it, that to a spiritual 
mind these things seem to possess so great 




value ? and why is it, that by such a mind, [ 
peace of conscience and the divine approba- 
tion here, and a crown of glory hereafter, 
are regarded as of so little importance ? The 
only reply to be made is, that the spirituality 
of minds which are thus affected, is far 
below the proper standard. Most certainly, 
minds thus affected, think far too much of 
things seen and temporal, and too little of 
things unseen and eternal. 

The result of my observation and reflec- 
tion up and down the country, is a strong 
conviction, that before we can hope to see 
the world filled with Christian ministers, 
with the influences of the Holy Spirit, and 
with the glory of God, the standard of piety 
in the church must be greatly elevated. 
Christians must love their Redeemer more, 
and the world less. That secularity which 
has come so near to annihilating all their 
graces, must cease from their minds. They 
must feel more for the glory of God, must 
Jive nearer to God, and pray with more 
fervency ; they must feel more deeply their 
responsibility to Him who has purchased 
their ransom with his blood, and who ever 
lives to make intercession for them. Nothing 
can be more painful, than to observe how 
much greater is at present the influence of 
the world upon the church, than of the 
church upon the world. This is only be- 
cause the people of God live so far below 
their duty and their privileges, and there is 
so little consistency between their profession 
and their practice. Hence it is, that the 
Holy Spirit has been for so long time and 
to so great degree withholding his influences 
from the community ; that revivals of reli- 
gion have been so few and of so little power; 
that such multitudes of the enemies of God 
are filling up the measure of their sins, 
and treating even the means of grace with 
eotire neglect. How often have I been 
ready to exclaim with a bursting heart, 
When will these things cease to be? Not, 
surely, till Christians feel their obligation 
not to live for themselves, and come nearer 
to the standard of their duty. 

The occasion for prayer that religion may 
he revived in the church is indeed most 
urgent. Till such a reviving is experienced, 
we can have but little hope that the work of 
conversion will he again commenced among 
the ungodly. But without this work the 
operations of the Education Society must, 
at no distant day, he impeded, more by a 
want of proper subjects to be educated than 
of funds to educate them. Whatever view 
we take of the object or the wants of this 
or of any other benevolent institution, we 
must come to the conclusion, that the great 
thing to be desired and sought, is, the in 
crease of true religion among the people of 
God. He who docs any thing to effect this, 
contributes most directly and essentially to 
the extension of the Redeemer's cause and 
the conversion of the world. Would all 
the followers of Christ fully exemplify their 

profession, his religion would at once burst 
its present narrow bounds, and a nation be 
born in a day. Till there is more piety 
and more prayer in the visible church, the 
operations of Christian benevolence must 
be expected to advance at their present 
slow rate. 

Rev. Mr. Mather's Report. 

To the Secretary of the American Education Society. 

Since the annual meeting of the Maine 
Branch of the American Education Society, 
in June last, I have directed my labor 
chiefly to the eastern section of the State. 
A short time, however, recently, I have 
spent in the county of Somerset, and in at- 
tending the meetings of several of the coun- 
ty conferences. Jn visiting the church- 
es in the eastern part of the State, every 
thing pertaining to my agency has been 
pleasant. Most of the churches in that 
region are comparatively feeble : they can- 
not do much ; yet they are willing to do 
their proportion in sustaining the cause of 
benevolence, and to do cheerfully according 
to their ability. The raising of funds has 
been my immediate object, though not the 
only one which I have had in view in vis- 
iting these churches, nor perhaps the most 
important. Churches which can furnish but 
little money, can often furnish men to be ed- 
ucated. To inquire after young men, and, so 
far as circumstances would render prudent, 
to encourage such as were suitable candi- 
dates for the ministry to devote themselves to 
that work, has appeared to me an object, if 
not of paramount, at least of sufficient im- 
portance to justify constant attention. The 
collection of statistical information respect- 
ing the number, age, qualifications, the 
number who are studying, etc. of the 
young men in these churches, from inquiry 
and examination of church records, has 
received all the attention necessary for 
the attainment of the object, as one of 
considerable importance. One other object 
which I have labored to effect, and by the 
ready co-operation of the pastors success- 
fully, has been a systematic arrangement, 
throughout the State, in regard to the times 
for making the annual collections for the 
Education Society. 

The following is the arrangement made, 
and approved, either hy vote of the several 
county conferences, where an opportunity 
has occurred to bring it before them, or, 
where no such opportunity has occurred, 
by the consent of individual pastors. In 
Cumberland county, the months of January 
and February are devoted to this cause; in 
Oxford and Lincoln counties, March and 
April ; in Hancock and Waldo, Washington 
and Penobscot, July and August; in York, 
September and October; in Kennebec and 
Somerset, November and December. The 
months of May and June will be devoted 
to general labors for the Society, and in 




such parts of the State, as circumstances 
may render necessary to be visited, during 
those months. 

The benefits of such an arrangement are 
many and obvious, and its importance has 
long been felt. 

I will only add, that, having visited nearly 
all the churches in the State, and witnessed 
the interest and zeal every where mani- 
fested on the subject of education, I fully 
believe that Maine will not be behind any 
of her sister States of New England, in 
that branch of the cause which relates to 
the training of her pious, indigent young 
men for the gospel ministry. 



Canton, China, April 5, 1836. 

To the Secretary of the American Education Society. 

Dear Brother in Christ, — With peculiar 
emotions, on the 14th Sept. 1835, I received 
the certificate of the American Education 
Society, releasing me from pecuniary obli- 
gations for the present; and the few lines 
accompanying it from your hand, dated July 
17, 1834, in which you say, " Should Divine 
Providence hereafter, place you in a situa- 
tion to aid the Society by refunding the 
whole, or a part, of what you have re- 
ceived, and should you meet with no higher 
claims upon your resources, we doubt not 
you will be as happy to return something 
into our sacred treasury, as we shall be to 
receive it." Yes, my dear Sir, more so. 
The good providence of God affords me an 
opportunity of evincing, in a slight degree, 
that I have not forgotten a Society which 
shall have both my gratitude and prayers 
while I have breath. 

A wealthy Parsee, resident in Canton, had 
for some months been grievously afflicted 
with a polypus in each nostril, which at 
times hardly permitted him to breathe 
through them. He applied to me to remove 
them. I .referred him to the physician of 
the residents. He said he had been to him. 
I explained to him my situation ; but said 
that if the resident physician desired, I 
would assist him, or do it myself. It was 
agreed that I should attempt it. The fol- 
lowing brief note explains the sequel. 
"Rev. Mr. P. Parker, 

"Dear Sir, — As I am infinitely indebted 
to you for the speedy cure of my polypi, 
therefore may I entreat the favor of your 
acceptance of the accompanying articles, as 
a trifling token, from 

" Yours, obediently, 
" Shavuckshaw Rustomjee. 

" March 10, 1836." 

The articles are as follows: — two half 
pieces of fine grass-cloth handkerchiefs — 
one large piece of silk handkerchiefs — 
twenty pieces of nankeen cloth — and a 
watch-guard of pure gold. 

I informed the gentleman that I neither 
desired nor expected any reward beyond that 
of doing a fellow sufferer good — but, at his 
urgent request, accepted his presents. And 
now, my dear Sir, I know of no way of ap- 
propriating them more agreeable to myself, 
than to forward them to you as a token of 
grateful remembrance to the Society whose 
favors I have received, with a desire that 
the articles may be appropriated for the 
benefit of her beneficiaries at Yale, or 
Amherst, or elsewhere, as you think best. 
I send you the gold chain as it is thought it 
may sell for more at home than here, and 
the avails of it you can appropriate for the 
benefit of the Society. .lames Covert, Esq. 
who now returns to New York, kindly 
takes charge of them. 

I have not time to add more. O what a 
cordial is found in the assurance you make, 
"continual intercessions in the churches 
wdl be offered in your behalf," unspeakably 
do [ desire them, do I need them. May the 
continued smiles of the great Head of the 
church rest upon your labors and the efforts 
of your Society. Affectionate remembrance 
to all — and believe me, 

Dear Sir, yours in the best of bonds, 
Peter Parker. 

Another letter, similar to the one above, 
has been received from the Rev. Mr. Parker, 
accompanied with presents like those men- 
tioned, given him for assistance rendered, 
in removing bodily maladies. 

American Education - Society. 

Quarterly Meeting of the Directors. 

The usual Quarterly Meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the American Edu- 
cation Society, was held on Wednesday, 
October 12, 1836. Appropriations for the 
quarter were made to beneficiaries in va- 
rious institutions, as follows: 

Former Ben. New Ben. Total. Ain't Ap. 

15 Theol. Sem. 118 9 127 $2,342 
23 Colleges, 357 23 3S0 6,854 

55 Academies, 160 45 205 3,212 

93 Institutions, 635 77 712 $12,408 
Of the above, the Presbyterian Education 
Society made appropriations as follows: 

Former Ben. New Ben. Total. Am't Ap. 

7 Theol. Sem. 35 4 39 $ 738 

10 Colleges, 124 9 133 2,372 

31 Academies, 


22 112 


4S Institutions, 249 35 2S4 $5,062 

No returns for this quarter were received 

from the Western Education Society at 




Cincinnati. Had there been, the amount 
of appropriations would have been much 

The Rev. John K. Young and the Rev. 
Joseph Emerson, have been appointed to a 
temporary agency in behalf of the American 
Education Society — the former to labor in 
New Hampshire, and the latter, in Vermont. 
Mr. Young has been very favorably known 
for some years past as a minister of the 
gospel at Meredith Bridge, N. H. and seven 
years since he performed a very acceptable 
agency for the Society in Connecticut and 
Massachusetts. Mr. Emerson finished his 
theological course of study at Andover in 
1835, and has, till within a month, been 
preaching to ver)' good acceptance in the 
Middle States. Confidence is entertained 
that both these gentlemen will ably, pru- 
dently and successfully accomplish their 


Receipts of the American Education Society, from 
July loth, to the Quarterly Meeting, Oct. 
12, 1836. 


1,043 75 
2.288 15 

LEGACY, from Thomas Smith and Thomas Parsons, 
Esqs. Exec'rs. of the will of Mr. Normand Smith, 
Jr. late of Hartford, Ct. deceased 200 00 

Fr. Rev. John Todd and Rev. .las. Howe, Trustees 
under the will of Mr. Samuel Stone, late of 
Townsend, Mass. deceased 1,000 00 

Canton, China, Rev. Peter Parker, two gold chains, 

valued at 47 00 


Suffolk County. 

[Hardy Ropes, Esq. Boston, Tr.] 
o.iton, Bowdoin St. Soc. by Mr. James Hanghton 

Barnstable County. 

[Dea. Joseph White, Yarmouth, Tr.] 

Falmouth, "North Falmouth Ladies' Working 1 Soc." 
hv Miss Elizabeth Nye, Tr. balance to const. Rev. 
Daniel D. Tappan an Hon. Mem. (The $20 ac- 
knowledged in August, was for the lame object, 
by the same Soc.) 

Essex County South. 

[David Choate, Esq. Essex, Tr.] 

Beverly, (Upper,) individ. in part, to 

const. Rev. John Foote an Hon. 

Mem. 23 75 

Rev. Mr. Abbott's Soc. 74 55 — 

lioxford, (B. P.) Soc. of Rev. John Whitney, 

to const, him an H. M. 
Danvere, (S. P.) Rev. Mr. Cowles's Soc. 
Exsex, individ. l»v Rev. R. Crowell 
Gloucester, Weft Parish, 10 00 

Sandy Hay, Hi 09 

Harbor, EJvang. Ch. 30 43- 

Hamillon, coll. in addition to 12 64 before 

acknowledged 22 36 

tptvnch, (S. P.) aim. col), for a Temp. Schol. 75 00 
Lynn, Rev. Parsons Cooke's Soc. in part 73 64 

40 00 
105 18 
76 73 

-124 15 

Marblekead, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Mrs. S. W. 

Cozzens, Tr. 69 

Salem, Tabernacle Soc. in part, by 

Mr. Ferdinand Andrews 110 00 

Rev. Dr. Emerson's Soc. by Dea. D. 

Lang 82 50—192 

Saugus, individuals 16 

Topsfield, Hon. N. Cleaveland, to' 
const. Hon. Membs. Rev. Elisha 
Lord Cleaveland, of New Haven, 
Ct. and Rev. James Frisbie Mc- 
Ewen, Topsfield, Mass. 80 00 

Rev. Mr. McEweu's Soc. 50 00—130 

The following sums collected in 1835, 
have just been received, viz. 
Gloucester, Harbor, Rev. Mr. Porter's Soc. 

bal. of collect. 3 

Ipswich, fS. P.J 48 

Middleton, Rev. Mr. Jefferd's Soc. 18 

Topsfield, Rev. Mr. McEwen's Soc. 40 

[The above by Rev. Ansel Nash, Agt.] 

Essex County North. 

[Col. Ebenezer Hale, Newbury, Tr.] 

Amesbury, Rev. Mr. Towne's Soc. 
Andover, (S. Par.) Ill 03. West Par. 

15 126 03 

Teachers' Seminary, in part to const. 

Rev. A. R. Baker an Hon. Mem. 
Boxford, Fem. Char. Soc. 
Bradford, ( W. P.) subsc. in part 
Byfield, individuals in part 
Newburyport, Mrs. Sarah Pettingill, 

by Rev. Mr. Dimmick 
Ladies' Miss, and Educa. Soc. by Miss 

H. Clark, Tr. 
Circle of Industry, by Miss Mary C. 

Greenleaf, Tr. 14th semi-ann. pay 't 

for Newburyport Ladies' Temp. 

Schol. which completes the Schol. 
Mrs. Mary Greenleaf, to const, herself 

an H. M. 100 00 

Mr. Stephen Gomez, 1st pay't for a 

Temp. Schol. 75 00—268 

13 75-139 ' 
4 I 

48 ! 

50 00 

5 62 

37 50 

Franklin County. 

[Mr. William Elliot, Jr. Greenfield, Tr.] 

Ashfield, Ladies' Asso. 
Buckland, Ladie3' Ed. Soc. 
(ientlemen's do. 

Cliarlemont, 1st Parish, Ladies' Assoc. 
Deerfield, Mrs. Mindwell Goodhue 
Shelburne, 1st Cong. Soc. 
Ladies' Ed. Soc. 
Warwick, Trinitarian Ch. 

10 41 

8 44 
7 50- 

■15 94 

7 50 
2 00 
11 75 

16 78 — 28 53 

7 69 — 72 07 

Hampshire County. 

[Hon. Lewis Strong, Northampton, Tr.] 

Amherst, Ladies' Sewing Soc. by Miss Han- 
nah Shepard, Tr. 15 00 

Middle fie Id, Col. David Mack, by Rev. Dr. 
Cogswell, $40 of which to const. Rev. 
John H. Bisbee an II. M. 1,000 00- 

Middlesex County. 

Newton, Dea. Benjamin Eddy 

South Conference of Churches, 
Middlesex County. 

[Mr. Patten Johnson, Southboro', Tr.] 

Southboro 1 , Rev. Mr. Follett's Ch. 
Rec'd fr. the Tr. Mr. Johnson 

16 05 
20 00 — 36 05 — 38 05 

Norfolk County. 

[Rev. John Codman, D. D. Dorchester, Tr.] 

Iloxbury, Soc. of Rev. John S. C. Ab- 
bott, by Dea. Kittrcdge 106 00 

Spring St. 'Soc. to conBt. Rev. Christo- 
pher Marsh an II. M. 40 00—146 00 

Sharon, Soc. of Rev. J. Cnmmings 7 00 

Wrentham, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Mrs. Esther 

Whiting, Tr. 39 00-192 00 




Old Colon*. 

[Col. Alexander Seabury, New Bedford, Tr.] 

Dartmouth, individuals 12 50 

Rev. Mr. Richmond's Soc. 8 00 — 20 50 

Fairhaven, Fein. Ed. Soc. 42 25 

Rev. Mr. Gould's Society 12 00 
Bequest of Miss Mary Spraguc, by 

Hon. Natli'I S. Spooncr, Excc'r 100 00—154 25 
New Bedford, Rev. Mr. Robert's Soc. 

by Mr. Joshua Bowker 
Society of Rev. Mr. Holmes, 1835 
North Cong. Soc. 1836 
Nantucket, Fern. Aux. Ed. Soc. 
Rochester, Malteposset, a Lady 
Rev. Mr. Utley'sSoc. 
South Ch. 

Rev. Mr. Robbins's Soc. 
Wareham, Rev. Mr. Nott's Society 

46 50 
60 00 

60 00—166 50 
40 00 
1 00 
7 50 
10 25 
14 00 — 32 75 

22 75-436 75 

Plymouth County. 

[Dea. Morton Eddy, Bridgewater, Tr.] 

Plymplon, Rev. Mr. Dexter's Soc. by Dea. 

Do. do. by Rev. T. Boutelle, of Plymouth 


[Hon. Abijah Bigelow, Worcester, Tr.] 
Uxbridge, by Rev. David A. Grosvenor 

Worcester County North. 

[Dea. Justus Ellingwood, Hubbardston, Tr/ 

1 90 

4 26- 

Barre, Evang. Soc. by Mr. H. P. Woods 
Westminster, Soc. of Rev. Mr. Mann 

44 67 

25 00—69 67 

$8,326 86 

[Prof. Samuel P. Newman, Brunswick, Tr.] 

Bath, William Richardson, Esq. 50 

Brooks, Dea. Thomas Sawyer 1 

Brookville, 3 

Belfast, Cong. Ch. and Society 32 

Bucksport, do. do. 28 

Bristol, do. do. 8 

Bloomfield, do. do.- 21 68 

William Soule Phillips 1 00 — 22 

Biddeford, 1st Cong. Ch. and Soc. 17 19. 2d do. 3 88 21 
Camden, Cong. Ch. and Soc. of which $40 is to const. 

their pastor, Rev. Nathaniel Chapman, an Hon. 

Mem. of A. E. S. 48 

Castine, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 34 

Calais, do. do. 40 

Cherryfield, a Friend 8 

Dennysville, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 16 

East Machiasj Cong. Ch. and Soc. of which $40 is to 

const, their pastor, Rev. Thomas T. Stone, an Hon. 

Mem. of A. E. S. 41 

Eastport, Cong. Ch. and Soc. to const. Rev. Elijah 

Kellogg, of Portland, an Hon. Mem. of A. E. S. 40 
Foxcroft, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 12 

Hampden, of which $30 is to const, their pastor, Rev. 

Silas Baker and his wife, L. M. of Penobscot Co. 

Aux. Soc. 31 

Lubec, individuals 2 79. Dr. H. G. Balch 10 12 

Machias, Cong. Ch. and Soc. of which $40 is to const. 

their pastor, Rev. Stephen D. Ward, an Hon. Mem. 

of A. E. S. 50 

Machias Port, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 

Mqnson, do. do. 

Norridgewock, do. do. 

Pembroke, Dea. Bela Wilder 2 00. Mr. Eben. Chick 

ering 1 00 
Perry, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 
Robinslon, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 
Strong, do. do. subs, in part 

Saco, do. do. 

Fern. Ed. Soc. by Miss Susan Hayes 
Fern. Sewing Circle, by Miss Olive King 
Class in Sabbath School 
A Friend, earned on the 4th of July 

Topsham, Mrs. Betsey Perkins 
West Prospect, Cong. Ch. and Society 
Lincoln County, xiux. Ed. Soc. coll. at annual 

Paid in by the Treasurer 

58 11 
9 87 
4 21 
1 43 

1 25 74 


24 35 

12 25 — 36 

Washington Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. coll. at annual 

$727 40 

[The preceding by Rev. W. I,. Mather, Agt.J 

The following returns were made to the RoorriH, from th<: 
Branch, out of season, and were consequently not noticed in 
previous numbers of the Journal. 

22 50 
6 00 
25 00 

Alna, Cong. Ch. and Society 

Baldwin, Rev. N. Emerson 

Bridgeton, Cong. Ch and Soc. 

Fryeburg, do. do. 86 

Mr. Warren, toward L. M. 10 

Hiram, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 

Harrison, do. do. 

New Gloucester, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 

North Yarmouth, do. do. 

North Bridgeton, cont. 

Newcastle, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 

Portland, Ladies of 2d Cong. Ch. and Soc. of wli 

$40 is to const, their pastor, Rev. Joseph Vail, 

Hon. Mem. of A. E. S. 
Poland, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 
Sacarappa, do. do. 
Slandish, Rev. Mr. Tenney 
Turner, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 
Thomaston, do. do. 
Warren, Benevolent Soc. in part 
Waldoboro' , Cong. Ch. and Soc. in part 
Wiscasset, do. do. 

[The above by Rev. W. L. Mather, Agt.] 

00 96 00 

3 56 
13 05 
20 00 
32 00 
1 42 
20 43 


75 00 
9 12 
8 75 
2 00 
5 40 
39 03 
10 00 
14 75 
10 57 


Brunswick, subscription 
Freeport, Cong. Ch. and Soc. 
Topsham, do. do. 
Ellis a L. M. 

33 07 
33 18 

to const. Dea. William 

25 00 
$501 83 

45 00 

35 00 

13 17 
7 57 
19 27 
16 29 

[Hon. Samuel Morril, Concord, Tr.] 

Claremont, Soc. of Rev. Tertius D. Southworth, of 
which $40 is to const, him an H. M. by Mr. Jo- 
siah Stevens 

Dover, Ladies' Benevo. Soc. by Miss Elizabeth C. 
Wheeler, Tr. 

Hillsboro', Fern. Aux. Ed. Soc. by Miss Sarah Gil- 
bert, Tr. 

Peterboro', Fern. Aux. Ed. Soc. by Miss Sophia Pinne 

Plymouth, Fern. Asso. by William Gieen, Esq. 

Rochester, Ladies' Asso. 

Merrimack County. 

[Dea. James Moulton, Tr.] 

Boscawen, Mr. Abiel Gerrish 2 00 

Contributions 26 45 28 45 

Bradford, Mr. Samuel Shattuclr 1 50 

Chichester, Rev. Rufus A. Putnam, 2d annual 

installment 5 00 

Canterbury, individuals, $14 of which is bal. 

to const. Rev. Mr. Patrick an H. M. 23 50 

Concord, Ladies of the Soc. of Rev. Nath'l 

Bouton, on acco. of the Boutou Temp. 

Schol. 50 00 

Dunbarton, Mrs. Jane Harris 5 00 

Franklin, Ladies' Asso. 10 00 

Henniker, Yo. Men's Ed. Soc. 10 00 

Rev. J. Scales 5. Hon. J. Darling 5 10 00 
Dea. Pilsburv 5. Mr. A. Comer 5 10 00 

Mr, E Gould 3. Mr. L. Colby 3. P. 

Eaton, Esq. 3 9 00 

Mr. J. Whitcomb 1 00 

Miss Marv Darling, by her Father 5 00 45 00 

Loudon Village, a Lady 1 00 

Northfield, Rev. Liba Conant 1 00 

Warner, individuals 5 25—175 70 

Epsom, in part, to const. Rev. Francis P. Smith a L. 
M. of N. H. Brunch 

Franklin, contribution _ 7 70 

Mr. Jacob Trussell, in part, to const, himself a 

L. M. of the Countv Soc. 5 00- 

Mtredith Bridge, Rev. John K. Young 

Northfield, individuals 9 12. Dr. E. Hart 1 

Pittsfield, individ. to const. Rev. Jonathan Cur- 
tis a L. M. of Merrimack Co. Soc. 15 00 

John L. Tborndike, Esq. in part to const, him- 
self a L. M. of Co. Soc. - 5 00 20 00 

Salisbury, Individuals, to const. Rev. Ben- 
jamin F. Foster a L. M. of N. H. Branch 30 25 

11 07 

-12 70 
5 00 
10 12 

$101 11 

[The above L>y Rev. John K. Young, Agt.l 





[Elnathan B. Goddardj Esq. Middlebury, Tr.] 

Bennington. Anna Webster 

Corinth, Rev Isaac P. Lowe, to const, himself 

an H. M. 
Mr. Ezra Green 50 cts. Mr. Nicholas Hale 1 
Dea. Andrew McFarland 
Mr. Calvin Carpenter (all hv Mr. Lowe) 
Guilford, Miss Charlotte Field 
Norwich, Soulli Society, by Dea. Jacob Burton 
RefundeJ by a Beneficiary of this Br. who w 

nected with it before its union with the Parent 

Orange Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. fr. G. Morgan 

Windham Co. 

[Mr. N. B. Williston, Tr] 
Brattleboro' , Rev. Mr. Walker's Soc. 

40 00 

1 50 

1 00 


--43 00 

1 00 

14 56 

s con- 


93 00 

5 44 

85 00 

16 50—101 50 
3 13 
18 00 
9 56 
3 71 
10 76- 

Rev. Mr. Stark's Soc. 

Newfane, Rev. Mr. Griswold's Soc. 

Putney, a coll. 

Wardsboro', Rev. Mr. Tufts's Society 

Westminster, (E. P.) 

Collected at ami. meeting 

[The following by Rev. Ansel Nash, Agt.] 

Bennington, 1st Con?. Soc. 29 11 

Hartford, North Soc. Pern. Ed. Soc. 18 32 

A collection 11 12 — 29 44 

Manchester, a coll. 17 68 

Norwich, North Soc. 11 00 

Pawlett, 1st Cong. Soc. 34 00 

Perkinsville, individuals 6 90 

Royallon, Yo. Ladies' Circle of Industry 33 00 

Collection in Con?. Soc. 22 00 55 00 

Sharon, Cong. Ch. II 00 

Thetford, 1st" Cong. Soc. 11 00 

Waitsfield, a collection 1100 

Witliamslown, an individual 2 t'O 

Woodstock, Cong. Soc. 67 25 

$590 04 


[Eliphalet Terry, Esq. Hartford, Tr.] 

Andover, Ladies' Benev. Asso. bv Miss A. White 11 00 

Barkharnpsted, coll. in Cong. Soc. bv Rev. Mr. Gould 13 75 
Bolton, two Ladies, by Rev. William Ely 1 50 

Canaan, Miss Alice Loveland, by Mr. H. H. Wood- 
bridge 5 00 
Colebrook, a coll. by Rev. A. Nash, Agt. 60 00 
East Windsor, Ladies' Sewing Soc. 8th distiict, by 

M.s. A. C. Stiles, Tr. 7 50 

Fairfield, 1st Ch. and Soc. by Mr.' S. A. Nichols 23 55 

Granby, sundry individ. bv Mr. Bentley 2 92 

Hartford, a friend, by Rev. \V . W. Turner 5 00 

Hadlyme, by Rev. A. Nash 1 00 

Manchester, a coll. in part, by Rev. A. Nash 10 00 

Newinglon, Pern. Benevo. Soc. 5 25 

New London, Ladies' Asso. by T. S. Perkins 42 00 

North Guilford, individ. $40 of which is to const. Rev. 
Zolv., Whitmote an Hon. Mem. by Rev. S. H. 
Somers, a collection, by E. Pease, Jr. 
Saxjbrook, a collect, in 1st Soc. by Amos Sheffield 

60 00 
38 IS 

27 38 

$314 00 

The following are the particulars of receipts into 
the Tr. ol the Litchfield Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. from Jan. 
to May, 1836; 402 54 of which, were acknowledged 
in the August Journal, and the residue in preceding 
numbers, viz. 

Goshen, 1st Soc. 18 05 

" Smith Parma 31 00 49 05 

Harwinlon, a collect. $40 of which to const. 
Rev. Richard M. Chipman an Hon. 

Litchfield Soc. 

Mr. John Scovill, to const, himself a L. 
M of the Co. Soc. 

Norfolk, Rev. Joseph Kldredge 

New Preston, individuals 

Plymouth, a collection 

Sharon, 1st Soc. 

Torringford Soc. 

Woodbury, (North.) individ. 

Ladies' Circle of Industry 

Woodbury, (South,) 

$673 83 

[Oliver Willcox, Eerj. New York, Tr.] 


40 87 

59 55 

30 00- 

—89 55 

100 00 

36 01 

131 62 

88 OS 

50 00 

47 65 

5 00- 

-52 65 

36 00 

Murray St. Ch. fr. E. M. Morgan 
Pr. Samuel G. Wheeler 

300 00 

200 00-500 00 

Central Pres. Ch. Mon. Con. coll. 

15 64 

Fr. William J. Buck, on acc't. 

150 00 

Fr. Cha'les Williams 

50 00-215 64 

Mercer St. Ch. ir. Charles Butler and Lady 

75 00 

Fr. Anson G. Phelps, Esq. 

250 00—325 00 

Bleeder St. Ch. Ir. Gerard Hallock 

50 00 

Fr. George D. Phelps 

30 00 

Fr. Marcus Wilbur 

20 00—100 00 

Colchester, (Del Co.) Ir. Miss Sarah Downs 

100 00 

New Jersey, fr. a friend 

'•<00 00 

West, Ed. Soc. N. Y. fr. Ladies' Ben. Soc. 

100 00 

Fr H. H. Seelve, a dona. 

100 00—200 00 

Ulica Agency, bv J. W. Doolittie, Tr. 

308 00 

Brick Ch. fr. Eli Goodwin 

75 00 

Duane St. Ch. fr. J. G. Nelson 

100 00 

Fr. William M. Halsted 

600 00 

Fr. J. W. Leaviit 

200 00 

Fr. R. Leaviit 

200 00 

Fr C. O. Halsted 

600 00— 

1,700 00 

Brooklyn, 1st Ch. fr. D. Wesson 

150 00 

Fr. Fisher How 

300 00 

Fr. Yo. Men's Ed. Soc. 

110 00 

Fr. 2d Pres. Ch. 

254 25—814 25 

First Free Ch. fr Cornelius Baker 

150 00 

Allen St. Ch. fr. R. F. Haines, in part 

500 CO 

Wendall, Mass. fr. Ladies' Assoc. 

4 65 

Bowery Pres. Ch. fr. William W. Chester 

250 00 

Fr. Lemuel Brewster 

500 00 

Fr. Dr. A. W. Ives 

20 00—770 00 

New York, Fem. Mon. Con. Mrs. O. Eastman, Tr. 

B*ainard Ch fr. Joseph Brewster 

500 00 

Newark, fr. Mr. Lemasena, 

v 20 00 

Phi'lipsburg, (Orange Co.) fr. William Phillips, in 

part, Lite Director 

50 00 

Catskill, fr. Oren Day and Lady 

150 00 

Coll. Pres. Ch. 

60 00 

Fr. Mrs. Ruth Cook 

25 00 

Fr. Charles Sturtevant 

10 00 

Pr. Michael Grimes 

3 00—248 00 

Central Pres. Ch. fr. Jacob Kushaw 

62 50 

Mon. Con. collect. Aug. 

23 60 

Do. additional 


Do. September 

30 70—117 30 

West. Ed. Soc. Auburn 

650 00 

Do. do. 

200 00—850 00 

Union Ch. fr. William A. Coit 

100 00 

Essex, N. Y. fr. Pres. Ch. 

23 60 

Fair Haven, Ct. fr. Ch. and Cong. 

22 20 

Second Avenue Ch. fr. William E. Dodge 

100 00 

Maiden, N. Y. by Rev. John N. Lewis 

12 16 

Refunded by W. Norlon 

20 00 

Allen St. Ch Ir. David Marrie, Jr. 

100 00 

Plata. Ed. Soc. by G. W. McClelland 

33 02 

Pr. New Jersey, by Rev. E. Phelps, Agt. 

1,307 08— 

1,340 10 
6 61 

Poughkeepsie, 1st Pres. Ch. coll. in Ch. 

Fr. R. C. Andrus 

5 00 

Fr. S. C. D. Raymond 

5 00 

Pr. J. Boccene 

5 00 

Pr. Monthly Concert 

60 00 — 81 61 

Tabernacle' Ch. bv Rev. William Patton 

44 54 

Bowery Ch. bv Mr. Bull— 

Fr. Mr. Faiie.s 2. Mr. Patten 1 

3 00 

Fr. Mr. Fanning 

5 00 8 00 

Albany, by Rev. Mr. Patton, fr. second church 755 00 
Fr. fourth Ch. in part 49 66—804 66 

Catskill, fr. James Millard, by Dr. Porter 10 00 

Ptatlsburg, fr. Yo. Ladies, the avails of articles sold at 

a Misses Fair 14 00 


$10,441 12 


[John P. Wilkinson, Esq. Jacksonville, Tr.] 

Peoria, Mr. Aaron Russell, by Dea. Proctor of Boston 30 00 

Whole amount received $21,335 39. 

Clothing received during the quarter ending 
Oct. 12, 1836. 

Andover, Ct. I, adies' Benevo. Asso. by Miss E. White, a bun- 
dle, valued at $9. 

Boston, Mrs. Christian Baker, shirts, socks, and 6 yds. of flan- 
nel, valued al $12. 

Grafton, Mass. Ladies' Sewing Circle, by Rev. Mr. Wilde, 
pastor, 22 shirts and 11 bosoms. 

Medfield, Fem. Ch r. Soc by Miss Sarah P. Ellis, a box con- 
taining I comfortable, 1 heilqnilt, 1 pr. sheets and pillow 
cases, 1 pr. worsted hose, 3 pr. woollen do. 4 shirts, 3 col- 
lars, 3 bosoms. 

Peterborough, N. H. Fem. Aux. Soc. a box of clothing valued 
at $8 36. 

Rowley, Ms. fr. Social Reading Soc. a bundle valued at $14. 

South Cornwall, Ct. fr. small neighborhood, by Miss Sarah 
Swift, Sec. & Tr. 3 collars valued at$l. 

West Boscawen, N. H. Ladies' Ed. Soc. b) Miss Lucy E. 
Price, 12 shirts, II collars, anil 7 pr. socks. 

Canton, China, 2 boxes of nankeens, &c, by Rev. Peter 
Parker, Missionary at that place. 



Vol. IX. FEBRUARY, 1837. No. 3. 


[By the Rev. Samuel H. Riddel, of Glastenbury, Conn.] 

Samuel Austin, D. D., was born at New Haven, Conn, on the 7th of 
October, 1760. His father's name was Samuel ; and his mother's, before 
marriage, Lydia Wolcot. His parents were persons of reputed piety, and 
of highly respectable standing in life. Their children were two sons and 
a daughter ; of whom the subject of this memoir was the eldest. In the 
education of their children, they gave early and strict attention to their 
religious culture; and, in respect to each of them, realized the faithfulness 
of the divine promise, to such as train up their children in the fear of God. 
Samuel remained with his parents until the commencement of the revolu- 
tionary war, soon after which, at the early age of sixteen, he took the place 
of his father, who had been drafted as a soldier, and did military service 
in New York. When the British took possession of that city, he received 
a discharge and returned home; and was employed for two or three years, 
occasionally in the public service, and at other times in teaching school. 
At length, when about twenty years of age, he decided upon the pursuit 
of a learned profession, and commenced the study of law, with Judge 
Chauncey, in his native town. Soon, however, perceiving the necessity of 
a more thorough education, in order to the attainment of that standard of 
success and usefulness, towards which his aspiring mind was directed, he 
suspended bis professional course, and devoted himself, with his charac- 
teristic ardor, to classical studies. Such was his application and the 
rapidity of his progress, that, in the summer of 1781, he was admitted to 
an advanced standing in the sophomore class at Yale College. 

While thus endeavoring to lay a foundation for eminence and influence 
in life, the Saviour, who had chosen him to be a distinguished instrument 
of his glory, laid the foundation, in his religious experience, for his sub- 
sequent course of Christian zeal and usefulness. From an incidental 
remark in his religious diary, under date of July 27, 1782, we infer that 
it was during the period of his studies, preparatory to his entering College, 
that he became the subject of that spiritual change, which gave, so 
decidedly, a new character to his affections towards God, and a new direc- 
tion to his aims and efforts for the good of his fellow-men. In July, of the 
same year that he entered college, he was admitted by president Stiles, a 
member of the church in that institution. Some of the first leaves of the 
diary, above referred to, have fallen out and cannot be found ; otherwise it 
vol. ix. 26 

202 memoir of [Feb. 

is probable that an interesting account might have been preserved of his 
exercises under conviction, of his reconciliation to God through the Re- 
deemer, and of his public consecration of himself to the service of Christ. 
The first lines of this broken manuscript are the following -.-7-' i Jesus Christ 
to be my Saviour, and the Holy Spirit of all grace to be my sanctijier ; 
and promise, by the grace of God helping me, without which I can do 
nothing, to walk according to all the precepts of God exhibited in his 
word — to practise all known duty, and avoid ail known sin — to adorn the 
doctrine of God my Saviour, and to live as becomes a member of the 
church militant of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 

From observations of his own, which are recollected by some of his 
acquaintances, it is understood that his convictions of sin were very deep 
and distressing, though not long protracted. The following allusion to that 
part of his religious experience, is all which we find in his diary. " June 
16, 17S3, — Spent some of the forenoon, and of the afternoon, with Mr. 
Taylor, who is under the most lively and excruciating convictions that I 
ever saw, or could hardly conceive of — seems, many times, to be in the 
agonies of despair. I must confess, I never experienced any such degree 
of affection upon conviction. When I saw my lost state, I was kept from 
despair by a hope in the blessed Jesus." 

Mr. Austin passed through his academic course with distinguished 
reputation as a scholar, and received the highest honors of the college, 
when he was graduated, in September, 1783. The following is the tes- 
timony of one of his distinguished classmates.* " He was an assiduous 
and thorough scholar. Attentive to all the prescribed duties of college, 
sober and discreet, he sustained an unblemished character. An excellent 
linguist, he was a Dean scholar. Regarded always as a very good speaker, 
he received as the reward of merit, the first appointment in the exercises 
of the commencement, when he was graduated. His maturity of years, 
with unremitted attention to his studies, gave him a rank, to say the least, 
among the first scholars of his class."! 

It will be interesting to the readers of this work ; and we may hope 
profitable especially to that important class of them who are, or may be, 
occupied with a course of study, with a view to the sacred ministry, to 
follow this godly man, in his religious history, through that critical period 
which we are now contemplating; and observe in what manner the seeds 
of grace were cherished and cultivated in connection with the seeds of 
science, with such success that neither were stinted nor distorted, in their 
early growth and subsequent development. It is here that we are to look 
for the origin of that most prominent feature in the character of Dr. Austin 
— his intelligent and ardent piety — his disinterested and glowing zeal for 
God; which gave, through life, a holy impulse and effect to every applica- 
tion of his talents and acquirements; which secured to him, as a minister 
and as a friend, the sincerest love and veneration of all pious persons, who 
enjoyed the privilege of his acquaintance; and which commanded the 
respect even of those who disliked the doctrines he preached with so much 
point and power, and the plainness with which he rebuked their sins. 
His diary, to which references have already been made, was probably 
commenced about the time of his entering college and uniting with the 
church. It is exclusively of a religious character ; and carries internal 

* Hon. David Daggett, of New Haven. 

f His class consisted of forty-two members. Among them were David Daggett, LL. D., Abicl Holmes, 
D. D. LL. U., Jedidiah Morse, D. D., and John Cotton Smith, LL. D. Of this class thirteen, a larger 
proportion than usual, at that time, became ministers of the gospel ; of whom four are still living. 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 203 

evidence of being an honest record of his spiritual exercises, and a faithful 
mirror of his penitent and devout affections. His views, in keeping it, are 
thus expressed in the introduction to the second volume. 

"This diary I propose, in the strength of divine grace, to continue and 
prosecute, as a means to establish and animate me in the course of an holy 
and Christian life. I believe that without holiness no man shall see God ; 
and I rejoice that God can never take complacency in me, or any other of 
his creatures, while destitute of a share in this his best perfection. But 
as I hope in a principle of grace, implanted by sovereign agency from the 
Most High, in my own breast ; and as I humbly think that I wish, and 
that it is the ardent and constant desire of my soul, to be like God, and to 
be assimilated to him, I conceive the design of keeping this diary ; hoping 
that God will bless me in it, and that it will tend to teach me my own true 
state and character, lift me above this world, and fix my hopes and hap- 
piness on God and heavenly things. 

"If at any time, either before or after my death, it should fall into the 
hands of any of my friends, I wish it might be improved to the glory of 
God, and the good of their own souls. I am not, I think, afraid of any 
critical remarks upon it, to my disadvantage. My sole design, at present, 
is my own spiritual improvement. If, however, it should issue, in the least, 
to the glory of God, and the interests of one soul, there would be a double 
happiness resulting from it. — At least I humbly pray thee, thou supreme 
Source of wisdom, peace and joy, that it may be happily instrumental, under 
thy blessing, in sanctifying and purifying my heart; in drawing me nearer 
to thee, and assimilating me to thy spotless character. To be like God is 
to be all that is desirable, and to be holy as God is holy, should be my 
supreme wish, and to this, as a pursuit, every thing in life should be sub- 

This diary was kept up, with a good degree of regularity, through his 
collegiate course, and until he was settled in the ministry, a period of about 
six years. Afterwards, through the pressure of public engagements, it was 
resumed only at intervals ; and after the author left Burlington, nothing 
further was added to it. A few extracts will be given here from different 
portions of it, previous to the time of his leaving college. 

" January 5, 1782, — I find that I am extremely remiss in many duties, 
particularly in self-examination. I therefore resolve, in the strength of 
divine grace, to devote a part of every Saturday evening, for taking a 
retrospective view of the past week ; and making such resolves for the 
regulation of my conduct, as shall be necessary, and placing them at the 
latter end of this book. 

" And here I cannot but recognize the sweet and ravishing sensations I 
have enjoyed this evening, both in the meeting, and in a private walk with 
my classmate Holmes."* 

The resolutions, above referred to, were increased, from time to time, 
until they amounted to eight in number. Those, who have known Dr. 
Austin, will readily perceive the influence of these early, pious resolutions 
upon his religious character ; or, at least, the striking correspondence 
between them and several of its most interesting features. 

" 1. Resolved to be more strictly attentive and devotional, when I join 
with others in prayer ; that I may not offer the sacrifice of fools. 

* Rev. Dr. Holmes, of Cambridge. Frequent mention ig made in the diary, of Dr. Holmes, as "a dear 
Christian brother," with whom the author enjoyed much religious intercourse, while in college. 

204 memoir of [Feb. 

" 2. Resolved to contemplate more on the immense nature, and the in- 
finity of the divine attributes ; that I may be enabled to worship with more 
warmth of affection and devotion. 

" 3. Resolved never to use the great and tremendous name of God, or 
write it, without fear and veneration. 

"4. Resolved to watch strictly over my own heart, that it be not, on the 
one hand, too much captivated by the world and its pleasures, and, on 
the other, that it be daily conversant in heaven, and fixed on God. 

"5. Resolved that every day, before morning prayer, I will look forward 
into the probable business of the day, and see wherein I shall be exposed 
to temptation, and to determine accordingly; and to survey the day with 
this idea, that I will live as piously that day as though it were my last. 
And now, though I shall by no means be likely to live so, without divine 
assistance, yet I pray God to enable me, by the assistance of his holy and 
blessed Spirit. 

" 6. Resolved that, in every moral action, I will be more ambitious to 
glorify and please my Creator than any fellow-creature; because it is my 
duty; and my happiness does not depend on their approbation, but totally 
consists in the favor of God. 

" 7. Resolved that, in every approach to the throne of the Most High, I 
will entertain and crowd into my mind as august conceptions as possible 
of the divine greatness, power, omnipresence, spirituality, omniscience, 
jealousy, and infinite hatred of all sin and hypocrisy ; and also, to an- 
nihilate myself, as it were, in his presence ; that I may attend on prayer 
with becoming solemnity and devotion. 

"8. Resolved, by the grace of God, to attend secret prayer morning and 
evening, as long as I live ; and at other times as Providence and disposition 
shall direct." 

"Saturday evening, Dec. 19, — I find myself very neglectful of the fifth 
resolve; and, indeed, I am in a great measure incapable of looking through 
the day, to see what temptations I may be exposed to; for I have little 
time, being frequently obliged to hasten to my prayers, to improve the 
advantage of time or place. 

" I am convinced of this fault — that I think too well of myself, in com- 
parison with others, — have naturally an itching desire for the first place, 
in respect to a religious, social and literary character. I am selfish; I 
want humility, and am on the whole, an accumulation of depravity; 
ambitious, proud and emulous. But now, do I say these things only, or 
do I also feel them ? ( O, wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver me 
from the body of this death ! ' O, that I knew my own heart ! I hope I 
love holiness; but why do I not possess more of it? And shall I despair? 
No ; I will constantly apply to God for grace, and beg that these corrup- 
tions may be extirpated from my inmost soul." 

We may here observe with what jealousy and circumspection this youth 
in college was accustomed to guard his heart against the moral dangers 
incident to his condition and literary success. 

On reviewing the next week, he writes, 

" By God's grace, I think I make some amendments, in respect to the 
complaints which I last wrote. I believe, I thank God for what I am ; 
and rejoice that God has made me exactly what he has ; and I am very happy 
that others are above me, particularly the religious. God lias been un- 
speakably kind to me; and I desire to bless his holy nnme, if to others he 
is more abundantly gracious. 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 205 

"January 11, — The past week, I have mended a little, I believe, in my 
first resolve. — In the fifth resolve, I am very deficient, in respect to my 
dependence on God. 1 am rationally convinced of my dependence, but 
feel it too little. I am going to do it myself; am designing to live holily 
and faultless — but do not. Poor creature! Selfishness ! I cannot think 
a good thought, nor speak a good word, unless it be derived from God. 
Let me, therefore, lie at his sovereign footstool, in humble hope and fear. 
Sin does not, I have reason to think, appear to me with half its ugliness 
and deformity. Give me, O thou omniscient Judge, true evangelical re- 
pentance — a godly sorrow for sin : and may I loathe myself on account 
of it. 

"March 1, — I have the utmost reason to despise, loathe and abhor 
myself; and verily think that I am totally unworthy of a place on God's 
earth, or even to be among the number of his most contemptible creatures; 
and, therefore, I entirely relinquish and discard every hope from myself. 
If ever I am saved, thine, O Lord, shall be the glory. Though it grieves 
me to my inmost soul to think of it, I perfectly acknowledge the justice 
of God in my eternal ruin ; nay, I am astonished that God did not destroy 
me, at my first sin. Oh, hated sin ! But, while I live, I will hope in 
Christ, and in his vicarious righteousness; and rejoice in him, as the 
glorious Saviour of others, if not of myself." 

Under a subsequent date he writes — " Prayed this morning, with much 
of a sacred nearness to God; saw much of my own odiousness and vileness 
in his sight; felt as if I was a defiled wretch, and justly the object of 
contempt, to an obedient universe. Have little taste for any studies but 
divine, — wish to pursue no object, but what will finally issue in the glory 
of the blessed God. O, how sweet it is to hope that so defiled a creature 
as myself, may be washed and made clean in the blood of the Lamb. — 
Feel somewhat desirous to be assiduous in the service of God, while I live, 
and let him do what seemeth him good with my eternal interests ; but still, 
I long, I pant to join the holy throng of saints in heaven ; and to see, and 
be with the blessed God. Sin cleaves to my best services — O, when shall 
I awake in thy likeness! Prayed this evening with a sweet, and, may I 
hope, a holy fervor, — think I never felt so much of the goodness of the 
blessed God, in his forbearance — wished to be just that character, and in 
that station, which shall best promote his cause and glory." 

His diary, from the 2d to the 12th of June, 1783, contains some in- 
teresting notices of his spiritual exercises, while on an excursion to 
Norwich, to attend the wedding of his cousin D. A. Rarely, indeed, 
has such heavenly experience been joined with such festive scenes ! 

Of the ride to Wallingford, he says: " Felt cheerful, among the merry, 
but by no means merry. Riding is not very favorable to religious fervency; 
but I thank God I have had many happy reflections and emotions on the 
road." At W., for the want of an opportunity of retirement, at the public 
house, we find him at his evening devotions in the fields, where he "spent 
half an hour with God in as much delight, fervency and true benevolence, 
as is worth all the pleasures of the world. Felt extremely happy in God's 
ubiquity ; though I was alone, at a distance from my usual places of 
religious exercises, yet, I hope I found God graciously present with me." 

The next night, at White's tavern in Hartford — "Retired into the fields, 
for private prayer. Prayed upon a rock, with enrapturing and extensive 
views of God ; felt a sweet resignation to his providence, whether in life 
or death." 

206 memoir of [Feb. 

" June 5, — Rose this morning to behold the wedding-day of my cousin 
— could get no opportunity to retire for private devotion, till about half-past 
eleven. Then retired to my chamber, and prayed with some fervency, 
and much pleasure. I love to be in solitude. — Felt the want of humility 
and diffidence; have had many flattering words and things upon the road; 
particularly seeing my Ode to Washington in print, anonymous and said to 
be written by a lady.* I feel that I have vanity, and am weak enough to 
be flattered. O, I pray God to give me humility, and to preserve me from 
those foolish feelings, and those influences. And, on the other hand, I 
pray that I may never be ashamed of any thing of mine, but moral evil 
and guilt. 

" June 7, — Joined, this morning, in family prayer, with uncommon 
fervency and devotion. Enjoyed much of this forenoon in retirement. 
Had a sweet and most affecting season with the blessed God, — had a 
pressing sense of sins, and my vileness in his sight— felt the perfect justice 
of God in condemning me to hell forever. And then, oh how lovely did 
Jesus appear ! Oh how ungrateful and unholy my own heart ! Oh that 
I could do something for Jesus ! I could not proceed in my prayer, but 
was drowned in tears. This was a sweet season to my soul. 

" June 1!, — God appears to me a most glorious Being, and seems to be 
all, and in all. Offered up some very fervent ejaculations this morning — 
as I rode along, was in tears most of the way — was in a sweet and heavenly 
frame, all the forenoon. I was, this day, in the midst of merriment. Oh, 
how do I fear, lest, while I am becoming all things to all men, I should be 
contaminated with sin! I pray to be washed in that blood, which, I think, 
appeared to me of more value, this day, than thousands of worlds." This 
evening he returned home. 

June 15, — He thus expresses his self-abhorrence and grief, on an occa- 
sion of sore temptation. It was the Sabbath. "Attended public exercises, 
with much spirituality ; but, in the prayer, had in my mind, some of the 
vilest and most abandoned suggestions conceivable. I thought I deserved 
to be sent immediately to hell, and banished the kingdom of glory. It 
caused tears of lamentation from my eyes. Oh how did I tremble lest I 
should offend the blessed God, and make him angry. My wickedness 
seemed almost too great to find pardon ; and so it seems now. Still, I 
believe the world thinks me amiable and good. I cannot believe that ever 
creature had such vile suggestions as I have ; and perhaps I am the worst 
in the universe. Oh lost, ruined and undone, while out of Christ. If 
Satan ever buffets, I must think I am buffeted. Had a sweet religious 
season, this noon-time — prayed with great fervency two or three times — 
full of tears — sometimes tears of joy, in view of the divine perfections, 
and the glories of redemption ; and sometimes tears of sorrow. Oh how 
do I fear, lest I should be shut out of the holy society of heaven ! While 
it thundered, at noon, I could not help crying, for joy that God did reign, 
and would reign, in spite of me, and all his enemies. — Me, I say. But 
how is it possible I should feel so, and yet be an enemy to him? True; 
but alas, I have much enmity remaining. Attended meeting, with great 
pleasure, and, I hope, improvement. Dr. Wales preached on the decrees 
of God. I thank God that I am now cordially reconciled to those doctrines, 
which once ^ave me disgust and hatred." 

*This Ode was written to be sung nt the celebration of peace. \t is preserved, among several specimens 
of the author's poetry; which are characterized by elevation of thought, tenderness of sentiment, and very 
perfect harmony of numbers. It does not appear that he made any further attempts, in this species of 
composition, after he left college. 

1837.] , REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 207 

On receiving a letter in which his piety was commended. 

"July 24, — Received a letter, this morning, from a friend, with many 
expressions of respect for my piety and godliness. Oh, how deceived in 
me! I have had nothing so truly humbling this long time — felt quite 
dejected. Alas! the hidden corruptions of my wicked heart. Oh, 1 am 
a true pharisee ! I wash the outside of the cup; but the inside is full of 
bitterness. Oh that I had a pure and holy spirit ! Is it possible that God 
will make any thing good out of such an adulterated soul?" 

Nearness to God in the midst of pressing engagements. 

"July 30, — Engaged this forenoon in scholastic employments — heard a 
lecture — and though oppressed with secular concerns, it was a sweet season 
to my soul. Every word on religion seems to charm me. Oh, the great- 
ness and glory of the blessed God ! Oh, that he was my friend ! Happy 
is that man whose God is the Lord." 

The last communion season with his class in college is thus noticed. 

"Attended on the holy communion table this day. Seven persons were 
previously added to our little, but happy church.* This was a comforting 
and heavenly season to my soul. It was an affecting one. For, since my 
class will soon be dismissed from college, it probably is the last time we 
shall all of us commune together, at that holy supper, in this world. Oh, 
my dear brothers, with whom I have supped before our Lord so many 
times; may we meet each other at the table of our Saviour in the upper 
world. May God bless you all ; and whatever his sovereignty does with 
me, I pray that you may be permitted to eat bread together, in your Father's 

These miscellaneous extracts, though doing but poor justice to the 
author's early experience, as a connected whole, will yet be recognized, 
both in their lights and shades, by those who remember the preaching and 
prayers, the personal and domestic intercourse, of this devoted servant of 
Christ, in maturer life, as giving a lively and true portrait of his manly 
piety. He began, from his conversion, to walk with God on earth; he 
sought to consecrate every faculty of his soul to the divine glory, while he 
was forming and fitting himseif for usefulness ; and, by the grace of God, 
he was a burning and shining light, in every station, which he was after- 
wards called to occupy in the church. 

After he received his degree at college, he immediately applied himself 
to a course of theological study, under the instruction of Rev. Dr. Jonathan 
Edwards; who, at that period, was pastor of a church in New Haven. At 
the same time, he was occupied in teaching " an English and Grammar 
school." In this manner he was employed, till the summer of 1784; when, 
after two urgent applications from the Trustees of the " new Academy at 
Norwich," (Conn.) he reluctantly consented to postpone his entrance upon 
the work of the ministry, and take the charge of that institution. He did 
not, however, remit his theological studies ; and we find him actively 
engaged in all such efforts to promote the salvation of souls, as were 
suitable to one in his situation. In the evening, he sometimes went five 
or six miles to a religious meeting. 

On the 12th of October, 1784, he was licensed to preach the gospel, at 
Lebanon, by the association of New London county. He preached his 

* These were fruits of a revival during his senior year, which is frequently referred to in the diary. 

208 memoir of [Feb. 

first sermon at Chelsea, now the city of Norwich, on the following 
Sabbath. The circumstances of the occasion were such, in the providence 
of God, as his peculiar gifts enabled him happily to improve. "Mr. 
Perkins, a young man, the day before, had been carried to the grave. He 
adapted a discourse, principally extempore, to the melancholy event; and 
the people, especially the young, were much affected." These particulars 
are referred to because they illustrate one felicity of the youthful preacher's 
powers, for which he was afterwards so much distinguished. He had great 
susceptibility to the influence of circumstances; which, when favorable, 
would often rouse his energies to efforts of the highest order. 

His spiritual exercises, on that day, are thus expressed in his diary. 
"I had a most pressing sense of my own nothingness; and, indeed, I am 
nothing. But O that God would, from this chaos of defiled soul and body, 
rear a temple to his praise ! O that I might be made subservient to the 
eternal well-being of my fellow-creatures!" 

From this time he continued to preach, almost constantly, upon the 
Sabbath, while he remained at Norwich. His diary is deeply interesting 
at this period. It is filled with the most intense expressions of self- 
abasement, in view of his unworthiness and insufficiency to be employed 
in such a holy and responsible work ; and the most fervent breathings of 
soul after the presence and assistance of the Holy Spirit. 

He closed his labors in the Academy, in the autumn of 1785; having 
enjoyed unusual popularity as a teacher. 

Having preached in New York, soon after this, while on a journey to 
Philadelphia, he received a unanimous invitation to settle in the Middle 
Dutch Church in that city, as colleague with the late Dr. Livingston. This 
invitation, though accompanied with the most libera] proposals, he declined, 
"because the church practised and were disposed to adhere to the half-way 
covenant ; under which he could not consent to become their pastor." 
Thus highly disinterested were his views of duty ; and thus prompt and 
effectual the testimony which he ever stood ready to bear in favor of im- 
portant principles. 

He next preached several weeks in Hampton, Conn.; and received a 
unanimous call to settle; which he, likewise, thought it his duty to decline. 
On a day, which he devoted to private fasting and prayer, while at Hamp- 
ton, he wrote the following stanzas in his diary. 

" Dear Jesus, pierce my guilty breast, 
With penitential shame ; 
And place my unassembled trust 
In thy benignant name. 

Cleanse every crimson stain away 

From my polluted soul ; 
And let thy dear, atoning blood 

O'er my transgressions roll. 

Send down thy Spirit, to inspire 

Affections all divine ; 
And Jet my soul, with sacred fire, 

Be melted into thine. 

Breathe, awful Spirit! heavenly dove! 

Upon my sleepy powers ; 
And let the dews of holy love 

Descend in plenteous showers. 

O, might I wing my mystic flight, 

Beyond this earthly ball ; 
And, on faith's pinions, dazzling bright, 

Before my Saviour fall ! 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 209 

How would he take me to his arms, 

And all his love display ! 
How would my heart, beneath his charms, 

In transport melt away ! 

O then, kind Saviour, now appear, 

Unfold thy radiant face, 
Enkindle faith, and love, and fear, 

And every Christian grace. 

Ecstatic joys inspire within; 

And bid my spirit rise, 
In gratulations free from sin, 

Toward thy superior skies." 

In the autumn of 1786, Mr. Austin received a unanimous call to seltle 
with the society of Fairhaven, in New Haven, which he accepted. His 
ordination took place on the 9th of November. The sermon, on that 
occasion, was preached by Dr. Edwards ; the charge was given by 
President Stiles; and the right hand of fellowship by Dr. Wales. His 
classmate Morse, afterwards Dr. Morse of Charlestown, Mass. was ordained 
an evangelist at the same time. 

On the 14th of September, 1788, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Jerusha Hopkins, daughter of the late Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins, of 
Hadley, Mass.* By this union, he gained a most tender and assiduous 
bosom friend ; who was enabled, as she was disposed, through all the toils 
and changes, joys and sorrows of his life, to minister with great devotedness 
to his comfort and usefulness. Mrs. Austin still survives her husband. 
They had no children. 

His connection with the society of Fairhaven, though one of mutual 
faithfulness and affection, was of short continuance. It was judged ex- 
pedient that this society, which had formerly been separated from that of 
which Dr. Edwards was pastor, should be restored to its original union. 
With a view to promote this object, Mr. Austin thought it his duty, after 
a little more than three years' labor among them, to release them from their 
engagements with him. 

The first society in Worcester, Massachusetts, hearing of his intention 
to leave New Haven, sent him a call, previous to his dismission. When 
this had been effected, January 19, 1790, he went to Worcester, and was 
installed on the 29th of September, the same year; on which occasion, a 
sermon was preached by Dr. Hopkins, his father-in-law. Worcester became 
the sphere of his labors for a period of nearly twenty-five years. Here, as 
his published writings and manuscript sermons testify, he devoted himself 
with great diligence to the study of divine truth. By constitution and by 
habit, fond of original investigation ; by the grace of God, having a 
profound and delightful interest in the great themes of Christian theology; 
he accomplished a large amount of intellectual labor, subservient to the 
business of pastoral instruction. His health was generally firm ; and he 
lost no time, comparatively speaking, in trifling engagements, or needless 
relaxations. Impelled by that ardent love to God and man, and that im- 
perious sense of his own responsibility as a servant of Christ, which so 
early and so fully took possession of his breast, he seemed to live exclusively 

* Dr. Hopkins was graduated at Yale College, in 1749; was settled at Hadley, in 1755; and died, after a 
ministry of fifty-six years, on the 8th of March, 1811. He married the widow of his predecessor, Rev. 
Chester Williams, with five small children; whom, with nine of his own, he educated, with happy success, 
for God and the church. Rev. N'ehemiah Williams, late of Brimfield, Mass. was of the number. Besides 
the subject of this memoir, Rev. Nathanael Emmons, I). D., of Franklin; Rev. Samuel Spring, D. D., of 
Newburyport; Kev. Leonard Worcester, of Peacham, Vt.j and Rev. William Riddel, formerly of Bristol, 
Me., took their wives from this family. 

vol. ix. • 27 

210 memoir of [Feb. 

for God, and to give to the work, in which he was engaged, the concen- 
trated energies of his mind and heart. Whatever his hand found to do, he 
did with his might. And, though he was liable to be too much dis- 
heartened, at times, by the want of visible success, yet .he was always 
active and indefatigable in exertions to do good. His eminent gifts in 
conducting the devotional services of the sanctuary, and his earnest and 
pathetic manner in the delivery of his discourses, rendered him deeply 
interesting and universally popular as a preacher. In his eloquence, a 
good degree of perspicuity of thought and force of argument were united 
with much of the tenderness, or vehemence, as the subject required, of 
pure and well-sustained emotion. Thus all classes of his auditors, both 
the intelligent and simple, especially if they loved the truth, hung with 
attention and delight on his lips. 

The light of such an example could not be hid. The influence of his 
character and labors soon began to be felt, not only among the people of 
his charge, but likewise upon the ministers and churches throughout the 
State. When he went to Worcester, the standard of orthodoxy and the 
tone of spiritual religion in the church were exceedingly low. Up to that 
time they had practised upon the half-way covenant, in the admission of 
members;* and very few were willing to be considered as the decided 
friends of evangelical sentiments. But gradually, there was a very great 
improvement in the soundness and spirituality of the church. This im- 
portant result, so slow in all cases to be gained, was the principal effect 
of his preaching, for the first ten years. But afterwards, through the 
divine blessing, a more decided influence became apparent. 

For the last ten years of his ministry, a peculiar solemnity almost con- 
stantly pervaded his congregation ; which issued, several times, in a slight 
revival ; and in the hopeful conversion, in all, of about seventy persons. 
There were numbers, also, brought into the church, in a more extensive 
and powerful revival, about a year and a half after he removed from 
Worcester, who ascribed, in a very considerable degree, their religious 
impressions and convictions to the blessing of God upon his preaching. 
It is not easy, however, to estimate the full amount of his usefulness, at 
this period, among the people of his charge. His ministry marks a most 
important era in their religious history. Both the church of which he was 
pastor, and that denominated the Calvinistic church, formed sometime 
after he went to Burlington, are very much indebted to his faithful labors, 
for what they now are, as churches of Christ. 

But his labors and his usefulness, while at Worcester, were not confined 
to the sphere of pastoral duties. His aid in ecclesiastical councils was 
extensively sought ; and as a preacher, on special occasions, he was highly 
valued and often employed. He directed the theological studies of as many 
as ten or twelve young men; among whom were Dr. Samuel Worcester, 
the first secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions ; and several others who still occupy prominent posts upon the 
walls of Zion. 

His disinterested and active benevolence prompted him also to devise 
liberal things upon a large scale. He was forward and active in all the 
benevolent enterprises of the day. He was very instrumental in originating 
the General Association of Massachusetts. He was present, and took a 
leading part in the first meeting, which was held in Boston, for the forma*- 

+ This practice the church relinquished at his .solicitation; he making it an indispensable condition of 



tion of the Massachusetts Missionary Society. He wns a trustee of this 
society, and its first secretary, in which offices ho served its interest 
efficiently, as long as he remained at Worcester. I lis annual reports 
were published in the Massachusetts Missionary Magazine. Ud preached, 
by appointment, before the society in 18015; and again, about twenty years 
afterwards, while he was minister in Newport. The first discourse was 
published; and is an eloquent enforcement, from the words of Paul, "I 
am debtor," &c, of the obligation of all Christians, to do what in them 
lies, for the propagation of the gospel. The constitution of this society 
bears date of May, 1799. It was among the earliest, of the kind, in our 
country; and had, as remarked by another, an important influence in 
bringing forward the present enlarged, national systems of benevolent 

It appears from his diary, November 1, 1805, that about that time Dr. 
Austin performed a short tour of missionary service, himself, in the State 
of Rhode Island. 

In the year 1807, he was honored, by Williams college, with the degree 
of doctor of divinity. 

Another valuable service which Dr. Austin rendered to the American 
churches, while at Worcester, was that of collecting and publishing, in a 
standard edition, the works of president Edwards. This undertaking, 
which cost him no small care and labor, he executed with accuracy and 
good judgment, and so far as we have learned, with peculiar satisfaction to 
the Christian public; and thereby, to use his own words in the preface, 
"gratified his personal attachment to that excellent man, sought the 
advancement of the great doctrines of the cross, particularly among the 
younger clergy ; and the excitement of their zeal by a persuasive 
example." * 

Thus useful and distinguished as a minister of the gospel, Dr. Austin 
was called, in 1815, from his important station at Worcester, to the 
presidency of the University of Vermont. This institution, which was 
established and endowed by the Legislature in 171)1, has a most desirable 
location, at Burlington, with reference to the surrounding country ; and, 
although providential circumstances, for a number of years, were peculiarly 
unfavorable to its prosperity, it has been raised repeatedly from the dust, 
by the blessing of God upon the exertions of its friends; and now bids 
fair to become an ornament to the constellation of colleges in New 
England. It was at one of the darkest periods of the history of the 
college, that Dr. Austin was selected, by the corporation, to preside 
over its interests. For three years, during the late war with Great 
Britain, its operations had been entirely suspended ; and the build- 
ings were occupied by the soldiers for barracks. Its whole permanent 
income, at this juncture, scarcely exceeded one thousand dollars. But as 
an important foundation still existed ; and as a spirited attempt was now 

* The sincerity of these motives he afterwards evinced, by placing in the hands of one of the professors 
at Andover "a large number of copies, to be sold to the students at a very great discount." The professor, 
who communicates this fact, has added, " He was a man of generous, noble heart, and loved to give money 
for benevolent objects, and to make efforts in other ways to do good." 

As a further testimony to Dr. Austin's liberality, and as a compensation for having omitted to dwell 
upon this trait of his character, in the memoir, we give an extract of a letter from Rev. Dr. Fond, of 
Bangor Theological Seminary, once minister of Ward, near Worcester. 

" Previous to my settlement, and as an inducement for me to accept the call of the church in Ward, he, 
unsolicited and in a private manner, pledged fifty dollars a year, for three years, toward my support; a 
pledge which he more than redeemed. I mention this as" an illustration" of the silent, unostentatious 
liberality of Dr. Austin, and for the purpose of saying that this act of his generosity, and the deep interest 
which he manifested iri my settlement at Ward, contributed materially to satisfy me that it was my duty 
to settle there; and stands connected, in the providence of God, with whatever of good may have resulted, 
from my residence, of twelve years, among that beloved people." 

212 memoir of [Feb. 

to be made to carry the designs of its founders into execution ; Dr. Austin 
was induced to believe that his acceptance of the presidency was a duty, 
which he owed to the cause of religion and science. In obedience to this 
obligation, always supreme in its influence over the decisions and purposes 
of his mind, he separated himself from the embraces of -an affectionate 
people, and from the consolations of a large and endeared circle of 
ministerial brethren; to go among strangers, into a frontier section of the 
country, where at that time, the state of society was peculiarly unsettled, 
and into a situation and employment, entirely new and foreign to the 
habits of his whole life. This was a revolution in his circumstances, 
which, to a constitution susceptible like his, and at a period of life, when 
the buoyant spirits of youth can seldom be fully renewed, might well have 
been thought hazardous. It is believed that he afterwards doubted the 
expediency of this change himself. The regrets of his brethren, in the 
vicinity of Worcester, are thus expressed in the result of the council at his 

" This council cannot but unanimously express their high esteem of Dr. 
Austin, and the sense they entertain of his worth. When invited to leave 
this region, and take the charge of the college at Burlington, they deeply 
lamented, that he felt it his duty to resign his charge of the first church 
and society in Worcester, and accept the appointment ; especially, since, 
in the apprehension of this council, he was a pillar in the church, a 
faithful watchman and an able defender of the faith on this part of the 
walls of Zion, where his talents, learning, counsel and pious zeal were so 
much needed." 

He was publicly inducted into office, on the last Wednesday of July, 
1815. The first entry in his diary, after this, is on the 16th of September. 

"Nearly at the close of the 55th year of my life, after spending about 
twenty-five years in the town of Worcester, (Mass.) as a minister of the 
Lord Jesus, God, in his sovereign and inscrutable providence, has been 
pleased to remove me to this place, for the purpose of presiding over the 
university established here. Here I am, a solitary stranger, without my 
family ; attempting to raise and render respectable and useful this in- 
stitution. There are nine students at present; the number gradually in- 
creasing. I infinitely need, and most earnestly pray for the guiding hand 
and consoling presence of God. I feel low. O that I might enjoy the 
quickening influences of the Holy Spirit." 

Dr. Austin continued at the head of the college about six years. Though 
the period was short, and though his efforts were put forth, under great 
disadvantages, yet the good which he accomplished in this station, was by 
no means small. Of the manner in which he sustained the office of 
president, and discharged its duties, a highly respected fellow-officer thus 

"As a president, he was faithful to the trust reposed in him. Sincerely 
devoted to the interests of the college, and untiring in his efforts to promote 
them, he enjoyed the confidence and respect of the public. He presided 
with dignity, mingled with affability and Christian philanthropy. His 
solicitude for the spiritual welfare of the students was most ardent and 
exemplary. If his knowledge in the physical sciences, in philosophy and 
general literature, was, in any degree, deficient in precision and accuracy, 

* Ilcv. Dr. Murdock. 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 21# 

it was yet various and comprehensive. In the metaphysical sciences, and 
particularly in moral and mental philosophy, he was an able and interesting 
instructor. As a governor of the institution, he was mild and affectionate, 
yet dignified and faithful. All his pupils loved and respected him. To 
his subordinate officers he was peculiarly affectionate and kind." 

To this just and comprehensive tribute nothing could be added. 

Though Dr. Austin accomplished all that could be reasonably expected, 
for the college, yet his own hopes and . anticipations were not answered. 
He was unable, beforehand, to appreciate the full weight of the difficulties, 
against which he would be compelled to struggle ; and was led to hope for 
immediate results, which, doubtless, were not practicable. The pecuniary 
embarrassments of the college were extreme. He generously lent the 
aid of his own limited resources, for temporary relief; but the derangement, 
to which that part of the country had been subjected by the war, together 
with a general depression, produced by a number of unpropitious seasons, 
were circumstances, which, in this, as well as in other respects, seemed 
indefinitely to defer the day of returning, prosperity. Add to this the loss 
of some of his ablest associates in the department of instruction, who 
accepted appointments to other institutions, and it will not be thought 
strange, that he felt that the prospect of enlarged usefulness, which had 
induced him to embark in the enterprise, was not equal to what he had 
suffered himself, perhaps with too much ardor and assurance, to anticipate. 
The ministry, too, he now felt, more than ever, to be his element; and, as 
a friend has observed, "he panted for its labors and enjoyments." He 
never, indeed, while at Burlington, entirely relaxed his efforts in this 
favorite work ; as several destitute parishes in that region can bear witness. 
He resigned the office of president in 1821. 

Here we may, with propriety, introduce a passage from his diary, dated 
a few months earlier ; which is probably the last record he ever made of 
his private experience. 

"Burlington, January 1, 1819, 4 o'clock, P. M., — I have set apart 
this day for private fasting, meditation and prayer. In duties of this 
sort, and, among others, in that of preserving a daily register of my 
moral walk, I have been too remiss. This day I have been led to 
reflect with deep consideration, and I hope with some penitent sensi- 
bility, upon my whole moral course, from my childhood to the present 
day. I have nearly entered my 59th year; and my beloved wife, kind and 
faithful, often tender, always assiduous, is preserved to me. My beloved 
mother, brother and sister, with their conjugal partners, are among the 
living, and comfortable. I have been in this place and office upwards 
of three years ; smiled upon in most respects, laboring under serious 
embarrassments in others. My life, on the whole, has been unusually 
felicitous. I have generally been blessed with comfortable health ; my 
real wants have all, in succession, been supplied from the bountiful hand 
of my covenant God. I have been favored with pleasant and useful 
society, the most of it Christian ; which long experience has proved to be 
incomparably the best. I have been active in the best of employments, 
that of the gospel ministry; and have some reason to hope I have generally 
aimed to serve Christ in his kingdom, and that I have not labored altogether 
in vain. I know that, in all things, I have come short of that perfect 
devotedness to God, which his law so reasonably requires. And I this 
day deeply humble myself before him, for the millions of sins of which I 
have been guilty. I know not that any flagrant enormity has hurt my 

214 memoir of [Feb. 

Christian reputation. But I know that I have sunk into spiritual obliquities, 
which render me odious, and very ill-deserving in the sight of God. I 
here record my grateful testimony to his truth, his goodness and faithful- 
ness. I implore of him the forgiveness of the manifold sins of my past 
life. I unreservedly avouch him for my God ; confirm my covenant 
engagements to be forever his; and devoutly ask for his grace, to enable 
me to live more to his glory than I have hitherto done. If a Christian, 
my salvation is now much nearer, than when I believed. The most of 
my life is certainly gone. Probably but little remains. 

" * My life, which thou hast made thy care, 
Lord, I devote to thee.' 

" I hope that the night is far spent ; and that the day is at hand. O, 
that I may live and die in Christ; and reach the goal of all Christian 
hope, the eternal fruition of himself, in his own kingdom." 

Our remaining notices of Dr. Austin's history must be brief. 

From Burlington, he removed to Newport, R. I., and took the pastoral 
charge of a feeble and dilapidated congregation, once the parish of Dr. 
Hopkins, the celebrated divine. This was, pre-eminently, a labor of love. 
He selected this people, in his own mind, on account of their inability to 
give him an adequate support ; and, with his characteristic frankness and 
generosity, sent them word that he would come and be their minister, if 
they desired it. His proposition was cheerfully accepted, and he went to 
Newport, with great pleasure, as on a missionary enterprise.* 

The same year he was elected a member of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

He labored with earnestness at Newport, for a period of four years; 
hoping that he might be instrumental of repairing, in some measure, the 
desolations of that ancient church. Nor were his labors, in this respect, 
altogether in vain. But the approaching infirmities of age, the pressure of 
obstacles to his usefulness, over which he could have no control, and, above 
all, the perceptible failure of his health, at length admonished him, that 
the quiet, so necessary for himself and his partner, in the evening of their 
days, was not to be expected in his present situation. Accordingly he 
resigned his charge, in 1825, and returned to Worcester; to reside, as he 
supposed, for the remainder of his life, in the family of John W. Hubbard, 
Esq., and in the bosom of his former circle of cherished and endeared 
friends. Mr. Hubbard was the son of Mrs. Austin's sister, whom they 
had taken and brought up from a child. He had enjoyed through their 
liberality the advantages of a collegiate and professional education ; and 
was settled in the practice of law, with flattering prospects of success. 
To his roof, therefore, Dr. Austin, very naturally, looked as the retreat of 
his old age. 

But here he was soon to be overtaken with the severest of all his trials. 
Mr. Hubbard was suddenly attacked with a hemorrhage of the lungs, 
which in a short time terminated in death. By this distressing providence, 
not only were his own domestic arrangements again broken up, but, in 
consequence of undertaking the settlement of his nephew's estate, which 
unexpectedly proved insolvent, he was involved in a tissue of perplexities, 
which he was but ill able to bear, and which, by an oversight, had well- 

* For these, and many other facts, we are indebted to the sermon, delivered at. the funeral of Dr. Austin, 
by Rev. Caleb J. Teiiney, D.D., of Wcthcrsiield, Conn., who hud formerly been settled over the same church 
in Newport. 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 215 

nigh jeoparded the little all which he himself possessed. At the same 
time, his tender sympathies were strongly excited in behalf of the widow, 
and her three children of helpless age, who were now to he scattered 
abroad, without a protector and without means of support.* Dr. Austin 
was constitutionally inclined to look, too intensely, upon the dark side of 
the picture, even where it was far less visible than in the present case. 
Suffice it to say, that under the weight of cares and sorrows, his health, at 
last, gave way, and a cloud of melancholy began to settle down upon his 
spirits. An insidious, incurable dyspepsia was induced, which prostrated 
his mental energies, and, at times, produced manifest aberrations of reason. 
His melancholy was at first confined to a particular train of ideas con- 
nected with the pecuniary affairs, with which his mind had been so 
unfortunately engrossed. But very soon it was wholly transferred from 
this subject to another, which had much longer and more deeply occupied 
his thoughts, that of his own spiritual state and prospects. And then he 
saw nothing but sin in himself, and nothing but darkness in the prospect 
before him. He seemed to himself to have been one of the greatest of 
hypocrites, for whom no mercy could be expected. He would shed the 
bitterest tears, and utter the most heart-rending lamentations, on account 
of the reproach which he supposed he had brought upon the cause of 
religion. He would sometimes be almost in an agony of distress, under 
an apprehension, to his own mind perfectly real, of a final separation from 
God and from all good beings. It was painful in the extreme, to witness 
these paroxysms of mental anguish. And yet it was most deeply interest- 
ing to notice the difference between them and the terrors of an unhumbled, 
unsanctified mind. We can hardly conceive it possible, for a Christian to 
manifest more unequivocal and decisive marks of exalted piety, than did 
this eminent servant of God, during the season of these trials. "Even 
in that state of partial derangement and melancholy," remarks a judicious 
friend, "in which he closed his days,— when the darkness of despair had 
settled down upon him, and he had no hope of himself, his piety often 
shone out from behind the cloud, with great lustre and beauty." Every 
spiritual grace, excepting personal hope and joy, appeared in continual, 
and often intense exercise. "In that grief which he sometimes manifested, 
under the mistaken impression that he had always been a hypocrite, and 
that, when he had preached to others, he must himself be a cast-away, it 
was easy to discover the sorrows of repentance, and the meltings of a 
broken heart." No intelligent Christian, we presume to affirm, during the 
whole of this period, ever went out from an interview with him, in which 
he had disclosed his feelings, without a most lively impression of his pre- 
eminent sanctification. But on this we have no need to dwell, after such 
evidences of gracious experience, and of a life devoted to God, as have 
been furnished in the foregoing pages. 


Dr. Austin continued much in the same state of health and mind, as 
above described, for about four years, until his death. The paroxysms of 
his melancholy varied precisely with the aggravations of his bodily com- 
plaint, and were evidently controlled by it. His relatives deeming it 
necessary that he should be with them, he went, in March, 1827, to spend 
a year with his brother-in-law, Mr. John Hopkins, of Northampton. 

* Dr. Austin subsequently acted the part of a father towards these children; particularly the two sons, 
whom he took care of while he lived, and, by his will, made ample provision for their education, on such a 
scale, as might seem, in the view of their guardians, to promise the greatest good. It was his prayer, 
that, when his head was in the dust, they might both become ministers of the gospel. 

216 memoir of [Feb. 

One of his most esteemed friends thus writes : — 

"The last time I saw him was in Northampton, after his derangement 
commenced. I spent a Sabbath in that place. When I came out of the 
meeting-house, he took me by the arm, and began immediately to speak of 
his wretched condition ; saying that he was fully convinced that he had no 
religion, and that he must perish with the ungodly world. Instead of 
trying to convince him of his error, (which I knew would be in vain,) I 
told him that he had often, in preaching, insisted upon the justice, the 
glorious justice and holiness of God, in punishing the wicked in . hell ; and 
I hoped he would now remember this, and would feel it to be his duty to 
acknowledge the justice of God in his punishment, and to bow in submis- 
sion to his will. I found this view of the subject produced, for a time, an 
evident composure and peace in his troubled mind. 

" After we arrived at his lodgings, he said to me in reference to my 
sermon : ' You told us, in your preaching, that we must part with sin, or 
must part with God. When I heard this I felt — Oh! 1 can't part with 
God — I can't part with God!' — Thus, in the midst of his disordered, 
agitated, desponding state, he showed the workings of a heart that loved 
God, and cleaved to him as the portion of his soul." 

The above may be taken as a fair example of many interviews which 
he had with his ministerial brethren, and his more intimate Christian 
friends, during this dark and painful season. His reconciliation to God, 
in these trying circumstances, appeared uniformly deep and genuine. 
Those views of the divine character and government, which only serve to 
deepen the distress of the awakened sinner, were most manifestly the 
support which kept his soul from sinking. In the striking comparison of 
our Saviour, he might be likened to a man, who built his house upon a 
rock. The rain descended, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat 
upon that house ; yet it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock. The 
billows of despondency and fear went over him ; but the foundations of his 
faith remained unshaken. 

In the summer of 18*28, he went to reside with his nephew, Rev. 
Samuel H. Riddel, of Glastenbury, Conn. Here it pleased God, after the 
lapse of a little more than two years, to release him from the tribulations 
of this mortal scene. For a few months previous to his death, his com- 
plaints were, in some considerable degree, alleviated; and hopes were 
even entertained that he might again enjoy comfortable health. The 
greater part of the time his mind would be diverted^ by conversation and 
by books, from those gloomy views of his own spiritual condition, which 
had so heavily oppressed it. In the intercourse of the family, he would 
often forget himself, and appear interesting, agreeable, and even cheerful, 
as was natural to him, in happier days. With indescribable satisfaction 
did those around him observe this perceptible lighting up of the cloud, 
which had so long darkened his moral vision; and looked, with eager 
desire, for the sun of heavenly hope to dart its beams upon his path. But 
it was not for human eyes to witness the ecstasies which such an hour 
would bring to his ravished heart. His work, for time, was done. The 
design of his heavenly Father, in his peculiar trial, was answered. And, 
now that the time of his consolation was arrived, why should he remain 
on earth ? 

On Thursday, two days previous to his death, he appeared to be rather 
more unwell than usual. The next morning, he was still indisposed, but 
able to be below with the family. He seemed, however, to be unusually 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 217 

abstracted from the scenes around him ; and once, as though insensible of 
the presence of any person in the room, he uttered aloud this earnest 
ejaculation: " Blessed Jesus ! Blessed Jesus! Sanctify me wholly!" — 
These were his last words of prayer. Very soon afterwards, it being about 
one o'clock, P. M., lie complained of drowsiness, and with some difficulty 
laid himself down upon the sofa, where in a few moments he fell into an 
apoplectic sleep, from which he awoke no more. He lingered, unconscious 
of his sufferings, until a quarter past eleven o'clock, on Saturday night, 
when his spirit, we doubt not, was ushered, " with sweet surprise," into 
the presence of Him, whom he loved to invoke, and to adore, as the blessed 

This was on the 4th of December, 1830. He was in the 71st year of his 
age. His funeral was attended on the Wednesday following, when an 
appropriate discourse was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Tenney, of Wethers- 
field, from the words of Christ, John xiii. 7, " What I do, thou knowest 
not now; but thou shalt know hereafter." 

This subject was chosen by the respected preacher, not so much with 
reference to the death of Dr. Austin, as to the closing scenes of his life. 
Why, we might ask, in our ignorance of the ways of God, was a minister 
of Christ, so able, devoted and beloved ; a child of God, so long, and 
so highly favored, in his intercourse with heaven ; thus laid aside from the 
service of his Master, ere the sun of his active life had fully set; and 
called to walk through the last stage of his pilgrimage, as through the 
valley of the shadow of death? This may at present be a mystery, but 
the solution we shall know hereafter. To the sufferer, himself, it is already 

There are not wanting, however, sufficient means of explaining this 
dark dispensation, so far as physical causes are concerned, without as- 
cribing it to any extraordinary visitation of Providence. A train of cir- 
cumstances connected with it, has been alluded to above. But the 
physical constitution of Dr. Austin, which rendered him peculiarly suscep- 
tible to an unfavorable influence from these circumstances; and, above all, 
a hereditary predisposition to the malady under which he suffered ; * are 
considerations, which remove all peculiar mystery from his case, considered 
as an instance of bodily and mental disorder. And in this light, evidently, 
the whole dispensation is to be viewed, unless we go entirely beyond the 
sphere of second causes, to inquire into the reasons, which influenced the 
divine counsels. That he should not have suffered as he did, might not 
indeed have excited any wonder; but, in reality, when all circumstances 
are considered, this would have been no less extraordinary than was the 
actual event. 

The character of Dr. Austin, both private and public, has been indirectly 
before the view of the reader, in the successive portions of the foregoing- 
sketch of his life. Our limits do not admit of any extended analysis. 
Justice, however, to the memory of one so highly esteemed, demands a 
few additional notices. 

His person was above the common stature, well proportioned, and never 
inclined to corpulence. His carriage was erect and manly, uniting dignity 
and ease with elasticity and energy, in its motions. The features of his 
countenance were prominent and strongly marked, and readily susceptible 
of expression from the kindlings of intellect and emotion. His manners 
were dignified and courtly, having the air of gentleness and condescension 

* The mother of Dr. Austin, in her last days, was a subject of the same distressing form of monomania, 

vol. ix. 28 

2 IS memoir of [Feb. 

which belonged to his natural disposition. If there was ever, at a distance, 
any thing austere or forbidding in his appearance, it vanished at once 
upon a nearer approach. 

In his social character he was highly affectionate. He united much I 
native tenderness of feeling with sincere Christian kindness, meekness and 1 
humility. In the relations of domestic life, his tenderness and assiduity 
were uncommon, especially in one so much engrossed with higher cares. 
He consulted the feelings, and sought the happiness of his partner and of j 
those around him, as his own. In the common intercourse of friends, he 
loved to unbend from severer pursuits, in an affable and truly compan- 
ionable interchange of views and feelings. This, a happy talent of con- 
versation, and an extensive fund of general knowledge, enabled him to do, ■ 
with peculiar edification to others, especially in Christian circles, and 
with his ministerial brethren. 

The powers of his intellect were all of a superior order, and were well 
balanced. Those of conception and imagination, together with comparison 
and association of ideas, were unusually developed. The faculty of logical 
abstraction and pure reasoning, though not manifested, perhaps, in equal 
proportion, had yet a degree of precision and force which is very un- 
common with minds of a similar cast. The operations of his mind were 
marked by a vigor and rapidity, which might sometimes render him too 
incautious in the conduct of an argument. He was inclined to take 
elevated and comprehensive views of the subjects before him, and might, 
occasionally, overlook points of minuter criticism. Yet, as a reasoner, 
whether on moral or metaphysical truths, he was sound and able ; and, in 
general, discriminating and accurate. His choice of language, perhaps, 
was better adapted to the genius of a spoken argument, than of a dry 
disquisition, presented to the eye. 

As a scholar, his success in college is a sufficient testimony, in regard to 
his early course. His reading in after life was various and extensive, 
rather than critical, except on subjects of Christian theology. He is justly 
entitled to a respectable rank among the learned men of our country. 

As a writer, his style was nervous, copious, and unstudied. Its faults 
were those of redundance, diffuseness, and occasional negligence. A 
learned friend has remarked that he fell into the error, too common among 
ministers in his day, of regarding style as unworthy of minute attention. 
Without effort, however, he had an extensive and happy command of 
language, which enabled him to present his thoughts in an impressive and 
glowing light. 

But whatever native genius and diligent mental culture had done to 
form the distinguished character before us, the sacred influences of divine 
grace contributed much more. It was as a Christian, and as a minister of 
the gospel, that Dr. Austin most excelled. He was regarded by all who 
knew him as an eminently spiritual and godly man. His piety was deep, 
discriminating, affectionate and fervent. The grand elements of Christian 
experience, were habitually and strongly evinced, by the fruits of practical 
holiness in his life. His piety was of that description, which, emphatically 
speaking, illustrated and adorned the cardinal doctrines of the Bible. 

A short extract from Dr. Tenney's sermon will be appropriate here. 

"Even among the excellent, he excelled in godly fear. Greatly, and 
most conscientiously afraid to offend God, and most desirous to please him, 
he seemed strongly to love ' whatever God loves,' and as strongly to detest 
' whatever God hates.' His conversation, example and prayers in his own 

1837.] REV. SAMUEL AUSTIN, D. D. 219 

family, conclusively evinced his deep and unfeigned piety. Having been 
myself, with my family, for six months, during the winter of 1814 and 
1815, a resident in his family, I here speak with great confidence. It was 
a blessing to be in his house, and to listen to his instructive and heavenly 
conversation. It was truly edifying to hear his very spiritual, as well as 
gifted prayers. In the devotions of the family, as well as of the sanctuary, 
and at the table of Christ, he very commonly appeared as though just 
within the vail, freely and with reverence, addressing his Maker and 
Redeemer. Indeed, in this service, ' his heart seemed to expand, and 
enlarge and elevate all his views of divine things.' Highly ardent in the 
exercise and enjoyment of gracious affections, he was distinguished by that 
habitual heavenly-mindedness and spirituality, which indicated much devout 
meditation and a close walk with God. His were lofty spiritual aims, high 
attainments in the divine life, and ardent aspirations for the perfect likeness 
of Christ." 

The temperament of Dr. Austin was sanguine. Accordingly, when he 
was conscious of having a worthy object in view, he was ardent in the 
pursuit; and, if not always sufficiently patient and persevering, yet, if 
assailed by the opposition of unreasonable and wicked men, he was 
invariably firm and unflinching. 

These various traits of character eminently qualified him for the work 
of the ministry. As a preacher, he must be ranked among the most able, 
eloquent and popular of American divines. His manner in the pulpit was 
solemn, dignified and commanding. The tones of his voice were full and 
flexible, and his enunciation free and emphatic. In the delivery of his 
sermons, he was always animated, often vehement, and, occasionally, rose 
to strains of the most sublime and impassioned eloquence. His own feelings 
were always impressed with his theme, and were poured forth in all their 
fullness, especially in the devotional parts of the service. In prayer his 
gifts were extraordinary. It has been said, by one who was qualified to 
make the comparison, that his manner of prayer was like that of president 
Davies, of Princeton college. Many, who read this, may remember far 
better than we can describe, how, in the service of prayer, " his ardent 
soul seemed to take wing, and soar above the vanities of time, and mingle 
with the riches of eternity." From his diary we perceive where he had 
learned to pray. Secret communion with heaven was the element of his 

In the best sense of the phrase, Dr. Austin might be characterized as a 
doctrinal preacher. The topics on which he delighted most to dwell, were 
the benevolence, the sovereignty and glory of God ; the excellence of the 
divine law, both in its obligation and its penalty ; the great system of 
redemption, originating in the counsels of eternity ; the character of 
Christ, and his sufferings as a propitiation for sin ; the work of the 
Spirit; the guilt and dependence of sinners; the sanctification and final 
blessedness of believers. 

"By him the violated law spoke out its thunders; 
And by him, in strains as sweet as angels use, 
The gospel whispered peace." 

His doctrinal tenets were thoroughly Calvinistic ; in general accordance 
with those of Edwards, Bellamy and Hopkins. These names are men- 
tioned for illustration only ; for his was not a mind, to follow implicitly in 
the steps of any human master. There is abundant evidence, that, when 
he was born of the Spirit, he was born into the knowledge and love of 


these doctrines; and that his daily delight in them was drawn fresh from 
the fountain of divine truth. " These sentiments," says Dr. Tenney, 
" contributed to give refinement to his feelings, enlargement to his powers, 
ardor to his benevolence, elevation to his joys, and eminent usefulness to 
his life." 

The justice of this brief and beautiful eulogium, both upon the truth and 
its disciple, is fully evinced in the published writings of Dr. Austin. With 
a bare enumeration of these we conclude this sketch. "A View of the 
Church : " " Letters on Baptism," examining Merrill's seven sermons, 
1805: ''Reply to Merrill's Twelve Letters," 1806: "Dissertations on 
several Fundamental Articles of Christian Theology," 1826: and the fol- 
lowing sermons: — On disinterested love, ]?90: A funeral sermon on the 
death of a Mr. Smith and a Miss Smith of Exeter, N. H., 1790 : On the 
death of Miss Hannah Blair, 1794: A thanksgiving sermon, 1797: At the 
ordination of Rev. Samuel Worcester, 1798. Of Rev. Leonard Worcester, 
1800 : Before the Massachusetts Missionary Society, 1803: Dedication of 
the meeting-house at Hadley, 1808: Ordination of Rev. Warren Fay, and 
of Rev. J. M. Whiton, L808 : A fast sermon, 1811 : Two fast sermons, 
1812: Dedication of the meeting-house at Worcester, 1823: Address, at 
Worcester, on the religious celebration of the fourth of July, 1825 : Also 
numerous contributions to the periodicals of his time. 


[Communicated, at the request of the Editor, by Rev. Prof. Fowler.] 

The early settlers of Vermont retained a strong attachment to the civil, 
religious and literary institutions of the older New England States, from which 
they emigrated. In many an opening in the wilderness, on both sides of the 
Green mountain range, there were those who looked back, with lively regret, 
to the church, the school-house and the college, as to the glories of a New 
England landscape. Their hereditary love for these institutions, was quickened 
by their privations ; and they carried in their hearts, the habitual determination 
to establish them among themselves, whenever their means should become 

Accordingly, as soon as a sufficient number were collected in a neighborhood, 
a school district was organized, upon the pattern set them by their pilgrim 
fathers ; when a village became populous and flourishing, the inhabitants 
began to think of having an academy, or a temporary grammar school. It was 
therefore to be expected, that in due time, a college would be established, that 
would, in its influence, be the same to Vermont, that Harvard and Yale had 
been to Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

The actual establishment of such an institution, was, however, from one 
cause and another, delayed for a considerable period. The fierce disputes 
between Vermont and each of the States — New York, New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts — involving the question whether, like Poland, she should be 
partitioned; the revolutionary war, in which she took an active and an honor- 
able part, notwithstanding she was not a member of the confederacy ; and, 
afterwards, the subject of admission into the Union ; so occupied the attention 
of the people, that nothing could be done. But in the course of events, the 
Avar passed by, those disputes were settled, and Vermont was admitted into the 
Union in January, 1791. In November, the same year, the legislature passed 
an act, establishing the University of Vermont at Burlington. It ought, 
however, to be remembered, to the credit of Vermont, that as early as 1785, 


while disputes existed oetwecn her and New Hampshire, she made a grant of 
23,000 acres of land to Dartmouth college and Moor's charity school ; institu- 
tions which had gone into successful operation. The preamhle to the act is 
creditable to the legislature, as showing their liberal views: " The legislature 
having a high sense of the importance of the institutions of Dartmouth college 
and Moor's charity school to mankind at large, and to this commonwealth in 
particular ; its situation and connections being favorable to diffuse useful 
knowledge through the same ; Be it therefore enacted," &c. 

It appears that, besides obtaining an act of incorporation of the university, 
little or nothing was done at Burlington, for several years. The historian of 
Vermont, Dr. Samuel Williams, gives the following account of the matter. 
"The encouragement of education and literature was an object that much 
engaged the attention of this assembly, namely, the one in session in A. D. 
1800. The University of Vermont, established in the year 1791, had not been 
in operation, as was expected. The town contained but few inhabitants, and it 
was not in their power to erect the necessary buildings, procure a suitable 
library, philosophical apparatus, or the proper accommodations for professors 
and students. The trustees were embarrassed and seldom met, and a president 
was not appointed for the seminary. The citizens of Middlebury were anxious 
to have a seminary in that place. They erected a small, but convenient 
building, procured books, appointed an instructor, and collected a number of 
students. Their exertions produced more of a literary appearance, than was to 
be seen at Burlington. In this state of things, they urged the legislature to 
let them go on and make a college out of the school they had already formed. 
The matter had been suggested to the assembly the year before ; it was now 
urged with more warmth, and the legislature were invited to view and examine 
what they had already done. After much debate and reasoning upon the 
subject, a majority of the house were of the opinion, that the exertions of 
Middlebury ought to be encouraged ; that the most probable way to encourage 
the introduction and cultivation of science in the State, would be to favor those 
who were willing to be at the expense of it, and to make it the interest of such 
societies to endeavor to excel and improve upon each other : And an act 
incorporating and establishing a college at Middlebury, in the county of 
Addison, was passed by a great majority: yeas, 177; nays, 51." — pp. 302, 303. 

Before the establishment of Middlebury college, great inconvenience was 
suffered from being obliged to send young men out of the State to obtain an 
education. A petition from Franklin county, for a college, presented to the 
legislature in 1800, and now lodged in the office of the secretary of State, 
dwells on this fact in the following language. " Regretting the want of any 
literary institution in our vicinity, now in actual and sufficient operation ; 
viewing the great distance between us and Williams and Dartmouth, or any 
other university ; considering that there are numerous young gentlemen in 
the vicinity, anxious and able to procure a public education, and that numbers 
must immediately be compelled to go to older States for this purpose," the 
petitioners urged the establishment of a college in that county. There was 
a public want in the State. And what made some of the inhabitants of 
Middlebury the more sensible of this want, and the more active to supply it, 
was the following circumstance. The father of Jeremiah Evarts, when on his 
way to New Haven to place his son in Yale college, visited some of his friends 
in Middlebury. He mentioned to them his regret, that he was forced to send 
his son to such a distance because there was no college in Vermont. This 
instance occurring before their eyes, and supposed to be one of many, had its 
influence upon some, who were afterwards instrumental in promoting the 
establishment of the college. 

The charter of Addison county grammar school was granted in the year 
1797. Instead of $1,000, which were required in the act for the erection of an 
edifice, more than $4,000 were raised chiefly by the inhabitants of Middlebury. 
Their hopes grew with their efforts. Dr. Dwight was at Middlebury in 1798, 
while the edifice was in progress of erection, and encouraged them to prosecute 
the plan of establishing a college. Accordingly, it was concluded to make 
application to the legislature, in the hope, on the part of some, that the wild 

222 Historical sketch [Feb. 

lands which had been granted to the University of Vermont, would naturally 
be given to Middlebury college, as this institution would go into immediate 
operation. A New England State, with a population of 154,465, ought to have 
a college in fact, as well as in name. And this was the opinion of the 
legislature, if the grant of the charter affords any proof. 

The act of incorporation already referred to, commences in these words. 
"An act incorporating and establishing a college at Middlebury, in the county 
of Addison. Section 1. It is hereby enacted by the general assembly of the 
State of Vermont, that there be, and hereby is, granted, instituted and estab- 
lished, a college in the town of Middlebury, and county of Addison ; and that 
Messrs. Jeremiah Atwater, Nathaniel Chipman, Heman Ball, Elijah Paine, 
Gamaliel Painter, Israel Smith, Stephen R. Bradley, Seth Storrs, Stephen 
Jacob, Daniel Chipman, Lot Hall, Aaron Leland, Gershom C. Lyman, Samuel 
Miller, Jedidiah P. Buckingham, and Darius Matthews, shall be an incorporate 
society, and shall hereafter be called and known by the name of the president 
and fellows of Middlebury college." 

Immediately after this act was passed, the corporation held their first meeting, 
Nov. 4, 1800. Rev. Jeremiah Atwater was, by the act of incorporation, made 
president. He had, for some years, been a tutor in Yale college ; and, after- 
wards, principal of the Addison county grammar school. To this latter situa- 
tion, he had been recommended by Dr. Dwight, with a prospective regard to 
the presidency. At that meeting, Col. Seth Storrs was appointed secretary, 
and Joel Doolittle, tutor. On the following day, seven students were admitted 
into the college. At the first commencement, in 1802, one received the degree 
of A. B. ; at the next, three ; at the third, twelve ; at the fourth, in 1805, 

As in other infant institutions, so in this, the advantages enjoyed were very 
limited ; but there was, on the part of the students, a literary enterprise, a 
readiness to engage and persevere in literary labor, that compensated, in some 
degree, for the deficiencies in the means of instruction. The privileges were 
not numerous ; and, as an offset to this, they were not neglected. The strong 
feeling of individual responsibility, produced vigorous intellectual effort. Many 
of the students were in moderate circumstances, and of mature age; and hence 
there was an economy in their expenses, and a sobriety in their manners, that 
were favorable to the reputation of the college. And besides this, the tone of 
feeling and conduct, on the part of the more considerate, had an important 
influence upon the younger and the more volatile, in forming their minds and 
their habits. 

The college, from the first, had been supported by a generous spirit of 
benevolence. Besides the charter, nothing had been given by the legislature. 
But, through the good providence of God, it had been blessed with efficient 
friends, who secured for it public favor and private bounty. But it was still 
felt that there was a great want of regular, systematic instruction, in some 
branches of learning usually taught in colleges. To assist in supplying this 
want, Samuel Miller, Esq. proposed to make a donation to the college, of a 
thousand dollars. This was the more creditable to him, inasmuch as it shows 
that he did not fall into the common error of supposing that a college consists 
chiefly of certain edifices built in a certain form, and fitted up with rooms 
adapted to certain purposes. He even seems to have understood the truth of 
the matter, that a college is a society of men associated for the promotion of 
learning and religion ; and that unless there are the men, it is to no purpose 
that brick and marble are formed into structures of great convenience and 

This gentleman ought to be mentioned as an early, constant, and efficient 
friend of the college. "He was born in West Springfield, Mass. in A. I). 
17(14. For his early education, he had only the advantages of the most ordinary 
schools. But diligence and perseverance were his most distinguishing traits, 
and in these he has been rarely surpassed. Of him it may be said more truly 
than of almost any other man, that in all those respects in which he was 
superior to the common rank of men, he was self-made. He was licensed to 
practise law by the Rutland county court, at the March term, A. D. 1787; and in 



the May following-, ho settled in Middlebury. By his unremitting assiduity, he 
soon gained a standing among the first lawyers of the State, and steadily 
maintained it through life. Few men have ever united so much business with 
so much reading; so much attention to friends, and so punctual a discharge of 
the relative and social duties. He died in the resignation and hope of the 
gospel, in the evening of the 17tii of April, 1810, in the forty-seventh year of 
his age." 

In consequence of this offer to the corporation, a successful effort was made 
to raise funds to support a professorship of natural philosophy. Frederick Hall 
was appointed to that office. The reputation of that gentleman, both before 
and after his visit to Europe, and his assiduous attention to his official duties, 
contributed essentially to promote the prosperity of the college. 

In August, 1809, president Atwater gave in his resignation, and was trans- 
ferred to the presidency of Dickinson college. In accepting his resignation, 
the corporation voted, that Col. Seth Storrs " be requested to present to him the 
warmest thanks of the board for his faithful discharge of duty ; and his unre- 
mitting exertions, by which this institution has arisen from its infant state to 
its present flourishing condition." 

In the course of his farewell address on this occasion, he remarks, " It is 
pleasing to observe the progress of improvement in this new country. Six 
years ago, the higher branches of learning were scarcely taught at all in this 
large and growing State, and those who would obtain an education, were 
obliged to seek for it in neighboring States. But of late years, common school 
education has greatly improved ; the number of academies has increased ; and 
young gentlemen have resorted from other States into this State for education. 
It may be said that the state of society in general has improved in Vermont 
very greatly within a few years. Witness the establishment of village libraries, 
the settlement of ministers, and the erection of houses of public worship. At 
our first commencement, we beheld few of the ministers of the gospel; but 
how pleasing it is to behold the respectable assemblage of them which we 
now annually witness ! While they patronize literature, we need not fear an 
illiterate ministry. The first fathers of New England considered the primary 
design of our colleges to be, to educate young men for the ministry ; and they 
were accordingly anciently styled, the schools of the church." 

After speaking of the origin of colleges, he goes on to speak of their bene- 
ficial effect upon civil government. " Colleges aid the civil magistrate as they 
promote literature, and especially religion. Why else, in the constitution of 
Massachusetts, were the interests of Harvard college, the Alma Mater of all the 
New England colleges, originally incorporated in the oath of office ? Was it 
not, that the legislature might be annually reminded of the intimate connection 
of religion and learning with civil government ? Are these things true 
elsewhere, and are they not true in Vermont?" The whole address was a 
valuable, .and timely defence of the usefulness of colleges. It exhibited their 
true end and design, viz: the promotion, not merely of human science, but of 
enlightened piety, and of the best interests of government. Men of narrow 
views sometimes err, in supposing that a liberal education should not include 
religious instruction ; whereas the first founders of colleges considered these 
institutions as religious societies of a superior order, established to impart 
religious instruction, and to promote an elevated and intelligent piety, as well as 
a knowledge of the arts and sciences. At this time the number of the students 
was fifty-seven, and the moral and religious condition of the college en- 

At the same commencement, Henry Davis, professor of languages in Union 
college, and formerly professor of divinity elect in Yale college, was appointed 
president. Having accepted the appointment, he delivered his inaugural 
oration in February, 1810. Ordination was conferred on him at the same time. 
In his oration, he spoke of the college in the following terms.. " To the patrons 
of science of every age, great praise is due for our pre-eminent prosperity. 
Among men of this character, you, gentlemen of the corporation of Middlebury 
college, have an honorable rank. Under your auspices, this institution has 
risen to a degree of respectability, which furnishes a sure pledge of future 


usefulness to mankind. With a single exception, no college in our country, of 
the same standing, has been equally prosperous. And comparing the circum- 
stances in which you have been placed, and the means which you have pos- 
sessed, its prosperity has been without a parallel. The government of such 
an institution must "be in a high degree a paternal government. It must be a 
government of counsel and persuasion. The authority invested, must, in many 
respects, be an authority of discretion. No pains are to be spared to stimulate 
the indolent, to convince the refractory, and to reclaim the vicious. 

"But when the refractory prove incorrigible, and the vicious will not be re- 
claimed, counsel becomes useless, and forbearance a crime. 

"But in this case, his inexperience; his want of discretion ; the intemperance 
of juvenile passions; the thought of incurring the displeasure of powerful 
connections : of blasting the hopes and expectations of an anxious and affec- 
tionate family: and of fixing a stain upon his character, which the tears of 
penitence cannot wash away, are considerations that plead loudly for the 
offender, and address themselves to the tenderest and most deceptive affections 
of the heart. The path of duty in such circumstances, is a path filled with 
thorns and briers ; and much firmness is necessary in order to pursue it. 

" Unless the fountain be kept pure, the streams will be polluted. Without 
discipline, a public seminary, instead of being a nursery of science and morality, 
and a blessing to the community, degenerates into a nursery of licentiousness 
and dissipation, and becomes a curse. It is a sore upon the body politic, 
gradually gangrening the whole system. It corrodes and corrodes, till it affects 
the vitals of existence." 

The increasing number of the students requiring more extensive accom- 
modation, it was resolved, at a meeting of the corporation in October, 1810, to 
" erect a new college edifice on the ground lately conveyed to the president 
and fellows of Middlebury college by Col. Seth Storrs." It was likewise 
resolved to petition the legislature for assistance. Accordingly, a petition was 
presented, a copy of which was printed in the journal of the house for the year 
1810. In that petition, there were exhibited a concise history of the college, 
its condition and its wants. The petition was respectfully received, and 
referred to a committee. This committee in their report say, that in their 
opinion, "the report of the president and fellows of Middlebury college is true ; 
and that the said institution deserves the attention and consideration of the 
legislature of the Slate. Without funds, or public patronage, it has hitherto 
flourished in an unparalleled degree ; and your committee verily believe, that 
the corporation and officers of said college, and those private individuals who 
have made donations to the same, for their meritorious exertions in the pro- 
motion of science and the arts, are highly deserving the applause of this legis- 
lature. But at this time, your committee can devise no means by which the 
legislature can expediently afford relief. Your committee, therefore, recom- 
mend to this house, to refer said petition to the next session of the legislature ; 
and that the said president and fellows be requested to make report of the 
situation of the said institution at that time." 

This instance is in fact a history of all the various applications for aid from 
the legislature. They have called forth the expression of friendly feeling, but 
no pecuniary aid. There has seemed to be but little of that spirit which 
animated the hearts of the fathers of New England, when they laid the 
foundation of those institutions which are, and have been, the glory and sal- 
vation of our land. There has been but little of that spirit which, in 1.785, 
prompted the legislature of Vermont to make the grant already mentioned, to 
Dartmouth college, and Moor's charity school. The connection between the 
higher institutions of learning and the prosperity of the State, is but very 
imperfectly understood. Politicians have to spend so much time in settling 
tiieir respective claims to office, that this subject is but very inadequately 
i xamined by those who ought to take the lead m matters of this kind; while 
the great body of the people are too much absorbed in some bill or bills of 
local or sectional interest, to feel the importance of legislating for an institution 
i ed io p omote the welfare of "mankind at large," and the whole " com- 
monwealth in particular." 


There were, however, private individuals who subscribed for the erection of 
a new college edifice, which was commenced and completed under the super- 
intendence of Judge Painter. 

In 1811, Oliver Hubbard was appointed professor of languages. He sri 
native of Orwell, Vermont, was graduated at the college in 1806 with the 
highest honors. In 1808, he was appointed senior tutor and librarian. He is 
described as a gentleman of a strong mind, of great application to bis studies 
and of fervent piety. His health becoming impaired, he resigned Ins office in 
the college in 1812, in order to take up his residence in Georgia, as B parish 
minister. Not long after his arrival there, he died in the midst of Ins usefull 
greatly lamented. 

The Rev. John Hough was unanimously elected to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the resignation of professor Hubbard. 

In an address to the patrons of religion and science, published about this 
time, it is stated that the "prosperity of this seminary had more than equalled 
the expectations of its most ardent friends." The number on the annual 
catalogue, was one hundred and twenty-six ; and the moral and religious 
condition, very satisfactory. 

In August, 1813, was formed the Middlebury College Charitable Society. 
The object of this society is set forth in the "Account of its Institution and 
Transactions," published in 1817. "A number of gentlemen in thi3 vicinity, 
deeply impressed with the importance of furnishing the churches with pious' 
and well-educated clergymen, and understanding that many young men in this 
section of the country, of promising talents and of unquestioned piety, were 
prevented, by pressing poverty, from qualifying themselves to be preachers of 
the gospel, feel it to be their imperious duty to form an association, whose 
object should be to encourage and assist such persons in obtaining a liberal 
education. A meeting with this view was held on the 17th of the same month, 
and a society organized. Rev. Henry Davis, D. D. was appointed President ; 
Hon. Gamaliel Painter. Vice President ; Samuel Swift, Esq. Secretary ; Prof. 
Frederick Hall, Rev. Thomas A. Merrill, Rev. John Hough, Rev. Bancroft 
Fowler, Hon. Chauncey Langdon, Directors." To this society Hon. William 
Hall gave $500; the Grand Chapter of the State, $50 ; and the Evangelical 
Society, in notes, $442 57. In 1819, $3,606 85 had been given to the society. 
The money received by the students to assist them in their education, was, for 
the most part, loaned ; but in some instances, given. From this society, 
something like fifty or sixty young men have been assisted in obtaining an 
education. It ceased to collect funds about the time of the formation of the 
North Western Branch of the American Education Society, in 1820; though 
it still continues to extend aid to some of the students at their graduation. 

The Evangelical Society, just mentioned as having transferred some of its 
notes to the Middlebury College Charitable Society, was organized at Pawlet, 
March 6, 1804. "James Davis proposed to the clergy to establish a society 
for the education of young men, offering to give a certain sum for this purpose." 
In cons-equence of his efforts, this society was formed at that time ; and was 
the first Education Society established in this country. The officers were Rev. 
William Jackson, President ; Rev. Nathaniel Hall, Vice President ; Rev. John 
Griswold, Secretary ; Ezekiel Hermon, Esq. Treasurer. It was stated that the 
" object of this society was to aid pious and ingenious young men in indigent 
circumstances, to acquire an education for the work of the gospel ministry." 
" None are to receive assistance but such as are hopefully pious, of orthodox 
religious faith, and members of some regular Congregational or Presbyterian 
church, and desirous to obtain an education with a view to be useful as teachers 
of religion." "The trustees, of which there were nine, are empowered to judge 
of the qualifications and claims of candidates, and to give aid to the extent of 
their funds. They are to direct and superintend the studies and moral conduct 
of the young men ; and when they shall have acquired a competent knowledge 
of theology and other requisite branches of science, shall recommend them to 
some suitable board for examination and approbation for the work of the 
ministry. Such young men as receive aid from the society, are laid under 
vol. ix. 29 



obligations to refund the loans made them, without interest, should their cir- 
cumstances ever after admit." 

In an account of a convention on the subject of a seminary for the education 
of pious young men for the gospel ministry, held in Windsor, in 1812, it is said 
that the :> Evangelical Society, most of whose members reside in the south- 
westerly part of Vermont, by loaning 1 money without interest, to be refunded 
after a "period of from four or five, to eight or ten years, are essentially pro- 
moting the interests of the church, by bringing pious young men into its 
service." . 

In the year 1815, the north college was completed under the superintendence 
of Judge Painter. 

In 1816, subscriptions for a permanent fund, for the benefit of the college, 
were made, amounting to more than fifty thousand dollars. Owing to a change 
of times for the worse, and some misunderstanding which unexpectedly grew 
up, not so much as one-third of this sum was ever collected. Though this 
affair involved the college in a disagreeable and unsuccessful litigation, still the 
amount paid in by tbe^subscribers, was of so much consequence to the insti- 
tution, that without this aid, it could hardly have been sustained. 

At the annual commencement, this year, a professorship of chemistry was 
established; and Rev. Gamaliel S. Olds, of Greenfield, Mass. was appointed to the 
olhce. lie never joined the institution. At the same time professor Hough 
transferred to the professorship of divinity, which was then established, 
ami Solomon M. Allen was appointed professor of languages in his place. 
Professor Allen is described as a gentleman of great mental and moral worth, 
and of great energy of character. The circumstances of his death, which 
happened about a year after his appointment, were deeply distressing. They 
are thus narrated by professor Hall, in his eulogy. "Professor Allen, to 
remedy a defect in his chimney, had ascended to the top of the new college 
building, and was standing on a pole, which he had caused to be elevated 
nearly to the summit of the chimney. He had often been in this situation 
before, but had always, till this time, taken the precaution to secure himself 
from injury, by putting a rope around him, the other end of which was fastened 
to some substantial object. The pole being weakened, by having a large auger 
hole bored through it, gave way, and let him fall first, a distance of eight or ten 
feet, to the roof of the edifice, down which he slid, and was precipitated to the 
ground, which was about forty feet below. In the fall, he struck a stone, by 
which his shoulder was shockingly fractured. He was immediately carried into 
the building, and all the medical gentlemen in the vicinity, were called to his 
aid, but were called, alas ! in vain. His case was soon pronounced to be 
hopeless. He was fully aware of his danger, and said to one who stood near 
him, 'I must die.' The melancholy event took place about three o'clock in the 
afternoon, A little before ten on the evening of the same day, he bade adieu 
to his house of clay, and entered the world of spirits." 

To supply his place, Robert B. Patton, now of the University of New York, 
iras appointed professor of languages. 

President Davis resigned his situation Oct. 6, 1817, to accept the presidency 
of Hamilton college. On the succeeding day, the corporation made choice of 
Rev. Joshua Bates, of Dcdliam, Mass., as his successor. Having accepted his 
appointment, he delivered his inaugural address on the 18th of March, 1818. 
In speaking of a liberal education, he remarks as follows. "It is admitted that 
some illiterate men of native energy of mind, actuated by motives of piety and 
benevolence, have undertaken to preach the gospel ; and in places destitute of 
more able teachers, they may have been instrumental of much good. But how 
much more extensive and permanent would their good influence have been, if 
they had been better qualified; if they had been able to answer the objections 
of learned infidels, and detect and expose the errors of subtle heretics." With 
the same advantages of education, they might have stood upon equal ground 
with Doddridge, and Scott, and Edwards, and Dwight ; might have extended 
phere of their usefulness beyond the narrow compass of the human voice, 
and the short period of human life; might have imparted instructions to suc- 
ive generations; might have proved a blessing to thousands yet unborn. 


Besides, how much has the cause of pure religion Buffered ; how many have 
been led to despise the gospel, through the unhallowed influence of ignorant 

fanatics, and false pretenders to inspiration. 

"Liberal education and literary institutions drew forth from the cloi-f-r the 
light of life, which had been concealed for more than ten centuriei, and g 
liberty of conscience to the Christian world. The principal actor in the 
glorious reformation of the sixteenth century, was a professor in the university 
of Wurtemburg. From that period, learning and religion became mutual 
coadjutors; and though sometimes unnaturally divided, they have- generally 
maintained an intimate alliance, and united their influence to civilize the world 
and bless mankind." 

The college still continued to prosper under the new arrangement In L834, 
Prof. Flail, recently president of Mount Hope college, Md. resigned his office in 
the college, which was rilled in 1825, by the appointment of Prof. Turner. 

In this last year, Prof. Patton likewise resigned his office, which has since 
been filled by Prof. Hough. 

In 1828, the professorship of chemistry was filled by the appointment of Rev. 
William C. Fowler, of Greenfield, Mass. 

In the year 1833, it was resolved that an effort should be made to raise the 
sum of $50,000, for erecting new college buildings; for establishing an efficient 
manual labor department ; for sustaining an additional professor ; for creating a 
fund to pay the tuition of worthy indigent students ; for increasing the library, 
philosophical apparatus, cabinet of minerals, &c. By the conditions of the 
subscriptions, it was made binding upon the subscribers, if $30,000 should be 
subscribed before the first day of October, 1835, which, after great labor, was 

In 1836, the chapel was completed, under the superintendence of Ira Stewart, 
Esq. Besides a place for public worship, it contains three lecture rooms, two 
rooms for the college and the philological libraries, six recitation rooms, and 
ihree private rooms for the officers. It is seventy-five feet in length by fifty- 
five feet in breadth. It is built of stone. The front presents a handsome 
appearance, being built of square, smooth blocks of dark-colored limestone. 

The college edifice north of this, was erected in 1814. It is built in a very 
substantial manner, of light-colored limestone. It is 106 feet in length, and 
40 feet in breadth ; and contains 48 rooms for students. 

The east college, so called, was erected a year or two before the charter of 
the college was granted. It has recently undergone a thorough repair. The 
public rooms have been converted into convenient rooms for students. 

From the first, the college has had to depend upon the charity of individuals, 
having received nothing from the State. As in other States, so in this, the 
legislature never has seemed to understand, that a literary institution, whether 
of the rank of a common school, or of an academy, or of a college, intended as 
it is to confer benefits upon the commonwealth, as well as upon the world, has 
a claim upon the people in their collective capacity through their represen- 
tatives. At least, this claim never has been recognized by any grant to Mid- 
dlebury college. 

The subscription made for building the east college, has already been men- 
tioned. A subscription of several thousand dollars was made in 1810, for 
erecting the north college. For the establishment of a permanent fund in 1816, 
something over $50,000 was subscribed; and in money, $11,392, and in land, 
by estimation, $2,850, were paid. The reason why the whole was not collected, 
has already been given. 

In the years 1832 — 5, something more than thirty thousand dollars were 
subscribed* for the purposes mentioned above. This is now in the course of 

Besides these associated efforts, there are some individuals, both among the 
living and among the dead, who have been distinguished for their liberality to 
the college. Samuel Miller, Esq. has already been mentioned. Gen. Arad 
Hunt, of Hinsdale, N. H., in 1813, deeded lands in Albany, Vt., to the college, 
amounting to more than 5,000 acres. . These lands are becoming valuable ; and 
their annual rents are already an important portion of the income of the college. 


Other wild lands, amounting to two or three thousand acres, have likewise been 
given to the college. 

Gamaliel Painter, Esq. made the college his residuary legatee. From his 
estate, something like 813,000 was realized. Judge Painter was born in New 
Haven, Conn. May, 1743 ; came to Middlebury, 1773 ; died May 21, 1819, aged 
7t3. He was a gentleman of great excellence of character. Besides being the 
firm friend and benefactor of the college, he was regarded as the father of the 
village. On his monument, erected at the expense of the corporation, he is 
described as a patriot of the revolution, faithful in civil office, amiable in private 
life, distinguished for enterprise and public spirit. The assistance rendered by 
this last act of kindness to the college, relieved it of embarrassing debts. 

In 1828, Joseph Burr, Esq. of Manchester, left a legacy to the college, of 
$12,200, as the foundation of a professorship. He died April 14, 1828, aged 56. 
He was a native of Long Island. He is described as a man of great simplicity 
of manners, and of great regularity in his habits and of honesty in his dealings. 
He never made a profession of religion, " but was esteemed by Christian men 
who knew him well, as truly a pious man." 

In 1834, Dea. Isaac Warren, of Charlestown, Mass., left a legacy to the 
college, of $3,000, besides subscribing $1,000 for the support of an additional 

Soon after the establishment of the college, the Philomathesian Society was 
formed for the improvement of the students at large. It was incorporated in 
1822, and has a library of about 2,000 volumes. "At its meetings, which are 
held on Wednesday of every week during term time, compositions are read and 
a question discussed by members previously appointed." It has an annual exhi- 
bition the day before commencement. 

In 1804, the Philadelphian Society was formed. It includes only professors 
of religion; and "is designed to promote among its members, a knowledge of 
divine things." Its influence has been very salutary. It has a library of nearly 
500 volumes. 

In 1813, the Beneficent Society was formed, for the purpose of providing 
indigent students with text-books. It now furnishes to three-fourths of all the 
students of the college, the necessary text-books. Indigent students thus 
obtain their books free of expense, and other members of the society obtain the 
same privilege, by paying a small sum annually. 

The college library was commenced in 1800, by a number of public-spirited 
individuals, who subscribed something like a thousand dollars for the purchase 
of books. The whole was divided into shares of twenty-five dollars each, the 
payment of which entitled the subscriber to certain rights and privileges. 
These shares have, for the most part, been purchased in, or given to the college. 
The library has, since that time, been increased, principally by the dona- 
tion of books. The whole number of books is somewhat over 2,500 volumes. 
Measures have been taken to increase the library, by an annual appropriation. 
The philosophical apparatus, the most of it, was imported from London in 1817. 
There were a few articles procured in 1801. A valuable air-pump was at that 
time obtained of Dr. Prince, of Salem, Mass., who visited Middlebury on the 
business. For an increase of the apparatus, the corporation made a handsome 
appropriation at their last meeting. 

The greater part of the chemical apparatus was imported from London in 
1828, when the professorship was first filled. It receives a moderate annual 
increase. For a number of years, the college depended on the valuable cabinet 
of Prof. Hall for illustrations in mineralogy. Some pains have been taken to 
collect minerals for the college, since 1828, and a cabinet of some value has 
been formed, which will soon be increased by purchases. 

The Associated Alumni of Middlebury College, held their first meeting in 
August, 1824. They annually appoint an orator and a poet to address them at 
commencement. They have published several valuable orations. 

A Mechanical Association was formed in 1829, for the purpose of engaging 
in manual labor. A shop was built and tools collected. The experiment thus 
far, has been very much like those tried in other places. A few students have 
derived some advantage to their health, from the exercise. 


The college assumed a decidedly religious character in |605, At. that time 
a revival of religion commenced, which continued, we are informed, "two or 
three years." Before that time, in 1801, there wan a revival of religion and 
since, there have been several of longer or shorter continuance, of temporary 
or permanent power. ^ If, upon examination, it should be found that not us many 
students have become pious in proportion to the whole number, as in tome other 
colleges, it should be remembered, that more than in most colleges were 
already pious when they entered the institution. There has been at periods 
an elevated tone of piety, especially of the active kind. 

Of the great usefulness of the college to the church and to the world, it 
would be easy to furnish proof, from the history of* its Alumni. But this would 
exceed the limits of our design. The present condition of the institution is 
in most respects encouraging. Its faculty consists of a president, three pro- 
fessors, and three tutors. Another professorship is established, and will be 
filled in due time. The number of students is about one hundred and sixty. 
Its average increase has been ten a year for the last eight years. With the 
smiles upon it of the same God, who has hitherto watched over it, the friends 
of the college may indulge the hope, that it will still continue to b'e a blessing 
to the church and the world. 




By John Farmer, 

Cor. Sec'ry of the New Hampshire Historical Society. 

[Continued from page 117.] 
Note. — The year they were graduated, is prefixed to each person at the beginning of the several Memoirs. 


1653. John Whiting, son of William Whiting, Esq., of Hartford, Conn., one of the 
principal men of that colony, who served as a magistrate and treasurer, was born a short 
time before his father's emigration to New England. He was admitted a member of the 
church in Cambridge not long after he was graduated, and hail his residence in that place 
for several years. It is highly probable that he studied theology there. I.n 1637, he was 
procured by the inhabitants of Salem, Mass., to assist Rev. Edward Norris, whose age 
and infirmities required the aid of a colleague. He was in Salem between two and three 
years, but was not settled in the ministry, being only temporarily engaged. He returned 
to Cambridge in 1660, and, soon after, went to Connecticut, and was settled over the 
first church in Hartford, which had enjoyed the ministerial labors of those eminent 
servants of the cross, Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone. His term of service here 
embraced only a few years, as he withdrew from this church and formed a new one, now 
the south church, February 12, 1670, over which he was installed pastor. He remained 
here until his death, which occurred according to Dr. C. Mather's catalogue in the 
Magnalia before the year 1698, although Dr. Trumbull marks the time of his decease in 
1709, and also mistakes in his Christian name, calling him Joseph (Hist. Conn. vol. i. p. 
461,) and Samuel. (Vol. i. p. 492.) That the last named writer certainly mistakes as to 
the time of his death, appears from the Magnalia, the author of which speaks of him in 
connection with Woodbridge anil Wakeman, as among those who " will never be 
forgotten, till Connecticut colony do forget itself, and all religion." How uncertain are 
the predictions relating to the future esteem and veneration with which eminent men 
will be regarded ! How little is known of John Whiting excepting what is gathered 
from this brief memoir ! 


From the Cambridge church records, left by Rev. Jonathan Mitchel, (See vol. viii. p. 142.) 
I learn lhal Mr. Whiting was married while at Cambridge— that his wife was daughter of 
Deacon Edward Collins of that place, and sister of Rev. John Collins. (See vol. viii. 
p 335.) Three of his children, Sybil, John and William, were born before he left 
Massachusetts. William was baptized at Cambridge, February 19, 1660, was many 
years a military officer in Connecticut, commanded the troops sent by that colony against 
Port Royal, in 1710, and was an officer in the expedition against Canada, the ensuing 
year. In 1700, he petitioned the general court of Massachusetts for a tract of land 
granted to his father before the year 1679, the original plan of which is in my possession. 
It contained 400 acres, and was situated on Salmon brook, which empties into Merrimack 

The posterity of Mr. Whiting in Connecticut has been respectable, and it is believed 

somewhat numerous. Thirteen of the name had been graduated at Vale college in 1834. 

Trumbull, Hist. Conn. i. 461, 462, 464. 492. Mather, Magnalia,2S, 118. Felt. Annals 

S 195, 200, 202, 203, 535. American Quarterly Register, iv. 307. MitcheVs 

Church lit cura* in MS. 


1653. Samuel Hooker, son of Rev. Thomas Hooker, the first minister of Cam- 
bridge. Mass., and of Hartford, Conn., who came to New England in 1633, was born 
while his father resided in the former place, in the year 1635. He lost his excellent 
parent when he was about twelve years old, and his early education devolved on those 
who were so faithful to their charge, that he was prepared for admission into Harvard 
college, when he was fourteen years of age He had the advice and counsel of his 
r's colleague, Rev. Samuel Stone, in his preparation for the ministry, on which he 
entered as early as lt>57. He preached early in the colony of Plymouth, where he was 
married in 1653. His wife was a daughter of Capt. Thomas Willett, then of Plymouth, 
but afterwards the first mayor of New York. The next year he was chosen to settle at 
Springfield, Mass. but he declined the invitation. In July, 1661, he succeeded Rev. 
1; _-.-. Newton, at Farmington, Conn., where, according to Dr. C. Mather, he was " an 
able, faithful and useful minister/' He died October 28, 1697, in the sixty-third year of 
his age, and was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Whitman. Mr. Hooker is include 1 in 
the list of authors whose publications were of a brie! and limited character. Single 
sermons were all that issued from the press under his name, and the titles of these have 
D i n obtained. 

From <i MS. journal of Henry Flint, tutor of Harvard college, it appears that Mr. 
Hooker had nine sons. Daniel, one of them, was born March 25, 1679, and was 
graduated at Harvard in 1700. Descendants from the common ancestor, who died at 
Hartford, have been numerous and of distinguished character. The catalogue ot Yale 
college shows a considerable number who have been honored by that institution. 
Mather, Mogilalia, i. 318, ii. 23. Pemberton MS. Chronology. Plymouth Colony 
/,'• rds in MS. Sprague, Hist. Discourse at West Springfield, IS. A/ner. Quarterly 
Register, iv. 308, which erroneously places his ordination in 1655. Trumbull, Hist. 
Conn. i. 294, 492. 


1653. Samuel Whitijvg was of very respectable parentage. His father, Rev. 
Samuel Whiting, was son of John Whiting, mayor of the city of Boston, in Lincolnshire, 
England, and vice-admiral, it is believed, of the same county, was born November 20, 
1597; was a minister at Skirbeck, came to New England in 1636, and settled at Lynn, 
where he died December 11, 1679, aged 82. His mother was a daughter of the right 
honorable Oliver St. John, a gentleman of considerable note in the time of Cromwell. 
She accompanied her husband to New England, and died at Lynn, March 3, 1678. 
Samuel was burn at Skirbeck, while his father was minister there, on the 25th of March, 
L633. He was the eldest of three sons, all of whom graduated at Harvard. He was 
educated for the ministry and commenced preaching about the year 1656. The same 
yeai he was admitted freeman ol the Massachusetts colony. He went to Billerica in 
IC58, then a new town, having been settled but five years, and was employed as a 
I • her from year to year, until November 11, 1663, when he was ordained pastor of 
the church which was organized about that time. Here he remained almost fifty years 
from his ordination, and was esteemed as Dr. Cotton Mather says, '-a reverend, holy and 
faithful minister ol the gospel." Although a man of respectable talents, and sometimes 
called to preach on public occasions, I do not find that he published any thing. He 
h tl the artillery election sermon in L682. A manuscript volume of his sermons is 
i" the library ol hi- descendant, Rev. Moses G. Thomas, of Concord, N. H. 1 have iq 
in pari ol a folio manuscript, ol several hundred pages, containing sketches 
ol his sermons on portions ol the Assembly's Catechism for a number of years. It was 
D by Capt. Jonathan Danforth, his parishioner, and brother of Rev. Samuel Danforth 



of Roxbury. Mr. Whiting's name appears in Gov. Hutchinson's Hiit M ! 200, 

among the seventeen ministers who bore their testimony against the kettlemenl ol 
John Davenport in the first church in Boston; and In- was one ol those who presented 
an address to the general court in vindication of their conduct from the unjust cbai 
innovation, &<:., made against them !>y a committee appointed by the house ol di pi 
in May, 1670. Mr. Whiting died February 28, 171:5, being almost HO years ol a 
poem published soon alter his death, has the following lines:—- 

"Whiting, we here beheld a starry light, 
Burning in Christ's right hand and shining bright; 
Years seven limes seven sent forth Ins precious rays, 
Unto die gospel's profit, and Jehovah's praise," 

Mr. Whiting was married November 12, 1656, to Dorcas Chester, of Charles to wo. 

They lived together tilty-seven years. By her, who died thirteen days before her 
husband, he had ten children, seven sons, and three daughters. Four of the 
attained mature age, viz. 1. Samuel, horn January 10, 1662, who lived m Cheli 
and Dunstable, and died in Billerica, March 14, 1715, aged 53, leaving sons Samuel, bora 
in Chelmsford, October 22, 1687, who was one of Lovewell's men at Pequoasekel 1725: 
Leonard, born August 12, 1693, and Joseph, born December 11, L695, the last two 
in Billerica. 2. John, born August 1, 1664, graduated at Harvard college. 3. Oliver, 
born November 8, 1665, and was a magistrate and representative ol his native 'own; 
married Anna, daughter of Capt. Danforth, January 22, 1690, and had six Bons and three 
daughters, of whom Samuel, the fourth son, was bom September 6, 1702, resided in 
Billerica, was a deacon of the church, and died November 4, 1772, aged 7<>. He had 
sons (1.) Samuel, born May 18, 1730, lather of Samuel Whiting, Esq. of Billerica, now 
living in his 78th year, and grandfather of Augustus Whiting, M. I)., who graduated 
at Harvard in 1816, and (2.) Timothy, who was father of Col. Timothy Whiting and 
Gen. John Whiting, late of Lancaster, Mass. 4. Joseph, born February" 7, 1669, who, 
it is supposed, was the graduate at Harvard in 1690. He died at Billerica, Sept. 0, 1701, 
aged 32. Mather, Mogilalia, i 454. Hutchinson, Hist. Mass. i. 248, 250. Boston 
JYeivs Letter, dated 1713. Thompson, Hist of Boston, in Lincolnshire, England, 
263. Hist Memoir of Billerica, 15, 16, 28. Lewis, Hist. Lynn, 127. Town Records 
of Billerica. MSS. belonging to late Edward Farmer, Esq. of Billerica. BoweiCs 
Boston News Lttter. 


1653. Joshua Moodey was son of William Moodey, who came to New England as 
early as 1634, and resided a short time at Ipswich, Mass., but made his permanent 
settlement at Newbury, where he died October 25, 1673, leaving three sons, Joshua, 
Caleb and Samuel. Joshua was born before his father's emulation, in the year 1632. 
He received the rudiments of his early education at Newbury, and was probably prepared 
for admission to college by Rev. Thomas Parker of that town, who, besides discharging 
his ministerial duties, generally had twelve or fourteen scholars under ins tuition. He 
was undoubtedly well fitted to enter college, especially, if he enjoyed the instruction of 
this eminent classical scholar. After he was graduated, he commenced the study of 
divinity, and very early began to preach. He had, before leaving Cambridge, made a 
public profession of religion and joined the church in that town. In 1658, he went to 
Portsmouth, N. H., and began his ministerial labors. The people there had been but a 
few years incorporated into a town : no church had been gathered, and Mr. Moodey was 
at first supported by a voluntary subscription, made by eighty-six persons, desirous of 
having regular preaching. On the 5th of March, 1660, by vote of the town, he was 
invited to settle in the ministry, but on some account, his ordination was delayed eleven 
years. At length, in 1671, the town having erected a new meeting-house, and a church 
consisting of nine members being gathered, Mr. Moodey was inducted into office on the 
12th of July. The sermon on the occasion was preached by himself. The services 
were attended by Rev. Thomas Cobbet, of Ipswich, Rev. John Wheelwright, of 
Salisbury, Gov. Leverett, ol Boston, and several of the magistrates of Massachusetts. 

In the faithful discharge of his pastoral duties, and respected and beloved by his 
people, and by the neighboring ministers of Dover, Exeter and Hampton, he continued in 
this place until he was driven away by persecution. In 1684, he was selected by Edward 
Cranneld, lieutenant-governor of the province, as an object of peculiar vengeance. He 
had for some time rendered himself obnoxious by the freedom and plainness of his pulpit 
discourses, and his strictness in administering the discipline of the church, one instance 
of which merits particular notice. Edward Randolph, collector and surveyor of the 
customs in New England, having seized a vessel belonging to one Jeffreys, she was in 
the night carried out of the harbor. The owner, who was a member of Mr. Moodey's 
church, swore that he knew nothing of it; but upon trial, there appeared strong 
suspicions that lie had perjured himself. He tound means to. make up the matter with 
Cranfield and the collector; but Mr. Moodey being concerned for the purity of his church, 


requested of the lieutenant-governor copies of the evidence, that the offender might be 
called to account in the way of ecclesiastical discipline. Cranfield sternly refused, saying 
that he had forgiven him, and that neither the church nor minister should meddle with 
him, and even threatened Mr. Moodey, if he should. Not intimidated, the conscientious 
clergyman consulted the church, and preached a sermon against false swearing. Then 
the offender being called to account, was censured, and at length brought to a public 
confession. This proceeding gave great offence to Cranfield, who then had no means of 
showing his resentment. But malice ever fruitful in expedients to attain its ends, 
suggested a method, which to the scandal of the English nation, has been too often 
practised. The penal laws against non-conformists were at this time executed with 
great rigor in England; and Cranfield, that he might play off the ecclesiastical artillery 
here, issued an order in council " that after the first of January, the ministers should 
admit all persons of suitable years, and not vicious, to the Lord's supper, and their 
children to baptism; and that if any person should desire baptism, or the other sacrament 
to be administered according to the liturgy of the church of England, it should be done 
in pursuance of the king's command to ihe colony of Massachusetts; and any minister 
refusing so to do, should suffer the penalty of the statutes of uniformity." 

On the 5th of February, the same week in which he dissolved the assembly, Cranfield 
sent Mr. Moodev a written notice by the hands of the sheriff, that on the next Sunday, 
he. with Robert Mason and John Hinckes, intended to partake of the Lord's supper; 
and required him to administer it to them according to the liturgy of the church of 
England. As they rightly expected, Mr. Moodey refused to comply with the order. In 
consequence of this refusal, Joseph Rayn, the king's attorney-general, by direction of 
Cranfield, filed an information at the next court of sessions, against "Joshua Moodey, 
clerk, minister of Portsmouth, for refusing to administer the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper according to the manner and form set forth in the book of common prayer; and 
that in contempt of the laws of the realm, for wilfully and obstinately refusing to ad- 
minister the same to the honorable Edward Cranfield, Robert Mason and John Hinckes, 
and for wilfully using some other form." 

Mr. Moodey, in his defence, pleaded that he was not episcopally ordained as the 
statntes required; that he did not receive his maintenance according; to them; and 
therefore that he was not obliged to the performance of what had been commanded ; 
that the alleged statutes were not intended for these plantations, the known and avowed 
end of their settlement being the enjoyment of freedom from the imposition of those 
laws; which freedom was allowed and confirmed by the kins., in the liberty of conscience 
granted to all Protestants in the governor's commission. He was, notwithstanding this 
defence, convicted, and sentenced to be imprisoned six months, without bail or mainprize; 
and on the 6th of February, was committed to gaol at Great Island, without being 
permitted to see his family. His mittimus was under the hands and seals of Walter 
Barcfoote, Peter Coffin, Henry Green and Henry Robie. Two of the justices of the 
court, namely, Nathaniel Fryer and Thomas Edgerly, did not assent to his conviction, 
and were soon afterwards removed from office. Mr. Moodey was kept in confinement 
in the house of Capt. Elias Steleman, (which was occupied as a gaol,) thirteen weeks, 
with liberty of the yard ; and his benefice was declared to be forfeited to the crown.* 
At the expiration of that time, he was released through the solicitation of some of his 
friends; but with an injunction not to preach again in the province on penalty of further 
imprisonment. This persecution has been regarded as one of the first cases of the kind 
which happened in this country. Dr. C. Mather, in his sermon on the death of Mr. 
Moodey, says, "as he was exemplarily zealous for a scriptural purity in the worship of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, so he submitted to an imprisonment, for that cause of God, and 
this country; wherein like Stephen, he had the honor to be the first that suffered in that 
way for that cause in these parts of the world." 

Mr. Moodey removed to Boston. He had been there but a few days, when he was 
invited by the first church to assist Rev. James Allen in " preaching the word of God." 
He commenced his labors in May, 1684, and remained there until 1692, when he 
returned to Portsmouth. In 1691, the people of Portsmouth having invited Rev. John 
Cotton, afterwards of Hampton, to settle there, Mr. Moodey wrote to the town on the 
29th of May, informing them that he would return, if it were their wish; and at the 
-an. i' time expressed his opinion that they had been hasty in giving a call to Mr. Cotton. 
He had previously written to the church, stating his willingness to return and renew his 
pastoral relation with them, if it were thought best, and proposed that a council should 
be called to advise them how to proceed. The selectmen did not think proper to call a 
town-meeting to lay this letter before the town, but wrote to Mr. Moodey, that they 
had consulted many individuals respecting it; that they did not see the necessity of a 

* "The said Moodey is likewise to lose and forfeit to his mnjesty, his heirs and successors, the profit of 
all bit ipiritoal benefices or promotions coming or arising in one whole year after his conviction." — Records 
nf the Court. 


council; that his leaving them destitute so many years, especially after Mr-.: 
invitations to him to return, was evidence of his intention ol quitting them slto« I 
and that since Mie town had given a call to Mr. Cotton, they were not al i act 

until they had received his answer. Mr. Cotton advieed them to make another apt 
tion to Mr. Moodey, and if he did not accept this invitation, "they might bonerftly 
provide for themselves such person as they judge fittest to supply the place ol the 
ministry here." The town accordingly voted on the 8th of October, to vend another 
messenger to Mr. Moodey, and request his return, and to inform him " thai in con- 
sequence of his absence, part of the town had withdrawn and provided them elves with 
a minister, and that they were not able to maintain a minister as they bad formerly done. 
Notwithstanding which, they engage, provided he return forthwith, to pay bim eighty 
pounds a year, and let him have the use of the glebe and pauonage bouse. Bui if be 
do not take up with the above propositions, the church and town are resolved ' 
themselves no further with Mr. Moodey, but look upon ourselves clear from him and 
he from us." Mr. Moodey thought the intervention of a council <,| great Import l 
and was unwilling to return without the advice of one. The town and church beii 
a contrary opinion, a council was not called, and Mr. Moodey concluded to remain ul 
Boston. Whether he made any further overtures to the town is uncertain, but they 
rehixed from their determination to have ho further connection with him. On tin; l-'ii 
of January, they voted, " That whereas our reverend pastor, Mr. Joshua Moo 
for a long time agon driven from us, and the troublesomeness of the times having bith< rto 
hindered his return, the town cloth now invite him to return and supply bis place 
formerly; and on that condition, the town doth engage to make good his salary in every 
respect as formerly, so long as said Mr. Moodey doth supply the place ol the ministry 
here." The next year, at the earnest entreaties of his congregation, and by advice of 
an ecclesiastical council, he returned to Portsmouth, and resumed his pastoral care of 
the church and people in that place. He continued to discharge his parochial and other 
duties with much assiduity until the summer of 1697, when, on account of too close an 
application to his studies, he contracted some disorders, which obliged him to repair to 
Boston for medical aid. He had been there but a short time before he fell a victim to 
his disease. He died on Sunday, July 4, 1697, in the 65th year of his age, and was 
" interred in the tomb of the worshipful John Hull." He had been a preacher forty 
years or more. His days had been checkered, but their conclusion was serene. He is 
represented as expiring in the vigorous faith of beholding that Redeemer, whom he had 
served in the gospel. 

Dr. C. Mather says, " He was of a very hardy and robust constitution, and a notable 
exception to the general remark, raro solent ingenia insigniter fcelicia, rubusta surtiri 
corpora; and it may be too prodigal of his athletic strength, in doing the service 
whereto a good master called him." Some estimate of his labor and industry may be 
made from the fact that he wrote between 4,000 and 5,000 sermons, and his notes " were 
fairly and largely written." Great harmony subsisted between him and his parish before 
he was driven away by Cranfield's persecution; and after his return, until his death. 
When he was confined by his last sickness at Boston, his church and people observed a 
season of fasting and prayer for his recovery. He possessed very respectable literary 
talents, and on several occasions he exerted himself for the promotion of the interests 
of literature. In 1669, when there was a proposal for a general collection throughout 
the colony of Massachusetts, for the purpose of erecting; a new brick building at Harvard 
college, the old wooden one being small and decayed, Mr. Moodey, by his exertions at 
Portsmouth, and by his influence, aided by ether friends of teaming, obtained the 
subscription for that object of £60 per annum, for seven years. The address to the 
general court, communicating this instance of liberality, was undoubtedly written by 
Mr. Moodey. The following is a copy of it. 

"To the much honored general court of Massachusetts colony, assembled at Boston, 
May 20, 1669. The humble address of the inhabitants of the town of Portsmouth, 
humbly sheweth : That seeing by your means, under God, we enjoy much peace and 
quietness, and very worthy deeds are done to us by the favorable aspect of the govern- 
ment of this colony upon us, we accept it always in all places with all thankfulness ; and 
though we have articled with yourselves for exemption from public charges, yet we 
never articled with God and our own consciences, for exemption from gratitude, which 
to demonstrate while we were studying, the loud groans of the sinking college in its 
present low estate came to our ears, the relieving of which we account a good work lor 
the house of our God, and needful for the perpetuating of knowledge both religious and 
civil among us; and our posterity after us; and therefore grateful to yourselves whose 
care and study is to seek the welfare of our Israel. 

"The premises considered, we have made a collection in our town of sixty pounds 
per annum, (and hope to make it more) which said sum is to be paid annually tor these 
seven years ensuing, to be improved at the discretion of the honored overseers of the 
college for the behoof of the same, and the advancement of good literature there ; 

VOL. IX. 30 


hoping withal that the example of ourselves, (which have been accounted no people,) 
will provoke the rest of the country to jealousy; (we mean an holy emulation in so good 
a work,) and that this honored court will in their wisdom see most vigorously to act for 
diverting the sad omen to poor New England, if a college begun and comfortably upheld 
while we were little, should sink, now we are grown great; especially, after so large 
and profitable an harvest that this country and other places have reaped from the same. 

•• Your acceptance of our good meaning herein will further oblige us to endeavor the 
approving ourselves to be your thankful and humble servants." This was signed in the 
and behalf of :he rest of the subscribers, by John Cutt, Richard Cutt and Joshua 
Moodey. It was presented to the court by the last two, on the 20th of May, 1669, when 
it was gratefully accepted, "and the governor, in the name of the whole court, met 
together, returned the thanks of the court for their pious and liberal gift. in the college 
herein mentioned." 

Of this institution, in the prosperity of which Mr. Moodey felt so strong an interest, 
he was, on the death of president Rogers, in 16S4, invited to become the head, but he 
declined the invitation, preferring his situation as assistant minister of the first church in 

Mi. Moodey distinguished himself by his opposition to the infatuation which prevailed 
in 1692, in the prosecutions against those who were supposed to be guilty of the Crime 
of witchcraft. Ai that period, when it was hazardous for an individual to question the 
correctness of the judicial trials, ami much more so to oppose the rash proceedings of 
the courts, he stood forth the friend of the persecuted and distressed. The following 
instance of his courage and benevolence was preserved by the late Rev. Dr. Bentley, of 
Salem. The wile of Mr. Philip English, a lady well bred, and in affluent circumstances, 
belonging to Salem, was accused of witchcraft. Her husband, who was a merchant of 
great respectability, visited her in prison; and he soon was accused of the same crime. 
On some kind of pretence, they were removed to the gaol in Boston, where they were 
visited by Mr. Moodey, who invited them to church, and preached before them from 
these words, " If they persecute you in one city, flee to another." He meant that the 
sacred advice, which he gave, should be literally understood and followed. He more 
than assisted them in making the application. He procured the means of their escape 
and conveyance from Boston to New York; wrote letters to Gov. Fletcher, of that 
place; and secured them a respectable reception and safe retreat. In the following 
year, when the delusion had in some degree passed away, Mr. and Mrs. English 
returned, and ever gratefully and justly ascribed their preservation to the intrepidity 
and benevolence of Mr. Moodey. This beneficent man was however a sufferer for his 
virtue. The prejudices of the times were against him for the very act of fortitude above 
related ; ami he left Boston with a diminished reputation in the eyes of the multitude. 
But he had a better testimony in his favor, than that of public applause, even the witness 
of a iM><>d conscience before God. 

The publications of Mr. Moodey were, the artillery election sermon, 1674, from the 
text, 1 Cor. ix. 26, 4to pp. 48; practical discourses on communion with God in his 
house, 1685; (this work was reprinted in a 16mo edition in 1746,) and the court election 
sermon in 1692. John Dunton says he was well known for his practical treatises. He 
is supposed to be the writer of the epitaphs on Mrs. Bailey and Rev. Thomas Bailey, 
preserved in the history of Waterrown. 

Of the family of Mr. Moodey, I have been unable to obtain a full account. It appears Ik; was twice married, and it seems probable from Gov. Hutchinson's collection of 
paper*, p. -164, that his first wife was sister of Rev. John Collins, of London, and that 
she died about 1674. His last wife was widow Ann Jacobs, of Ipswich. His children 
who survived him were Samuel, who was graduated in 1689, and was for some years a 
preacher, afterwards a magistrate; Martha, who married Rev. Jonathan Russell, of 
Barnstable; Sarah, who married Rev. John Pike, of Dover, and Hannah. In his last 
will and testament, Mr. Moodey directs, " If I die in Portsmouth, my body shall be laid 
in the bin ying-place there, under the great stone, by the side of the oak, where I 
buried my fust wife and the deceased children I had by her; — hereby strictly inhibiting 
those profuse expenses in mourning, or otherwise so frequently wasted at funerals." To 
hi* children, he gives the following charge: — "I do also lay the solemn injunctions of a 
tender and dying father upon all my children, that they love one another dearly, and 
that there be no difference between them about any thing I shall leave them. And in 
order to the preventing any difference, I advise them to meet as soon as they may after 
my decease, and discourse and share matters between them, while the remembrance of a father i* fresh and warm upon their souls." 

Belknap, Hist .V. II i. 64, 65, 91, 104—109, 439, 440. Adams, Annals of Ports- 
mouth, 42, 43, 51; .",5, 79—91, 96, 99, 108, 109. Emerson, Hist, of the First Church 
in fins/on, 134, 135, 112. Mather, Magnolia, ii. 104 — 115. Holmes, Annals of 
America, i. 167. Hubbard, Hist. JY. E. 608. 2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 101, vi. 608. 
Col\. 1. 1 Farmer and Moore, ii. 261 — 264. Thomas, Hist. Printing, i. 261. Francis, 
Hist. Wuicrtown, 141. Alden, Coll. of Epitaphs, ii. 175—178. 



[Communicated by a Mombor of tho Theological Department, Va I'; College J 

While past ages, with scarcely a dissenting voice, have ascribed poeti- 
cal pre-eminence to the Iliad of Homer, many at present would degrade it 
to a much lower rank in the scale of excellence. What then ie its real 
merit? Did the wisest of the ancients — Socrates, Aristotle] and Longintu ; 

did the scholars of more recent periods — Milton, Pope, and Addison— err 
in pronouncing it the most perfect of human compositions'.' Were the 
myriads of its admirers, whose voices have been lifted in its favor like the 
waves of the sea, mistaken? Or are there not circumstances, peculiar to 
our own time, which might naturally mislead our judgment ? To prove 
this to be the fact is my exclusive object. 

The unquestionable superiority of the moderns, in some branches of 
knowledge, induces a belief, that they are superior in all respects. The 
poorest of our citizens can transmit intelligence with a rapidity and cer- 
tainty unknown to a Persian despot, — he may own a library, to purchase 
which would have impoverished a Grecian king, — he may procure for his 
female friends such robes as a Roman emperor confessed himself too poor 
to buy for his empress. Considerations like these make us regard antiquity 
much as Bonaparte, when arbiter of Europe, may be supposed to have 
looked back on the weakness, obscurity, and ignorance of his infancy. 
From our superiority in science, we are prone to infer an equal superiority 
in poetry. Our lofty pride disdains to treat as equals in poetry, men who 
were aeronauts only on Pegasus ; who thought the whole solar system, ser- 
vitors of this little earth ; whose notions of the world were bounded by the 
pillars of Hercules. The antiquity of Homer thus becomes to our minds a 
proof of his inferiority. 

But ought we not to remember, that the advancement of science comes 
from the labor of many hands, as the Amazon is the product of a thousand 
rills ; while poetry may be carried to its highest excellence by a single 
master mind, as the fabled Minerva sprang forth perfect from the brain of 
Jove ? Is it asked, why this difference between physics and poetry ? The 
answer is obvious. The former require, for their investigations, instru- 
ments which are the last result of refinement, and laboratories which were 
unknown to the simplicity of earlier ages ; the latter asks only the energies 
of the soul within, as its apparatus, and employs the whole domain of nature 
as its workshop. Natural philosophers at every step are thwarted by the 
stubbornness of matter, to overcome which they find time, toil, and money 
indispensable ; they are dependent for success on the capricious favor of 
patrons, nay, of winds and weather ; and those of earlier times were stran- 
gers to many facilities for prosecution of their researches, which have been 
struck out by the ingenuity of after periods. But the poet, wherever he 
walks, sees materials of his art in the blue of heaven, the roar of ocean, 
the conflict of passion, the bliss and wo, the dignity and meanness, the 
firmness and fickleness of his fellow-man. To invest these with the magic 
coloring of poetry, man needs to rely, not on others, but on himselt. The 
genius" who first essays these themes, will be as sure to preoccupy much 


that is most poetical, as he who first finds a mine of diamonds is to cull its 
<h >icest specimens. Newton could not have written the Principia, had he 
; rl >mer, " a blind old man of Scio's rocky isle ;" but the " Tale 
of IVov Divine '*' would have gained nothing, had the seventeenth century 
Homer like Newton, a son of sea-girt Albion. 
IS ( sides, in these days of cold philosophy, what imagination can con- 
ceive how much more poetical the same object was to an ancient than it 
is to a modern. The latter, views thunder and lightning as a natural effect 
of clouds differently electrified, approaching each other ; the former, in the 
same phenomena, heard the voice of a God, saw his red right hand ready to 
whelm a guilty world in ruin. Poets at present consider wind as a neces- 
sary consequence of air at different temperatures in different places ; but 
not a blast swept by Homer, which bore not a God. The bellowings of 
the deep were the mandates of Neptune. Every rainbow, which spanned 
the sky, was a train of the wind-footed Iris. Aurora brought in the welcome 
1 i _r 1 1 1 , and at shut of evening flowers came Hesperus, the harbinger of dark- 
n iss. The mystery, which thus, as with a dazzling halo, encircled all 
nature, science has dispelled ; but it has at the same time bereft nature of 
its poetic poicer. A modern looks on nature as we look on the past, where 
all is plain, prosing, matter-of fact ; an ancient gazed on nature as we 
muse on the future, — mysterious, romantic, poetic, full of bright, and long, 
and beckoning years ; — 

" And every form, that fancy can repair, 
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there." 

Is the antiquity of Homer, then, any proof of his inferiority ? 

The low state of classical learning, for the last generation, is an addi- 
tional reason why the Iliad has come into disrepute. It has not been under- 
stood. At most colleges it has been thrown out of the list of studies. 
Even where nominally read, it is undertaken with so slight a knowdedge of 
Greek, and studied so superficially, that it would be scarcely a greater 
miracle, if a British tourist, who scribbles a six weeks' excursion in the 
United States, should form an impartial judgment of our country, than that 
students should form a just estimate of Homer. Who can wonder, then, 
that in an age characterized by contempt of the past, our youth are bold 
to declare his merits as a poet to have been overrated ? But were the 
Iliad thoroughly studied, it is hard to believe, that the opinions of this age 
would not coincide with those of all former periods. For what constitutes 
poetic excellence 1 Do you seek an invention, that can create a world of 
its own, or wield every thing in the actual world to subserve its purpose, — 
a power to throw round its fictions an air of probability and vividness, 
which fixes attention, and fires imagination, till one fancies himself moving 
amid its scenes? You have it in the Iliad, based on a renowned national 
enterprise, redolent of youthful vigor and the glory of courage. Do you love 
what is gay, lively, and mirthful,— the siren song of prosperity ? Read 
the restoration of Chryseis, — the feast of the gods, — the encampment on 
the plain of Troy. Or do you say, it is better to sympathize in the mourn- 
ings of the miserable? Look to the tent of Achilles, — see Priam fallen 
from his former high estate, — forced to beg his Hector's corpse from 
Hector's haughty conqueror. Do you love to behold the patriot, dead to 
his own interest, and devoted to his country's— fighting, watching, bleed- 
ing, dying in her defence? Look at Hector, — view him in the midnight 
council, or view him on the day of battle. Does your heart thrill at the 


sound of the trumpet, the confused noise of conflict, (he ga